MY BELOVED PROPHET

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

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Introduction

May hamd be to Allahu ta’âlâ. Infinite thanks be to Him for His blessings and favors… May all prayers and blessings be upon Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), who is His Prophet and the most beloved of His born servants, and who is in every respect the most beautiful and the most exalted of all mankind that ever lived. May prayers and blessings also be upon all his Ashâb 1, who have become the highest of people by seeing his beautiful face and hearing his beneficial words, and on those who love and follow them.

There is a period called “The era of nescience” in history. In this period, in the Arabian Peninsula, people would worship idols, would drink alcohol all the time and would gamble. The powerful used to be regarded as the rightful, the women used to be bought and sold as if they were commercial property, the daughters used to be buried in the earth alive. Not only the Arabian Peninsula, but also the entire world was in darkness. The conditions in Asia, Africa and Europe were not different. Of course, there were wise and reasonable people, although only a few in number, who were displeased with the situation and they used to supplicate to Janâb-i Haqq (Allah) for the termination of that dark period.

Allahu ta’âlâ, who pitied human beings, sent prophets to people who lived in different times in different locations. He charged Hadrat Muhammad as His last Prophet and Messenger to enlighten that darkness.

Janâb-i-Haqq pitied us and made us attain His greatest blessing, that is, being one of his ummat 2. He announced clearly that it is necessary for us to adapt ourselves to him and follow him. It is less than sufficient, however much we made hamd to Him and thanked Him.

The Ahl as-Sunnat scholars say, “Every prophet is superior to all his people in every respect, in his time, and in his place.

Yet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is the highest of all of the creatures which have come and will come to the world from the day it was created to Doomsday. No one is superior to him in any respect.”

Allahu ta’âlâ created the blessed nûr (light) of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, before He created anything. In the Qur’ân al-karîm, addressing our Master, the Prophet, it is purported, “We sent thee as a mercy, as a blessing for beings.” (Anbiyâ Sûra: 107)

The Companions of our Prophet.
The community, the body of believers, of a prophet.

Prof. Dr. Ramazan AYVALLI

THE BLESSED NÛR (LIGHT) OF OUR PROPHET

Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is the darling of Allahu ta’âlâ, he is in every respect the most beautiful and the most exalted of all mankind that ever lived and all other creatures. He is the exalted by Allahu ta’âlâ, and the last and most superior prophet who Allahu ta’âlâ sent for humans and genies. He was sent as a mercy for the entire universe and everything has been created for the sake of him. His blessed name is Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), which means ‘he who is praised repeatedly, he who is praised much.’ He has other blessed names also such as Ahmad, Mahmûd, Mustafâ. His father’s name is Abdullah. Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was born in Mecca, 53 years before the Hegira, on the twelfth of the month of Rabî’ul-awwal, on a Monday night towards morning. Historians say that day coincides with the twentieth of April in the year 571 [A.D.].

A few months before his birth, his father Abdullah, and at six years of age his mother Âmina, passed away. For this reason, our Master, the Prophet was also named “Durr-i Yatîm” (The single, great and the most precious pearl in the universe nacre). Until eight years of age, he stayed with his grandfather Abdulmuttalib, after his grandfather’s death, he stayed with his uncle Abû Tâlib. When he was twenty-five years old, he married our mother Khadîjat al-Kubrâ. His first son’s name from her was Qâsim. Among Arabs, it was customary to be called as the father of the first son. Therefore, he was called “Abul-qâsim that is, the father of Qâsim”.

When he was forty years old, he was informed by Allahu ta’âlâ that he is the Prophet for all human beings and genies. After three years, he began to invite everyone to the belief. At the age of fifty-two, the Mi’râj3 happened. When he was fifty-three years old, he migrated to Medina from Mecca [622 A.D.]. He went to war twenty-seven times. In the city of Medina-i munawwara, he passed away before noon on Monday, Rabî’ul-awwal 12th, 11 [632 A.D.], when he was 63 years old.

Although Allahu ta’âlâ addressed all His messengers with their names; He praised him by calling him “My Habîb (Darling)”. In a verse in the Qur’ân, He purported, “We sent thee as a mercy, as a blessing for beings.”4 and in a hadîth qudsî; “If I had not created you, I would not have created anything!”5

3   The Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) ascent to Heaven.
  Sûratul-Anbiyâ’, 21/107
5   Suyutî, al-Laâli’l-masnûa, I, 272; Ajlûnî, Kashf-ul-hafâ, II, 164.

Every prophet is superior to all his people in every respect, in his time, and in his
place. Yet Our Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is the highest of all of the creatures
which have come and will come to the world from the day the World was created
until the end of the World. No one is superior to him in any respect. Janâb-i Haqq
created him so.

The creation of his blessed light

Allahu ta’âlâ, before everything, that is before He created anything, created the
blessed nûr (holy light) of our prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). Most of our
scholars of Tafsîr (interpretation of the Qur’ân), and Hadîth (a saying of the Prophet
’alaihis-salâm) have stated that, “Janâb-i Haqq created an ethereal and great substance
from His nûr. From that substance, He created the entire universe. This substance is
called “Nûr-i Muhammadî”. The beginning and source of all souls and objects is
that substance.

One day, Jâbir bin Abdullah, one of the Ashâb-i kirâm, asked, “O Rasûlullah! What
did Allahu ta’âlâ create before everything?” He answered, “He created your Prophet’s,
that is my, nûr from His own nûr, before everything. There was no Lawh,
the Pen, Paradise, Hell, angel, the skies, the earth, the sun, the moon, humans
nor genies then.”

When Âdam’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ blessed heart and body were created, Nûr-i Muhammadî
was put between his two eyebrows. When his soul was given to him, Âdam ‘alaihis-
salâm’ noticed that there was a nûr, shining like the planet Venus, on his forehead.
When Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ was created, he understood, through inspiration, that Janâb-i
Haqq was addressing him as Abû Muhammad, that is, father of Muhammad”. He asked,
“O my Rabb! Why did you give me the name of Abû Muhammad?” Allahu ta’âlâ told
him, “O Âdam! Raise your head!” When Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ raised his head, he saw the
name of Ahmad, written from nûr, of our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)
on the Arsh 6. That time, he asked, “O my Rabb! Who is this?” Allahu ta’âlâ said, “This is
a prophet from your descendants. His name is Ahmad in the skies, Muhammad on the
Earth. If I had not created him, I would not have created you, the earth and the heavens.”7

Transfer of his nûr (light) through pure foreheads

When Âdam (’alaihis-salâm) was created, our beloved Prophet’s blessed nûr was
put on his forehead. That nûr started shining on his forehead. As it was declared in
the Qur’ân al-karîm, this nûr passed from chaste fathers to chaste mothers and reached
our Master, the Prophet. Allahu ta’âlâ purports in the Qur’ân al-karîm:
“You, that is, your nûr has reached you after having always been transferred
from one worshipper to another.”8

6 The end of matter bordering the seven skies and the Kursî, which is outside the seventh sky and inside the Arsh.
7 Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, VII, 437; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VIII, 198; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, I, 85.
8 The Shu’arâ’ Sûra, 26/219.

It is declared in a hadîth-i sherîf, “Allahu ta’âlâ created everyone. He made me
from the best of humans. Then He created the best of these humans (in Arabia).
He made me from them. Then, choosing the best of homes, the best of families,
He created me from them. Then, my soul and body are the best of creatures. My
lineage, ancestors are the best of mankind.”

It is declared in another hadîth-i sherîf, “Allahu ta’âlâ created everything out of
nothing. Of all things, He liked human beings and made them valuable. Of mankind
He made those whom He selected settle in Arabia. And of the distinguished
in Arabia, He chose me. He placed me among the distinguished, the best of the
people in every age. Then, those who love the ones in Arabia who are obedient to
me, love them for my sake. Those who feel hostility towards them feel hostility
towards me.”

A nûr (holy light) shone on the forehead of Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), the first human
who was created, because he bore a mote of Hadrat Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). This
mote was passed on to Hadrat Hawwa (the first mother) and from her to Hadrat Shîs,
thus passing from chaste men to chaste women and from chaste women to chaste men.
The nûr of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) passed from foreheads to foreheads together
with the mote. Whenever the Angels looked at Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), they would see
the nûr of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and prayed for Âdam (’alaihis-salâm)’s being
forgiven.

Hadrat Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), when he was about to die, said to Hadrat Shîs (’alaihis-
salâm), his son, “My son! This nûr shining on your forehead is the nûr of Hadrat
Muhammad, the Last Prophet. Deliver this nûr to pure and chaste ladies, who believe
in Allah, and tell your son to do so in your last request!” Up to Muhammad (’alaihis-
salâm), all fathers told their sons to do so. Each of them fulfilled this will by marrying
the noblest, the most chaste girl. The nûr, passing through the foreheads of these
pure men and women, reached its owner. If one of Rasûlullah’s grandfathers had had
two sons or if a tribe had been divided into two branches, Hadrat Muhammad’s nûr
would be on the best side. In each century, the person who was his grandfather was
evident by the nûr on his forehead. There was a distinguished race carrying Hadrat
Muhammad’s nûr; in each century, the face of a person of this race was very beautiful
and very bright. By this nûr he was conspicuous among his brothers, and the tribe he
belonged to was more exalted and more honorable than other tribes.” 9

In one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, our Master, the Prophet said:

“None of my grandfathers committed adultery. Allahu ta’âlâ made me from
beautiful and good fathers and pure mothers. If one of my grandfathers had had
two sons, I would be in the most auspicious, the best of these.”
This nûr, transferred from son to son, since Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’, reached Târûh
and passed from him to his son Ibrâhîm, then to his son Ismâil ‘alaihis-salâm’. This
nûr, shone like the sun, transferred to one of his sons, Adnân, from him to Ma’âdd,
from him to Nizâr. Nizâr’ means “a little”. He was named Nizâr due to the following event: When he was born, his father Ma’âdd, being pleased to see the nûr on his son’s forehead, gave a feast and said that the feast was only a little thing for such a son, thus causing his name to remain as Nizâr. After him, the nûr transferred successively until it reached to its real owner, our beloved Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’.

9 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s.82.

The honorable lineage of our Master, the Prophet until Adnân:
That light established on his forehead, It reached Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Ismâil too,
It stayed with him for long times. The word would be long, if I said the remaining to you.
Know that, then, it passed on the forehead of Hawwa (Eva), In this way, chained, joined,
It stayed with her, too, many months and years. Until it was transported to Mustafâ.
Shîs was born, it passed on him, For the mercy for the worlds has come,
That light, on his forehead, was seen. It reached him, stayed with him.

Hadrat Abdulmuttalib, his grandfather

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is from the Hâshim Family of the Quraysh tribe. His father is Abdullah. Abdullah’s father is Shayba. Shayba, the Grandfather of our Prophet, was born in Medina. Shayba was a child when his father, Hâshim, passed away. One day, he was practicing archery with his friends in front of his maternal uncle’s home. Adults, who were watching them, seeing the nûr on Shayba’s forehead, conjectured that he was the son of an honorable person. They were in admiration. When turn for shooting an arrow was Shayba’s, he stretched his bow and sent the arrow. When the arrow hit the target, he said in excitement: “I am the son of Hâshim. Of course, my arrow will reach its target”. They understood from his words that he was the son of Hâshim of Mecca. Hâshim had already died before this. A person of the Abdu Manaf Family, when he returned to Mecca, told Hâshim’s brother Muttalib: “Your nephew Shayba, who is in Medina, is a very clever child. There is a nûr also on his forehead which everyone admires. Is it correct that you keep such a valuable child away from you?” Thus, Muttalib went to Medina immediately and brought his nephew Shayba to Mecca. He would say “my slave” to persons who asked who this child was. After that, Shayba’s name was called as Abdulmuttalib, which means slave of Muttalib.10

Abdulmuttalib stayed with his uncle Muttalib until he passed away. His blessed body gave odor of musk. On his forehead, was the nûr of Allahu ta’âlâ’s Darling Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). Whenever there was scarcity and no rain, Meccans would bring him to the Mount of Thabir and beg him to supplicate Allahu ta’âlâ. He would not make anyone sorry and would pray to Allahu ta’âlâ for rain. Allahu ta’âlâ would accept his prayer for the sake of the nûr of our beloved Prophet and send rain. Thus, the value and credibility of Abdulmuttalib increased day by day. Meccans chose him as their leader. There was no one who disobeyed him and those who were obedient found ease. Except the Iranian Chosroes who envied him and kept enmity against him openly and covertly, the rulers of that time also appreciated Abdulmuttalib’s virtue and greatness.

10 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 82.

Abdulmuttalib was of the Hanîf religion, that is, he was Muslim. This religion was the religion of one of his ancestors, Ibrahim (’alaihis-salâm). For this reason, he never worshipped idols and did not even go near them. Around the Kâba, he would pray to and worship Allahu ta’âlâ.

One day, in his dream, a person said “O Abdulmuttalib! Get up and dig the Tayyiba”. The next day he said “Get up, dig the Barra”. On the third day, again the same person ordered: “Get up, dig the Madnûna”. The dream was repeated the fourth day, when the same person said “O Abdulmuttalib! Get up, dig the Zamzam well” Abdulmuttalib asked “What is Zamzam? Where is the well?” That person said “Zamzam is a water that never finishes and it is not possible to see the bottom of its source. It is enough for the pilgrims who come from all the world. It has its source from where the Archangel Gabriel stroked his wing. It is the water which Allahu ta’âlâ created for Ismail (’alaihis-salâm). It satiates the thirsty. It becomes food for the hungry, medicine for the ill. I will tell you its place. When people make sacrifice, they throw the remnants somewhere. When you are there, a crow with a red beak will come. It will scratch the earth. You will see a nest of ants where the crow scratches. That is the Zamzam well.”11

In the morning, Abdulmuttalib, together with his son Hâris, went to the Kâ’ba and started waiting with anticipation. A crow with a red beak came and lighted on a pit and started stroking with its beak. A nest of ants appeared. Abdulmuttalib and his son immediately started digging. After a while, the entrance of the well was seen. When Abdulmuttalib saw that, he started saying Takbir “Allâhu akbar, Allâhu akbar!”

The Qurayshis who were watching the unearthing of the well said to him “O Abdulmuttalib! This is the well of our father, Ismail. We also have a right in it. You should make us participant in this job”. Abdulmuttalib rejected this immediately and replied “No! This job is a duty which has been given only to me”. The Qurayshis said “You are alone. You have only one son. It is not possible for you to overcome us.” He was deep in sorrow, because they were threatening him with exile. He begged to Allahu ta’âlâ: “O my Rabb! Grant me ten children. If you accept my prayer, I will sacrifice one of them at the Kâ’ba.”12

Abdulmuttalib thought this digging would become dangerous and might end up in fierce fights. So, he stopped digging and tried to reach an agreement. He demanded arbitration. In the end, they decided that a clairvoyant in Damascus would find a solution. With a group of the notables of the Quraysh, they went on the journey. The caravan became very ill because of the scarcity of water and high temperature. Although their only wish was to find water, it was not possible in the middle of the dessert.

When everyone had lost hope, Abdulmuttalib shouted: “Come! Come! Gather! I have found water enough for you and for your animals.” While Abdulmuttalib, who carried the nûr of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), was looking for water, his camel’s leg had moved a stone and water appeared. Everyone came running. They drank. After becoming satiated, they came to themselves.

11 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s. 2-5; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 143; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 83-84.
12 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 144-145; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 88; Tabarî, Târikh I, 128.

The Qurayshîs, feeling ashamed against this greatness of Abdulmuttalib, said: “O Abdulmuttalib! Now, we have no other word to say against you. You are the most appropriate person to unearth the Zamzam well. We will not dispute with you in this matter again. There is no longer a reason to go to the arbitrator. We are returning home” and started the journey to Mecca. Abdulmuttalib, for the sake of the nûr shining on his forehead, was bestowed the honor of unearthing the Zamzam well.13

O the Darling of Allah! O the best of humans!
I am looking forward to you, as the thirsty always wish water.

To want the sacrifice of Abdullah

After unearthing the Zamzam well, Abdulmuttalib’s fame increased even more. Years past. Having accepted his sincere prayer, Allahu ta’âlâ granted him ten sons, apart from Hâris and six daughters. The names of his sons: Qusam, Abû Lahab, Hadjl, Muqawwim, Dirâr, Zubayr, Abû Tâlib, Abdullah, Hamza and Abbâs. His daughters were Safiyya,Âtiqa, Umm-u Hakîm Baydâ, Barra, Umayma and Arwâ. Among his children, Abdulmuttalib loved Abdullah most. Because the nûr on his own forehead had started shining on Abdullah.

One day, in his dream, he was told: “O Abdulmuttalib! Fulfill your vow!” In the morning, Abdulmuttalib sacrificed a ram. In the night, in his dream, he was ordered to sacrifice larger than the ram. In the morning, he sacrificed a cow. In his dream, he was ordered again “Sacrifice larger than it.” He asked what was larger than it. Then it was said, “You had vowed to sacrifice one of your sons. Fulfill your vow!”

The following day, Abdulmuttalib gathered his children and told them of the invocation which he made years ago. Then he told his sons that he should sacrifice one of them. None of his sons opposed him. Furthermore they agreed by saying, “O our father! Fulfill your vow! You are free to do whatever you want.” Abdulmuttalib drew lots. The lot was for Abdullah, who was Abdulmuttalib’s most beloved son, and who carried the nûr of Allahu ta’âlâ’s darling Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). Abdulmuttalib was shocked. His eyes were full of tears. He should keep his word to Allahu ta’âlâ. He took his knife and his beloved son, Abdullah, and arrived at the Kâ’ba. He made all the preparations for sacrificing Abdullah.

Meanwhile, the notables of the Quraysh were following the event in astonishment. Among them, the maternal uncle of Abdullah said, “O Abdulmuttalib! Stop! We never consent to your killing your son. If you do that, it will be a custom in the Quraysh. Everyone will vow his son for sacrifice and cut him. Don’t be a precedent for that. Attain your Lord’s consent in a different manner.” Then he suggested, “Ask a clair- voyant, so that he will teach you a solution.”

13 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 144-145; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 81-88.

Upon these words, Abdulmuttalib went to a clairvoyant named Kutba (or Sadjak) who was in Khaybar. He told him the situation. The clairvoyant asked: “What is the ransom of a person among you?” When he received the reply as ten camels, he said, “Draw lots between the camels and your son. If the lot is for your son, increase the ransom by ten camels and continue to draw the lots until the lot is for the camels.”

Abdulmuttalib returned to Mecca immediately and did what the Clairvoyant said. He drew lots by increasing camels in intervals of ten camels. Each time the lot was for Abdullah. But when the number of camels reached one hundred, the lot was for the camels. As a precaution, he drew lots two more times. Both of them were for the camels. Abdulmuttalib sacrificed the camels by saying “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” From the meat, he and his sons did not take anything. He distributed all the meat among the poor.14

From time of Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), there was also the incident of Ismâil’s (’alai- his-salâm) sacrifice. Since his lineage reaches Ismail (’alaihis-salâm), our Master the Prophet said: “I am son of the two sacrifices.”15

His Father, Hadrat Abdullah

When Abdullah, who carried the nûr of our Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), the Master of both worlds, was born, the people of the book (disbelievers with a heavenly book- Jews and Christians) informed each other that the father of the Prophet of the last of time was born in Mecca.

The Sons of Isrâil had a woolen woven robe that had belonged to Prophet Yahyâ (John) (’alaihis-salâm). He was wearing it when he became martyred. His blessed blood was on it. In their books, it was stated that: “Whenever this blood becomes regenerated and starts dripping, the father of the prophet of the last of time has been born.” So, the people of the book, having seen this sign, understood that Abdullah was born. Although they were envious and tried to kill him many times, Allahu ta’âlâ protected Abdullah for the sake of the nûr on his forehead.

When Abdullah reached the age of puberty, he became an elite person with his good ethics and his handsomeness. Many persons had wanted to give him their daughters as wife. Many rulers offered their daughters to Abdulmuttalib for his son. They told him that they would make every sacrifice for this. But Abdulmuttalib rejected each of them in an appropriate manner.

When Abdullah was eighteen years old, his beauty became famous. The girls who saw the nûr on his forehead, which was shining like the sun, loved him willy nilly. His fame reached Egypt. Around two hundred girls came to Mecca for marrying him and offered marriage. But Abdulmuttalib was looking for the most polite, noble and beautiful girl who believed in the Hanîf religion which they followed since the time of Hadrat Ibrâhim (’alaihis-salâm).

14 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 99-100.
15 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 38-44; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 43-56; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 55-56, 92, 108; Tabarî, Târikh, I, 557; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, s. I, 123; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, I

The sons of Israil, who understood that the Prophet of the last of time, who was acknowledged in their book, would not be of their nation, out of envy, they vowed to kill Abdullah. They sent seventy warriors to Mecca for this. These people were waiting for an opportunity. In the end, when Abdullah went out of the city, while they thought that no one would see them, they drew their swords and attacked Abdullah. That day when Wahb bin Abd-i Manâf, who was one of the relatives of Abdullah, with several of his friends, went hunting. They saw the sons of Isrâil who attacked Abdullah. They decided to help Abdullah because he was their relative. But the opponents were too many. It was clear that they would be defeated. Finally, they decided to try to advise them. When they got close to them, they saw many horsemen with swords, who came very quickly, attacked the sons of Isrâil and killed all of them. Wahb was surprised and understood that Abdullah was protected by Allahu ta’âlâ and his value before Him. When he came to his house, he told the situation to his wife. Both of them decided that the equivalent of their daughter was Abdullah and agreed to give their daughter Âmina to him as wife.

Abdulmuttalib had heard the beauty, chastity and piousness of Âmina who was the daughter of the Banî Zuhra tribe’s superior Wahb. They were also relatives and several generations before their lineage had been common. For taking this girl as a wife to his son Abdullah, he went to Wahb’s home. When he asked for Wahb’s daughter to his son Abdullah, Wahb said, “O son of my uncle! We have received this offer before you” and told him the incident which he saw and added, “Âmina’s mother saw a dream. According to her report, a nûr entered our house; it enlightened the earth and the skies. Also, I saw our grandfather Ibrâhim (’alaihis-salâm) in my dream this night. He said, ‘I performed the marriage ceremony of Abdullah, son of Abdulmuttalib and your daughter Âmina. You agree too.’ I am under the influence of this dream since this morning. I was wondering when you would come.” When he heard these words, Abdulmuttalib said “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” In the end, his son Abdullah and Wahb’s daughter Âmina married. There are other narrations too about the marriage of Âmina and Abdullah.16

Transfer of his blessed light to his mother

When the blessed nûr of our Master Sarwar-i Âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) passed to his mother, wild animals gave the good news to each other by saying, “honoring of the Master of the world is near, he is the most trustworthy of the world, the sun of the time.” That night, all the idols in the Kâ’ba fell to the ground. Until that night, there was famine in Mecca. There was no rain for years. There were not even green leaves on the trees. There was no sign of harvest. People were in difficulty, they did not know what to do. After the nûr of our beloved prophet passed to Hadrat Âmina from Hadrat Abdullah, so much rain fell and so many crops were produced that, that year was named as the year of abundance.

When our mother Amina was pregnant, her husband Abdullah had gone to Damascus for commerce. During his return, he became ill. When he came to Medina, he died at the age of eighteen or twenty five years old, near his maternal uncles, the sons of the Najjâr. When this news reached Mecca, all the city became sad.17 Abdullah bin Abbas (radiyallâhu anhumâ), one of the Companions, declared that when our Master the Prophet’s father Abdullah died before his son’s birth, angels said “O our Lord! Your Messenger has become orphan.” Allahu ta’âlâ declared, “I am his protector and helper.”

The incident of elephant

There were two months until our Master the Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal- lam) birth. Meanwhile, the incident of elephant occurred. The governor of Yemen, Abraha, did not want people from far and near going to the Kâ’ba. He had a big church built in Sana’a with help of the Eastern Roman Emperor. He wanted people to visit this church. Arabs did not pay any respect to the church, because they would visit the Kâ’ba since ancient times. One of them even defiled the church.

Abraha was angry about this event. He decided to demolish the Kâ’ba. He prepared a big army and started a military campaign against Mecca. When Abraha’s army got close to Mecca, they started looting the Quraysh’s properties. They had seized two hundred camels of Abdulmuttalib. Abdulmuttalib went to Abraha and asked for his camels back. Abraha said, “I came here to demolish your holy Kâ’ba. Don’t you want to protect it? You want only your camels? “Abdulmuttalib said, “I am the owner of these camels. The Kâ’ba has its owner too. It will be protected by Him.” Abraha said, “There is no one who will protect it from me!” and gave him his camels back. Then, he ordered his army to march towards Mecca. In front of Abraha’s army, there was an elephant called Mamûd. It was believed that when it was walked in front of the army, they would be victorious. When Abraha marched towards the Kâ’ba, this elephant sat and did not walk. However, when its direction was turned towards Yemen, it was running.

Thus, Abraha’s army could not approach and attack Mecca. Allahu ta’âlâ sent a flock of mountain swallows, called Abâbîl, over them. Each of these birds was carrying three stones as big as a chickpea or a lentil, one in their beaks and two in their feet. They released them on Abraha’s army. The stones were going through the soldiers. Each soldier, targeted by a stone, died immediately. As it was declared in the âyat al-karîma, the army was being eaten away like the grain of a crop. When he saw this situation, Abraha wanted to run away. But he could not. The real target for the stones was him. And they hit the target. When he was running away, his flesh was torn to pieces. This incident was narrated in the Fîl Sûra of the Qur’ân al- Karîm, purporting:

(O My Messenger!) Have you not seen how your Rabb dealt with the owners of the Elephants? (Abraha’s army, equipped with elephants, who wanted to demolish the Kâ’ba). Did he not cause their stratagem (to demolish the Kâ’ba) to miscarry?

16 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 119-124; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 232-233;
17 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 99-100.

He sent birds in flocks against them. Each of that bird hurled stones, made from mud and hardened in fire, down upon them. Finally, Allahu Ta’âlâ destroyed them as if they were moth eaten stubbles. (He made them like stubbles, eaten and cut by worms.)

Glad Tidings

The fact that our beloved Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) would come had been communicated to every prophet and their communities since Âdam (’alai- his-salâm). Many incidents that would occur before his birth had been announced.

In the original Torah, which was revealed to Hadrat Mûsâ, and interpolated afterwards, it is written:

“He is such a blessed person that his favor is high, his help is substantial. He is the darling of the poor, the doctor of the rich. He is the most beautiful, the most chaste. He is mild while talking, fair while distributing, he is correct in every transaction. He is harsh and fierce against the disbelievers. He pays respect to the old, affection and compassion to the young. He thanks Allah even for small things. He pities the captive. He is cheerful all the time. His laugh is a smile, he does not laugh loudly. He is ummî, everything has been communicated to him while he has not read or written anything. He is the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. He is not black hearted or coldhearted. He does not shout in public. His community has good ethics. They recite the name of Allahu ta’âlâ at high places. Their muadhdhins call the people to prayers from minarets. They perform ritual ablution and make prayers. They straighten the lines of worshippers in the prayers. At nights, their reciting of the name of Allah sounds like the hum of hon- eybees. He was born in Mecca. Everywhere from Medina to Damascus will be under his rule. His name is Muhammad. I have given him the name of mutawakkil. I will not take his life until he removes the false religions and he spreads and establishes the true one. He will call the people to Haqq. With his benediction, blind eyes will see, deaf ears will hear. Negligence will leave hearts…”18

In the original Psalms, which was revealed to Dâwûd (David) (’alaihis-salâm), and interpolated afterwards, it is written: “He is such a person that he is generous. He never becomes angry. He is very mild. He has a beautiful face, sweet words and a luminous face. He is the doctor of human beings. He weeps much, he laughs less. He sleeps less, he thinks much. His creation is fine and beautiful. His words please hearts, allure souls… O My Darling! Draw the sword of zeal and take revenge on the infidels in the field of bravery. Do spread praise to and glorification of Me everywhere with beautiful words. The heads of all the disbelievers will bow before your blessed hands…”

In the Bible, which was revealed to Isâ (Jesus) (’alaihis-salâm), and interpolated afterwards, it is written:

“He does not eat much; he is not mean. He does not cheat, he does not speak ill of anyone, and he does not make haste. He does not take revenge for himself. He is not lazy. He does not gossip about anyone…”

Again in the Bible, it is written:

“That Munhamannâ who will come from Rabb, that Rûh-ul-quds who will come from Rabb, if he came, he would bear witness to me. You, too, bear witness. Because, you are with me for a long time. I have told you this so that you will not be in doubt or in deviation.” The word Munhamannâ means Muhammad in Syriac language. 19

The era of nescience

Before the birth of our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), all the world was in a great spiritual darkness. Humans were in a limitless transgression. The religions, revealed by Allahu ta’âlâ, were forgotten. Instead of the divine rules, the ideas and thoughts of human beings had taken their place. All creatures were distressed by the cruelties and oppressions of humans.

In all the nations on the world, Allahu ta’âlâ was forgotten, the belief of Tawhîd (unity of Allah) which is the source of rest, bliss and happiness, had disappeared. The storm of disbelief expelled belief from the hearts. Instead of belief in Allahu ta’âlâ, worshipping idols had taken root in the hearts.

The religion which Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) brought was forgotten, Tawrat (Torah) was changed fraudulently. The sons of Israîl were in conflict. Christianity was totally interpolated; it had nothing to do with the religion. Trinity, that is the idea of three gods, was accepted. The real Bible was lost; the priests changed it according to their wishes. Both books were no longer the word of Allahu ta’âlâ.

In Egypt, the interpolated Torah prevailed; in the Eastern Roman Empire, interpolated Christianity was prevalent. In Iran, fire was worshipped. The fire of the worship- pers had not gone out for a thousand years. Fabricated religions were prevalent, such as Confucianism in China and Buddhism in India.

The People of Arabia were more deviant. They had placed three hundred and sixty idols in the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama to which Allahu ta’âlâ places such value. The Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama was a replica of the Bayt-i Ma’mûr, visited by the angels in the Arsh, constructed in the same dimensions. Allahu ta’âlâ soon destroyed whoever was disre- spectful toward the Kâ’ba.

The Jurhum tribe had gone too far in adultery and fornication. Their ruler, who saw their disrespectful and low behavior, warned them: “O Jurhumese! Paying respect to the Harâm ash-Sharîf of Allahu ta’âlâ and the safety of it, come to yourselves! You know what happened to the communities of Prophet’s Hûd, Sâlih and Shu’ayb (’alai- himussalâm) and how these communities were destroyed. Encourage each other to obey the commandments of Allahu ta’âlâ and admonish each other from committing

18 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 38-44; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 43-56; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 55-56, 92, 108; Tabarî, Târikh,I, 557; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, s, I, 123; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, I, 216.
19 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 119-124; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 232-233; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 360-363.

His prohibitions. Do not be deceived by your temporary power. Refrain from aban- doning the truth and making cruelty in Mecca. Because, the cruelty causes the demolishing of the people. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that there was no people who stayed here and gave up obeying the commandments of Allahu ta’âlâ and was not made extinct by Allahu ta’âlâ and replaced by another people. It is not possible for the Meccan people, who continued their transgression and abandoning Allahu ta’âlâ’s commandments to stay here constantly. You know what happened to the settlers of this region before you. Tasm, Jadis and Amâliqa people had lived longer lives than you, they were more powerful, more populace and richer than you. Since they regarded the Harâm ash-Sharîf as unimportant, they left the right path and oppressed people; they were expelled from this blessed place. You should see and hear that Allahu ta’âlâ eliminated some of them by sending small ants, some by famine and some by the sword!”

But they did not listen. In the end, Allahu ta’âlâ made them wretched, due to their transgressions…

During this time, blessed Mecca was flooded with disbelief; Baytullah was filled with hundreds of idols such as Lât, Uzzâ and Manât. Cruelty was at it’s peak, immorality was a source of pride. Arabia was in religious, spiritual, social and political darkness, blind ignorance, transgression and deviance. These times were called the era of nescience. Most of the people lived nomadic. They had been divided into tribes. Arab tribes, which were in a constant anarchy, regarded raids and lootings as a way of sustenance. There was no political or social unity in Arabia. Furthermore, alcoholic drinks, gambling, adultery, stealing, cruelty, lies and immorality had been spread. The cruelty was the most merciless and dreadful means of the powerful over the weak. Women were sold as if they were simply a commodity. Some of the people regarded the birth of daughters as a calamity and shame. This terrific conception reached the degree that they would leave their daughters to die in the pits where they put them alive and covered with earth, while they were hugging them and crying “Father! Father!” They were not sad because of these actions; they even regarded them as heroism. In conclusion, the people of that time had little compassion, pity, kindness or sense of justice.

Arabs were considerably advanced in eloquence, fluency and clarity in literature, and it was at it’s peak. They placed great importance on poems and poetry. They re- garded it as a source of pride. A talented poet was regarded as being a source of credit for himself and his tribe. Festivals were held for the purpose of poetry and speech, the best of which would be hung on the walls of the Ka’ba. During the Jahiliyya Ages, the most famous seven poems which were hung on the walls of the Ka’ba were named “al-Muallaqatu’s Seb’a”, that is “seven hung.”

During those times, people in Arabia were grouped differently in religious matters too. Some were totally faithless; they did not accept anything other than the worldly life. Some of them believed in Allahu ta’âlâ and the Judgment Day, but did not accept that a human being could be a prophet. Some of them believed in Allahu ta’âlâ but

they did not believe in the Hereafter. Most of them believed in other gods too and were worshipping idols. Each polytheist had an idol in his home.

Apart from these, there were people called “Hanîfs,in the religion of Hadrat Ibrahîm. They believed in Allahu ta’âlâ and they were away from the idols. Our Master the Prophet’s father, Abdullah, his grandfather Abdulmuttalib, his mother and others were in this religion.

Except the Hanîfs, all the other groups were on an aberrant way and in great darkness.

lineHIS HONORING THE WORLD (HIS BIRTH)

The world was in such a deep darkness that people had abandoned believing in Al- lahu ta’âlâ and worshipping Him. Due to their ignorance, they worshipped the natural events and Allahu ta’âlâ’s creatures, especially the idols, which they made from stone and wood, as gods.

The universe, nature and hearts were sad and humans had forgotten to smile. Mankind, who had been created superior to other creatures, needed a hero who would cause them to be saved from Hell. There was little time before his emergence. The universe was preparing to greet the person who was the owner of this nûr (light) that had been passed from chaste foreheads to chaste foreheads since Adam (’alai- his-salâm) to that day. The unique human who would reveal endless bliss to humans and genies was coming! The source of compassion and mercy, the exalted human who had been edified with the ethics of his Rabb was coming!

The unique person who was the owner of Maqâm-i Mahmud, the beloved intercessor was coming! The teacher of the universe, the essence of the creature, the master of mankind was coming! The saver of the Judgment Day, the sultan of the prophets was coming! The Habibullah, the darling of Allah, the one for the sake of whom we have been created, our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) who was sent as a mercy for the entire universe, was coming!

This, which is coming, is the sultan of inspired knowledge,
This, which is coming, is the source of belief and wisdom.

The skies which rotate for the sake of this person
Long for seeing his blessed face, as do angels and humans

Seven layers of the earth, seven layers of the sky, shortly the whole universe was waiting for the Sayyidu’l Mursalîn, Khatamu’l Anbiya, the Darling of Allah in a great courtesy and exultation. The whole universe was ready to greet him with “Welcome O Rasûlullah!” 53 years before the Hegira, around two months after the Incident of Elephant, on Monday the twelfth night of the month of Rabî’ul-awwal, towards morning in the province of Hâshimîs in Mecca, in a house near Safa Mountain, the nûr of Allahu ta’âlâ, Muhammad Mustafa (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was born. With his honoring, the universe revived. The darkness was illuminated with this nûr. 20

This is the night when that blessed,
Enlightened the worlds.

This night, he turns the world to Paradise,
This night, Allah shows compassion.

This night the good hearted becomes happy,
This night is alive with the joy.

He is Mustafâ, mercy for the universes,
He is the intercessor for sinners.

When the Master of the Religion was born
Both the skies and the earth became Enlightened.

All creatures were joyful
Sorrow left, the world was hopeful.

It is stated in the book of “Madârij-un-nubuwwa”, “The most fortunate of mothers who attained the highest honor narrates her pregnancy, “I never had any pain due to my pregnancy. I did not even feel that I was pregnant. After the sixth month of my pregnancy, between sleep and awareness somebody asked me, ‘Do you know who you are going to give birth to?’ I answered by saying, ‘I do not know.’ He said, ‘You have to be aware that you are pregnant with the Last Prophet. When the time of birth approached, the same person came again and said, ‘O Âmina! When the baby is born, name him Muhammad’. In another narrative it is said, “O Âmina! When the baby is born, name him Ahmad!”

Our mother Hadrat Âmina narrates the time of birth as below,

“When the delivery time came, I heard a tremendous noise. I shuddered with fear. Then I saw a white bird which came and stroked me with her wings. All the fear and shivering has gone. I was feeling so thirsty and feverish. Right next to me I saw a milky white bowl of sherbet. They gave me the sherbet to drink. I had the drink; it was cold and sweeter than honey. I was not feeling thirsty anymore. And then I saw a big nûr, my house was full with it that I was not seeing anything except that nûr.

Meanwhile, I saw many ladies who surrounded and served me. They were tall, their faces shone like the sun. They were like the girls of Abdu Manâf tribe. I was amazed by their sudden appearance. One of them said, “I am Âsiya, the wife of the Pharaoh!” The other one said, “I am Maryam binti Imrân and these are the girls of Paradise.”

At the same time I saw a silky white cloth which is lengthened from sky to the ground. They said “Cover him from eyes of the people.” At that second, a flock of birds appeared. Their mouth was emerald and their wings were ruby. I had sweltered because of the fear. The drops of my sweat had spread the smell of musk all around the room. At that time they removed the curtain from my eyes. I saw the earth from east to the west. The angels were circled all around me.

As soon as Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) arrived, he put his blessed head on to sajda (prostration) and raised his index finger. Later on, a piece of the white cloud which hovered over him came down from the sky. I heard a voice saying, ‘Show him around from west to the east. The entire universe has to see him with his name, body and attribution. Let them know his name is Mâhî and with him all the infidelity signs were removed by Allahu ta’âlâ.’ That cloud disappeared too and I saw Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) covered in a white wool cloth. That time three people whose faces were shining

like the sun showed up. One of them was carrying a ewer made of silver, the other had a bowl made of emerald and the other one had silk. It was as if musk was dropping off from the ewer. They put my blessed son into that bowl. After washing his blessed head and feet, they covered him with the silk. Then they perfumed him on his blessed head, tinged his blessed eyes with kohl and disappeared.”

20 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 100-103; Ibn Asîr , Usud-ul-ghâba, I, 21.

In rows, from the sky, angels came down,
As if it was Kâ’ba, my house, they rotated around.

In groups, the girls of Paradise entered,
Of their faces, with light, my home was enlightened.

In the air, a bed was set,
Sundus, the angel who established it, was named.

I was totally amazed since,
I had seen all these things.

Suddenly the wall was separated,
Three girls from Paradise appeared.

Some say that of those three moon-faced,
One of them was Âsiya, the Wife of Pharaoh.

In rows, from the sky, angels came down,
As if it was Kâ’ba, my house, they rotated around.

In groups, the girls of Paradise entered,
Of their faces, with light, my home was enlightened.

In the air, a bed was set,
Sundus, the angel who established it, was named.

I was totally amazed since,
I had seen all these things.

Suddenly the wall was separated,
Three girls from Paradise appeared.

Some say that of those three moon-faced,
One of them was Âsiya, the Wife of Pharaoh.

It was clear, one of them, Lady Maryam,
The other one was a girl from Eden.

Those three came in elegance,
Greeted me at the time immediate.

The good news of Mustafâ, they were giving,
Around me, they were sitting.

They said no child like your son,
Came into the world since the beginning.

Allah has not given anyone,
A blessing like your son.

What a great booty has reached you
With beautiful ethics, you will give birth to.

It was clear, one of them, Lady Maryam,
The other one was a girl from Eden.

Those three came in elegance,
Greeted me at the time immediate.

The good news of Mustafâ, they were giving,
Around me, they were sitting.

They said no child like your son,
Came into the world since the beginning.

Allah has not given anyone,
A blessing like your son.

What a great booty has reached you,
With beautiful ethics, you will give birth to.

When Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born, Lady Shifâ who was the mother of Abdurrahmân bin Awf, Lady Fâtima, the mother of ’Uthman bin Abi’l-Âs and the aunt of our Prophet Lady Safiyya was with Lady Âmina. They informed of the nûr they saw and the other things as well.

Lady Shifâ narrates, ‘That night I was with Âmina as an aide. As soon as Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) came into the world, I heard he was praying and supplicating.

‘Yarhamuka Rabbuka’ was told from unseen. Then a nûr appeared in a great amount so that from east to the west everywhere could be seen.”

Lady Shifâ who witnessed so many other occasions narrates, “As soon as his prophethood was proclaimed, I was one of the first persons who believed in Islam.”

Lady Safiyya narrates in this way,

“When Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born, everywhere had been covered by a nûr. As soon as he came into the world, he prostrated and he kept his blessed head

up and clearly he said, ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh, innî rasûlullâh’. When I wanted to wash him, I heard a voice saying, ‘We sent him as washed’. He was seen as circumcised and his umbilical cord was cut. As soon as he was born, he prostrated. At that time he was saying something in a light voice, I put my ear next to his blessed mouth, he was saying ‘Ummatî, Ummatî!’ (My community, My community!).”

At the time of our beloved Prophet was born, Abdulmuttalib was praying and begging to Allahu ta’âlâ right next to the Kâ’ba-i sharîfa. They informed him about the good news. On the day Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born, Abdulmuttalib had seen too many other extraordinary things and said, “His glory and fame is going to be so exalted.” 21

That Messenger towards the Kâ’ba
In direction, made sajda

In the sajda, his face on the ground
Praises Allah and recites His unity

He says that O my Lord!
Forgive the followers of me!

He waited for help from Allah,
Recited my Community! my Community!

To celebrate such a special day, Abdulmuttalib threw a banquet for the people of Mecca that lasted three days. Also he sacrificed camels in all districts of the city for the use of people and animals. At the banquet when people asked, which name he gave for his grandson, he said he had put the name of “MUHAMMAD” (sall-Allâhu ’alai- hi wa sallam). When people asked him why he had not put a name of his ancestors, he answered by saying, “I did it because I wanted Allahu ta’âlâ and people to praise and eulogize him.” In another report, it has been said that the person who put the name of “Muhammad” was Lady Âmina.

O, whose face is the full moon,
O, the shelter of all fallen,

You, O cure for the broken hearted,
You, O sultan of all which be created.

You, the one superior to all other prophets, and,
You the one, the seeing light of messengers.

You, O the last of the throne of messengerhood,
You, O the last seal of prophethood.

As all the world your light did enlighten,
Your rose-like face turned it into a rose garden.

Darkness of nescience has been annihilated,
The land of knowledge has been maturated.

O the Darling of Allah, help us
Make us happy by being seen at our life’s end.

SULEYMAN CELEBI

What was seen on the night he was born

Many signs of our beloved Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) honoring the world were seen before and during his birth. The well known persons of that time had seen some dreams before our Master, the Prophet came into the world. When they asked for interpretation of their dreams by the clairvoyants and famous scholars of that time, they said those dreams showed Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) would come. Our beloved Prophet’s grandfather Abdulmuttalib said,

“Once, I was asleep. I awakened with a great fear. I wanted to go to a clairvoyant and have my dream interpreted. When I arrived at his place, he said by looking at my face, “O leader of Quraysh! What has happened to you? An extraordinary state is seen on your face. Is there an important event?” After saying “Yes, I have seen a horrifying dream that I did not tell anybody yet,” I sat down near him and began to talk about the dream.

“In my dream this night, there was a great tree. It had reached the sky, its branches spread to the east and the west. A light was emitted by the tree, so much so that the sun seemed dark if you compare them. Sometimes the tree was seen and sometimes not. The people were facing it. Every moment, its light was increasing.

Some people of the Quraysh tribe were holding its branches; some people were try- ing to cut the tree. A young man was stopping those who wanted to cut it. He had such a beautiful face that I have not seen before. In addition, beautiful scents were emitting from his body. I stretched my arm to hold one of the branches of the tree, but I could not reach it. “When I finished my words, the clairvoyant’s face had changed. Then he said, “You have no share in it.” I asked who had a share. He said those who held the branches of the tree and continued, “Of your descendants, a prophet will come, he will be known everywhere, people will embrace his religion.” Then he turned to Abû Tâlib, who was my son, and said “He must be his paternal uncle.” Abû Tâlib had told this event to our Master, the Prophet, when his prophethood was announced, and said “That tree is Abu’l Qâsim, Al Emîn Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm).”

At the night of our beloved Prophet Muhammad’s (’alaihis-salâm) honoring the world, a new star in the sky shone. The Jewish scholars who saw this had understood that Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born. Hassan ibn Thabit, a sahabî, tells:

“I was eight years old. One morning, a Jewish man was running by shouting, “O Jews!” The Jews gathered around him, asking the reason of his shouting. He replied, “Know that the star of Ahmad shone this night! Ahmad came into the world this night.”

The night when Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was born, all the idols in the Kâ’ba fell to the ground. Urwatu’bnu’z -Zubeyr narrates, “A group of people of the Quraysh had an idol. Once a year, they would perform tawaf (circumambulate) around it, they would sacrifice camels for it and would drink wine. One of those days, when they went to the idol, they found it on the ground. They raised it, and it fell again. This had been repeated three times. While they raised it with supports, a voice was heard, “One person was born, the whole earth had shaken. All the idols fell down, the hearts of kings trembled with horror!” This incident occurred the night Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born.

The fourteen towers of Persian ruler’s palace in the city of Medayin were demolished. The ruler and the people, who woke up with horror, had their notables’ horrifying dreams interpreted and it was understood that this was a sign of a great event.

21 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 103.

Again that night tremendous fires of the fire-worshippers, which were burning for one thousand years, suddenly went out. They recorded the date which the fire went out; it was the same night when the towers of the Ruler’s palace collapsed.

Water of the Sawa Lake, which was regarded as holy, suddenly receded and the lake dried up that night.

Near Damascus, the valley of the Samawa river which had dried up and had no wa- ter for one thousand years, was filled with water and began to flow again.

Since the night Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was born, devils and genies could not give information about events to Quraysh clairvoyants, so fortune-telling ended.

Many other incidents occurred that night and after our master the Prophet was born. All these were the signs of the birth of the last prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). 22

Mawlîd Night

The night at which our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) honored the world is called “Mawlîd Night.” ‘Mawlîd’ means ‘the time of birth.’ After Qadr Night, it is the most valuable night. That night, those who become happy because he was born will be forgiven. That night, it brings much thawâb (rewards) to read, listen to and learn about the wonders and miracles that were seen when Rasûlullah was born. Our beloved Prophet, himself would tell about them, too.

That night, the Sahâba would meet together at some place and converse with one another and commemorate this day. Every year, Muslims all over the world celebrate this night as the Mawlîd Kandil. Everywhere, Rasûlullah is remembered by reciting Mawlid eulogies.

Communities of each prophet made the birth date of their prophets a festival. This day is a festival of Muslims and a day of joy and happiness.

His being delivered to a wet nurse

When our mother Hadrat Âmina held her blessed son, she felt the pain of having lost her husband Hadrat Abdullah lessen. After nursing him nine days, Lady Suwayba, who was the jariya (female slave) of Abû Lahab, nursed him for a few days, too. Pre- viously, Lady Suwayba had nursed Hadrat Hamza and Abû Salama. Hâfiz ibni Jazri narrates, “When Abû Lahab was seen in a dream, it had been asked about how he was doing. He said, I am suffering torture in the grave but every year at the 12th night of Rabi’al-awwal the torture is lessened. I feel relieved by sucking the cool water which comes out between my two fingers. When Suweyba who was my jariya (female slave) informed me about the news of Rasûlullah’s birth, I got so happy and I emancipated her from my service and I had ordered her to be his wet nurse. Because of that, my pain relieves these nights.”

22 Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 211-212.

During those times, the people of Mecca were handing over their children to wet nurses that resided in places where the weather and water was good, as the weather of Mecca was very hot. Every year many women were visiting Mecca because of this reason. They were taking a child to be it’s wet nurse. They would receive many gifts after they raised and delivered the children to the parents.

Like any other year, the year that our beloved Prophet was born, a lot of women from Banî Sa’d tribe came to Mecca to be wet nurses. Every one of them found a child to be a wet nurse. Banî Sa’d tribe was famous with their honor, generosity, bravery, humbleness and fluency in Arabic, among the tribes around Mecca. The notables of the Quraysh usually would prefer giving their children to the Banî Sa’d tribe. That year there was a severe drought and scarcity in the land of Banî Sa’d tribe. Lady Halî- ma narrates this situation as follows,

“I was walking in the meadows collecting grass and I was extending my thanks to Allahu ta’âlâ for that. Sometimes I could not eat anything for three days. During these days I gave birth. There was both hunger and the difficulties of having baby. There were times I could not even tell the days from the nights and the ground from the sky. One night I had fallen asleep in an open field. In my dream someone put me in water which was milky white and the same person told me to drink it. I drank the water until I was satisfied. That person forced me to drink it again. It was sweeter than honey and I had more. ‘Have a lot of milk O Halîma! Did you recognize me?’ he asked. When I said I did not, he said, ‘I am the hamd (praise) and shukr (thanksgiving) that you did when you were in trouble. O Halîma! Go to Mecca. There is going to be a Nûr (Light) which will be your friend and you will have much abundance. Do not mention about this dream to anybody!’ When I woke up I realized that all the hunger and the prob- lems I had, had gone and I had plenty of milk.”

Since there was a famine, there were more women than usual who had come to Mecca to be a wet nurse and handle the difficult times. All of them were rushing to get the rich families’ children. Each of these women got a child. They were not eager to take our beloved Prophet since he was an orphan. They thought they would not be able to paid much. Among these women there was Lady Halîma who had been known by her chastity, cleanliness, lenience, modesty and morale values. The animal they were riding was weak and they had arrived to Mecca late. But this delay provided them more than what they were looking for. When they were searching for the baby they noticed that the children from wealthy families had already been taken. They did not want to go back empty handed. Their only wish was to go home with a baby.

Finally they came across with a lovely-looking and respectful person. He was Ab- dulmuttalib, the leader of Mecca. After listening to them, Abdulmuttalib told them that by taking his grandson, they would attain a great blessing and bliss. Abdulmut- talib’s loveliness and affection attracted them. They accepted his proposal immediate- ly. Later on the old grandfather brought Lady Halîma to Lady Âmina’s house. Lady Halîma narrates, “When I arrived next to the baby he was swaddled and sleeping on a green silk cov- er and spreading an odor of musk all around the room. I was amazed and I loved him so much that I could not wake him up. When I put my hand on his chest, he awakened, looked at me and smiled. With his smile, I was much affected. I covered his face; held on to him lest his mother might not give a child so pretty to me. I offered him my right side to nurse and he accepted. When I tried my left side, he refused. Abdulmuttalib turned towards me and said, ‘Glad tidings on you. No other woman has ever had a blessing like this! 23

After handing over the baby, Lady Âmina told me, ‘O Halîma, three days ago I heard a voice saying, the woman who is going to breastfeed your son will be one of the descendants of Abû Zuayb from Bani Sa’d tribe.’ Upon that I said “I am from Bani Sa’d tribe and my father’s nickname is Abû Zuayb.” Lady Halîma again nar- rates,“Lady Âmina told me so many other cases about him and gave me her advice and I mentioned about a dream and the voices I had heard before I arrived to Mecca. I was hearing a voice around me, saying “Glad tidings on you Halîma! It is your priv- ilege to breastfeed the baby who is going to enlighten the worlds and dazzle the eyes of mankind.”

Lady Halîma narrates,

“Taking Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) with me, I left Hadrat Âmina’s house. I ar- rived next to my husband. When he saw the baby, he loved him much and said, ‘O Halîma! I have never seen such a beautiful face so far!’ and when he noticed the bless- ings that we gained as soon as we received him, he said, ‘O Halîma! Know that, you have had a very blessed and highly esteemed baby.’ I responded by saying, “I swear I was wishing that way and I obtained it.”

After taking Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) with them, Halîma Khâtûn and her hus- band had begun to get blessings due to him. The weak and slow donkey they were riding was going like an Arabian horse. The convoy that they came together with to Mecca had already left and gone away but they caught and passed them. After they arrived to the land of Banî Sa’d they had great abundance and blessings. Previously, their animals gave little milk, but then they began to give plenty of milk. Their neigh- bors were amazed and realized that all of these things were happening because of the child they had for nursing.

Because of the drought they had a lot of difficulties and they went out to pray to Allahu ta’âlâ for rain. They went to pray together with Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and for his sake they had a lot of rain and blessings.

Our beloved Prophet would be fed by only the right side of Lady Halîma. He left the left side to his foster sibling. He crawled when he was two months old. When he was three months he was standing and in the fourth month he was walking by leaning on the wall. He walked when he was five months old and in the sixth month he was walking rapidly. He was going out everywhere when he was seven months old. At the eight month he was talking apprehensible and when he was nine months old he was talking very clearly. He was shooting an arrow at the tenth month. Lady Halîma narrates, “When he first began to talk he said, ‘Lâ îlaha illallahu wallahu akbar. Walhamdu-lillâhi Rabbil ’âlamîn.’ Since that day he did not do anything without saying the name of Allahu ta’âlâ. He would not eat anything with his left hand. When he began to walk he was staying away from the playgrounds where children play and he was saying to them, ‘We have not been created for this.’ Every day a nûr like sunshine would cover him and move away. He was talking with the moon and when he pointed out, the moon was moving.

Lady Halîma narrates,

“When Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was two years old, I weaned him. Later I went to Mecca with my husband for handing him over to his family. Since we had plenty of blessings because of him, it was very difficult to leave him and not being able to see his blessed face. I explained the states of his to his mother. Lady Âmina said, ‘My son has a great glory.’ I said, ‘I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ I did not see anybody who is more blessed than him.’ Later on I found several other excuses to give to Lady Âmina for keeping him with me a little bit more. She allowed us to keep him and let him stay with us. Then we went back to our home. Thus, our household was filled with plenty of blessings and also because of him we had more goods, possessions and fame. We attained innumerable blessings.” 24

Cleaving open his blessed chest

Lady Halîma narrates,

“One day Sarwar-i Âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) asked me, ‘I do not see my siblings in the daytime. What is the reason?’ I said, ‘They go to shepherd the sheep. They come home around nighttime.’ He said, ‘Send me with them. Let me shepherd the herd.’ I found several excuses and apologized to him several times. Finally to make him happy I said yes. The next day I combed his hair, had him get dressed and sent him together with his foster siblings. He accompanied them for a couple of days. One day when his foster sibling Shaimâ came back from the meadow and I asked her, ‘Where is Muhammad, my son, the light of my eyes?’ She said he was in the desert. When I asked how he is standing under the heat of the desert, she answered, ‘Oh My mother! Nothing harms him. There is a cloud which moves with him every time he moves and protects him from the heat.’ When I said, ‘What are you talking about? Are all these things you mentioned really true?’ She swore that they were. Then I felt relieved. Again one day at noon his foster sibling Abdullah came to me and said, ‘Mother! Help! We were shepherding with my foster sibling. Suddenly three people who were covered in green approached. They picked up my brother and headed towards the mountain. They laid him back and cut him from his belly. When I came to give you the news they were still standing there. I do not even know whether he is alive or not.’ I started to panic.

23 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 37.
24 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 25-28; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 158-167; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I,108,115.

We arrived there quickly and saw him. I kissed his beloved head and said, ‘Oh the light of my eyes! Oh the mercy and grace of the universe! What happened to you? He answered, ‘After I left the house I saw two people who were covered in green. One of them was holding a silver ewer and the other had an emerald bowl. The bowl was full of something which was white in color. They brought me to the mountain. One of them laid me down. While I was watching, he cleaved my chest down to my stomach. I felt no pain. He put his hand inside and removed whatever was there. They washed it with the white thing that was in the bowl and then put it back. One said to the other, ‘Stand up and let me do my job!’ and then he put his hand inside and took out my heart. The heart was made of two pieces of which he took out something black and threw it away. And said, ‘That was the share of the Devil in your body. We eliminated it. O the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ! We have made sure that you stay away from the misgivings and the tricks of the Devil.’ Then they filled my heart with something which is delightful and soft. They stamped it with nûr. All of my body still feels the coldness of that stamp. When one of them put his hand on my wound, it became healed. And they weighed me against ten people from my ummat, I was heavier. They weighed me against a thousand people I was still heavier. Then one of them told the other, ‘Stop weighing him. Even if you weigh him with the whole ummat, he will still be heavier.’ Each of them kissed my hand and left me here.’ The mark could be seen on his beloved chest.25

This case that our beloved Prophet experienced, which is mentioned in the first verse of Surat al-Inshirâh, is called as “Shaqq-i Sadr” that is cleaving open his blessed chest.

After his prophethood had been acknowledged, some of his companions asked him to reveal more about himself. He answered, “I am the prayer of my ancestor Ibrâhim. I am the glad tidings of my brother Îsâ! I am the dream of my mother. When she was pregnant she saw a nûr which was enlightening the Palaces of Damascus, which emanated from her. I was nursed and raised among the sons of Banî Sa’d bin Baqr.”

After he became four years old, Lady Halîma brought him to Mecca and handed him over to his mother. His grandfather, Abdulmuttalib, generously gave her an abun- dance of gifts. After leaving him in Mecca, Lady Halîma expressed her feelings by saying, “It was as if my soul and heart had remained with him in Mecca.”

Death of his esteemed mother

Our beloved Prophet had been raised in Mecca by his mother until he was 6 years old. With Ummu Ayman who was a jariya (female slave), he and his mother went to Madîna to visit his relatives and the burial place of his father Abdullah. They stayed there about a month. Our beloved Prophet learned how to swim in the pool of the sons of Najjar. Meanwhile, a Jewish scholar saw the signs of prophethood on him. He approached and asked his name. When our beloved Prophet said “Ahmad,” he shouted,

“He is going to be the last Prophet!” Also some other Jewish scholars who saw him, observed the signs of prophethood, too. After long discussions they agreed about his prophethood. Ummu Ayman heard these discussions and told Lady Âmina. To avoid the harm of these people, Lady Âmina, taking our beloved Prophet with her, headed towards Mecca. When they arrived to the place which is called Abwâ, our mother Lady Âmina became ill. Her health worsened. While she was looking at her son who was standing right next to her, she said, “O the son of the beloved person who had escaped from the arrow of death by giving a hundred camels by the help of Allahu ta’âlâ! May Allahu ta’âlâ make you blessed. If the dream I saw comes true, you will be sent by Allahu ta’âlâ, to all mankind to inform them about halâl (permitted) and harâm (forbidden). Allahu ta’âlâ is going to protect you from the centuries-old tradition of idols and idolatry.” and recited to him this couplet, Then she passed away. She was buried there. Our mother Âmina died when she was twenty years old.

The new get old, the living die,
The many get depleted, is there one to stay young?

I will die too, my difference is:
I have given birth to you, my honor is this.

I’ve left a good child behind,
I shut my eyes, in rest is my heart.

My name will always be remembered,
In souls, your love will be kept alive.

Ummu Ayman took our Prophet and, after a few days’ travel, they arrived in Mecca where she delivered our Prophet to his grandfather Abdulmuttalib.

Beside his grandfather

Our Master, the Prophet’s father and mother were in the religion of Ibrâhîm (Abra- ham) (‘alaihis-salâm). That is they were believers. The scholars of Islâm communicat- ed that they were in the religion of Ibrâhîm (‘alaihis-salâm) and after their deaths, they were brought to life so that they could be among his ummat (community), they heard the Kalimat ash-shahâdat (“I believe in and testify to that Allahu ta’âlâ exists and He is One. And again, I believe in and testify to that Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ is His born slave and His Messenger.”) recited it and thus they became one of this ummat. 26

Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm), until he was eight years old, grew up near his grand- father Abdulmuttalib. Abdulmuttalib was an esteemed person who governed various functions in Mecca. He was majestic, patient, moral, honest, brave and generous. He would give food to the poor, even to animals which were hungry and thirsty. He be- lieved in Allahu Taâlâ and the Hereafter. He abstained from the evil deeds, kept away from all the nasty customs of the era of nescience. He would prevent oppression and unjustice in Mecca and accommodate the visitors. It was his habit to seclude himself in the Mount of Hira during the month of Ramadan. Abdulmuttalib loved children and he had compassion over them. He did not separate his beloved grandson from himself. He had a great love and affection for him. In the shadow of the Kâ’ba, he would sit down on the place peculiar to him with his grandson and say to those who wanted to prevent, “Leave my son alone, he is great.” 27 He constantly warned our Master, the Prophet’s nanny Ummu Ayman to look after him well. He would tell her “Look after my son well. The people of the book tell of him that he will be the prophet of this ummat in the future.” Ummu Ayman said, “I did not see that he complained either about hunger or thirst. In the morning, he would drink a drop of zamzam water. When I wanted to give food to him, he would say, “I don’t want, I am full.”

Abdulmuttalib would not allow anyone, except him, to enter his room when he was asleep or alone in his room. He had a great compassion for him. He liked his words and behaviors very much. At meals, he would sit down with him, he would give the best and the most delicious parts of the meals to him. He would not start eating before he came. He saw many dreams and many incidents about him.

Once there was famine and scarcity in Mecca. Upon a dream he saw, Abdulmuttal- ib held Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)’s hand and went up Abû Kubays mountain. He prayed, “O my Allah! For the sake of this child, make us happy with an auspicious rain.” His prayer was accepted and it rained much. The poets of the time mentioned this incidence by writing poems.

Priest of Najrân

One day, Abdulmuttalib was sitting near the Kâ’ba. A priest of Najrân came and started talking to him. During the talk, he said: “We have read the attributes of the last prophet from the sons of Ismâil in the books. Here, that is Mecca, is his birth place. His attributes are so and so!” Meanwhile, our beloved prophet came. The priest of Najrân started to examine him, he came near and looked at his eyes, his back, his feet and said in astonishment, “Here he is. Is this child one of your descendants?” When Abdulmuttalib said, “He is my son!”, the priest of Najrân said, “According to our knowledge from the books, his father should not be alive!” When Abdulmuttalib said, “He is son of my son. His father had died before his birth, when his mother was preg- nant.” Then the priest said “Now, you have said the truth.” Upon this, Abdulmuttalib told his sons, “Hear what is said about your brother’s son and protect him well.”

His grandfather’s death

When the death of Abdulmuttalib approached, he gathered his sons and said, “Now, it is the time for me to migrate from this world to the Hereafter. My only concern is this orphan. I wish I had a long life so that I could continue this service with pleasure. However, what can I do? My lifetime will not be enough. Now, my heart and tongue are burning with this fire of longing. I would like to trust this pearl to one of you. Who will protect his rights fully and will not fail in his service to him?” Abû Lahab, sat on his knees, said, “O master of Arabs! If you have any person in your mind for this ser- vice, it is good. If not, I will do this service.” Abdulmuttalib told him, “Your property is abundant. But you are a hard hearted person and you have a little compassion. The hearts of orphans are wounded and delicate. It is broken easily.”

25 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 121; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 164-165.
26 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, I, 652.
27 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 70-74; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 7-9.

His other sons repeat- ed the same wish. Abdulmuttalib did not accept any of them by mentioning each one’s peculiarities. When Abû Tâlib’s turn came, he said, “I would like that more than all of them, but it would not be suitable to precede before my elders. My property is not much; however, my loyalty is more than my brothers.” Abdulmuttalib said, “You have said the truth. You are the one who deserves this service. But, in every matter, I con- sult with him and I act according to his wishes. By doing so, I always reach the correct result. I shall consult him. Whomever he prefers from you, he has my acceptance too.”

Then he turned towards our beloved Prophet and asked, “O the light of my eyes! I am going to the Hereafter, with the longing for you. Whomever do you prefer from your paternal uncles?” Our Master, the Prophet stood up, embraced Abû Tâlib and sat down on his lap. Abdulmuttalib was relieved. He said, “Praise be to Allahu ta’âlâ. This was what I wanted too.” Then he told Abû Tâlib, “O Abû Tâlib! This pearl did not experience paternal compassion. Look after him very well. I regard you superior to my other children. I have entrusted you with this great and much valuable child. Because, you are from the same mother with his father. Protect him as you protect yourself. Have you accepted my last will?” When he answered, “I have”, Abdulmut- talib hugged our beloved Prophet; he kissed his blessed head and face and smelled. Then he said, “All of you bear witness that I have never smelled a more beautiful scent than this and I have never seen a more beautiful face than this.” 28

Under protection of Abû Tâlib

After his grandfather’s death, our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal- lam), stayed with his uncle Abû Tâlib and grew up under his protection. Abû Tâlib was like his father Abdulmuttalib, he was one of the superiors in Mecca. He was a well-esteemed person. He too showed a great love and compassion to our Master, the Prophet. He loved him more than his own children, he would not go anywhere without him. He would tell him “You are very auspicious and very blessed!” He would not eat before he started. Sometimes, he would have a separate table set for him. When our Prophet awoke in the mornings, they would see that his face was luminous like the moon and his hair was combed. Abû Tâlib had little in the way of property, his family was crowded. He attained abundance and plentifulness after he started protecting our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). When the people were in difficulty due to the drought in Mecca, Abû Tâlib brought him to the Kâ’ba and prayed. For his sake, it rained much. They were rescued from the drought and famine. 29

28 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 45-48; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 169-178; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 117; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 299; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, II, 135; Ibn Asîr , Usud-ul-ghâba, I, 22.
29 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 179-180; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 119.

Priest Bahîra

One day our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), when he was about twelve years old, saw Abû Talib preparing himself for a travel on business. When he un- derstood that Abû Tâlib did not want to take him along, he said, “In whose care are you going to leave me in this city? I don’t have a father, or anyone else to feel compassion for me!” Deeply moved by these words, Abû Tâlib decided to take him along. After a long journey, the trade caravan stayed for a time near a monastery, which belonged to Christians in Busra. In this monastery there lived a priest named Bahîra. The priest, who had formerly been a deeply learned Judaic scholar and had been converted to Christianity afterwards, had a book that had reached his possession through a chain of several generations and which he had been keeping as a reference book to answer the questions he was asked. He was not interested in the Quraysh cara- van at all, though it had visited this area several times during the previous years. Every morning he would go up to a terrace adjacent to the monastery and look out towards the direction of approaching convoys as if he were expecting something unusual. This time something happened to the Priest Bahîra; in a fit of great excitement, he stood up with astonishment. He had observed a cloud, which was gliding over and following the Quraysh caravan. This cloud was actually shielding our Prophet against the heat of the sun. After the caravan had settled down for a rest, Bahîra also saw the branches of a tree bending over our Prophet as he was sitting down under it. His excitement swelled. Immediately, he ordered for the preparation of dinner tables. Then he invited all the members of the Quraysh caravan to dinner. They all accepted the invitation, leaving our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to watch over the caravan. Bahîra examined the visitors carefully and asked, “Dear Quraysh gentlemen, is there anyone among you who did not come for dinner?” They said, “Yes, there is one.” The cloud was still there, though all the Quraysh had come. When he saw this, he knew that there was someone left to safeguard the caravan. Bahîra insisted on his coming to the dinner. As soon as the Prophet arrived, Bahîra looked at him and examined him care- fully. Afterwards he asked Abû Tâlib, “Does this child belong to your descendants?” Abû Tâlib said, “He is my son.” Bahîra remarked, “According to certain books, it is written that the father of this boy is not alive; he is not your son.” This time Abû Tâlib answered, “He is my brother’s son.” Bahîra asked, “What happened to his father?” He answered, “His father died just before he was born.” Bahîra, “You are absolutely right. What happened to his mother?” Abû Tâlib replied, “She died too.” Confirming all these answers, Bahîra turned to our Prophet and asked him to make an oath in the name of some idols. But our Prophet said to Bahîra: “Do not ask me to make an oath in the name of these idols. In this world for me there are no other enemies worse than these. I hate them all.”

Bahîra then requested an oath with Allahu ta’âlâ’s name and asked “Do you sleep?” He said, “My heart does not sleep, though my eyes sleep.” Bahîra continued to ask a lot of questions and received answers to them all. These answers coincided exactly with the books he had read before. Then, looking into the eyes of our beloved Prophet,

he asked Abû Tâlib, “Does this redness always stay in these blessed eyes?” “Yes,” he said, “We have never seen it disappear.” Next, Bahîra wanted to see the Seal of Prophethood in order to tranquil his heart after seeing such a preponderance of evi- dence. However, our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) did not want to expose his back due to his noble sensibilities. But his uncle requested, “Oh apple of my eye, please do what he wishes!” Upon this our Prophet exposed his back and Bahîra beheld the beauty of the Seal of Prophethood with great satisfaction. He kissed it excitedly while tears poured down his face. Then, he said, “I confess that you are the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ!” And with a loud voice he addressed everyone, “Here is the superior of the universe… Here is the Messenger of the Rabb of the universe… Here is the great Prophet whom Allahu ta’âlâ has sent as a blessing to all the worlds!” Members of the caravan were astonished; they exclaimed, “In the eyes of this priest how high and great an estimation Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) is given.”

Bahîra then turned towards Abû Tâlib and said, “This is the last and the most hon- orable of all the Prophets. His religion will spread all over the world and nullify all the previous religions. Do not take him to Damascus. The sons of Israil (Jews) are his enemies. I am afraid they will try to bring harm upon his beloved person. A lot of oaths and promises were made in respect to him.” Abû Tâlib asked, “What is the meaning of all these oaths and promises?” He answered: “Allahu ta’âlâ ordered all the Prophets including Jesus (‘alaihis-salâm) to inform their ummat (followers) about the last Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) who will come.”

Abû Tâlib, after hearing these words from Bahîra, changed his mind about going to Damascus. He sold all his goods in Busra and returned to Mecca.30 He remembered what he heard from Bahîra all his life. He loved our Master, the Prophet more. He protected him until he died and helped him in his every business.

Our beloved Prophet, who was an elite person and had virtues and beauties, grew up and became seventeen years old. His paternal uncle Zubayr, who was going to Yem- en for trade, brought him too so that his commerce would be auspicious. His many superiorities were seen in this voyage. When they returned to Mecca, these incidents were told and among the Quraysh tribe it was said, “The name of this person will be very high…” 31

30 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 53-58; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 180-182; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 76, 154-156; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 277-279; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 216-220; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 283-286.
31 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 53-59; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 120-123.

lineHIS YOUTH AND MARRIAGE

Even during his youth, as the best of all people in all aspects, Muhammad (’alai- his-salâm) was loved by the people of Mecca far more than his peers. Due to his high moral values, good manners, calmness, kindness and his other superiorities, he was loved and admired by all people. Because of his amazing honesty and truthfulness, the people of Mecca called him as “Al-Emîn” which means “always trustworthy.” He was known by this name from the time of his youth.

There was unbridled nescience in Arabic society during our beloved Prophet’s early years. Idolatry, alcohol, gambling, adultery, charging interest and many other evil deeds had become widespread. Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) would intensely detest their bad states and he would always stay away from all their evil deeds. All the Meccan people knew that. Since he adamantly hated the idols, he would not even go near them. He never ate any meat from the animals which were sacrificed for the idols. During his childhood and youth he would shepherd animals that he owned, on and around Jiyâd Mountain and thus he earned his sustenance. In this way, he would stay away from the extremely degenerated society. Once, he said to his Ashâb-i kirâm, “There is not a prophet who did not shepherd sheep.” When he was asked, “O Rasûlullah! Did you shepherd too?” He said, “Yes, I did too.”

When our beloved Prophet was around twenty years old, there was no security left in Mecca. Cruelty was very common; the safety of property, life and chastity had dis- appeared. The Meccans oppressed strangers who came for commerce and visiting the Kâ’ba. Those who were oppressed could not find any recourse to regain their rights. Meanwhile, the goods of a Yemeni trader had been usurped by a Meccan called As bin Wâil. Upon this incident, the Yemeni went to Abû Qubays Mountain, cried and begged for help from the tribes to regain his rights. Upon these events, which clearly showed that cruelty had reached its peak, the notables of the tribes of the sons of Hâshim, the sons of Zuhra and other tribes, gathered in the house of Abdullah bin Jud’ân. They decided that no one, either Meccan or a stranger, would be oppressed, the cruelty would be stopped and the rights of the oppressed would be given back. With this purpose, they established an association of justice.32 This association was called Hilf al-Fudûl, in which our beloved Prophet (‘alaihis-salâm) joined at a young age and he was very effective in it’s establishment. Previously a similar association had been set up by two persons, named Fadl and another named Fudayl. This name had been given as a reference to their association. This association stopped cruelty and provided security in Mecca again and maintained it’s effect for a long time.

32 Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 91.

Our Master Rasûlullah, after his prophethood was communicated to him, told his Ashâb-i kirâm, “I was present at the agreement made in the house of Abdullah bin Jud’ân. That swearing to an oath is more lovely to me than having red skin camels (wealth). Today, if I was called on to attend such kind of an assembly, I would participate.” 33

His trade

The Meccans dealt with commerce and gained their sustenance through this way. Abû Tâlib, the paternal uncle of our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal- lam) dealt with commerce too. When our beloved Prophet was around twenty five years old the economic hardships in Mecca greatly intensified. Due to this reason, the Meccans prepared a large trade caravan to go to Damascus. During those days, Abû Tâlib came to our Master Rasûlullah and said “O my respected nephew! Poverty reached its peak. These past years we have spent in battle and in scarcity and we are left us nothing. Now, the caravan of the Quraysh has been prepared, it is about to leave for Damascus. Lady Khadîja will send goods with this caravan. She must be looking for a trustworthy person who will do this job. Absolutely, she is in need of a person who is trustworthy, chaste and good like you. Let us go and talk to her. It will be good if we arrange that you will go as her deputy. No doubt she will prefer you over others. In fact, I do not want you to go to Damascus. I am afraid that the Jews in Damascus may harm you. However, I could not find any other solution.” Our Master, the Prophet told him “Do as you wish.

Hadrat Khadîja was such a lady that she had a great reputation in Arabia with her beauty, wealth, reason, chastity and good manners. There were several people from around that area who wished to marry her. However, due to a dream she had seen, she was not interested in anybody. In her dream, the Moon descended from the sky and entered her chest and the rays of it’s light emanated from under her arm and en- lightened the whole universe. She mentioned about her dream to her relative Waraqa bin Nawfal. He said, “The last prophet has been born. He will marry with you and the divine revelation will come to him during your time. The halos of light of his re- ligion will fill the world. You will be the first of believers. That Prophet will appear among the Quraysh and Benî Hâshim.” Hadrat Khadîja became very happy with this response and started to wait for the coming of that Prophet.

Hadrat Khadîja would make trade; she would form partnerships with those she could come to agreement with. Abû Tâlib told about this situation to our mother Hadrat Khadîja. Hadrat Khadîja invited our Master Rasûlullah to have a discussion. When our Master came, she showed a great deal of respect to him. She admired our Master’s kindness and his beautiful face. She mentioned to our Master, the Prophet, “I know that you tell the truth, you are trustworthy and you have good ethics. I will pay much more than usual for this job.” Then she bid him farewell him by giving him attire which would be appropriate for the job.

33 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 133; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 82; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, s, I, 91; Ibn Habîb, al-Muhabbar, s, 167; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 290-293; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 13-14.

Our mother Hadrat Khadîja had learned of the signs of the last prophet from a pro- found Christian scholar, Waraqa bin Nawfal, who was the son of her paternal uncle. As such, she was able to recognize his signs of prophethood, during the visit of our beloved Prophet. Upon this, she told her slave Maysara, “When the caravan leaves Mecca, give the bridle of the camel to Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) so that the Meccan people will not spread rumors. When you are away from the town and out of sight, have him wear these precious clothes. Then she prepared the most beautiful camel and said to Maysara, “Respectfully have him mount the camel, hold the bridle and be a good servant to him! Do not do anything without taking permission from him and protect him from all the dangers even if it costs your life! Do not waste anytime at any of the places you go and return here quickly in order to not to be embarrassed before Hâshimîs. If you accomplish all these things, I will set you free and give you many gifts.”

The caravan was prepared. The people of Mecca came together to say farewell to each other as a large crowd. The relatives of our beloved Prophet, his uncles and the elders of Hâshimîs were present, too. When the aunt of our beloved Prophet saw him in servants clothes while holding the bridle of the camel, she became extremely upset. She cried out, screamed, shed tears and wailed. She said, “O Abdulmuttalib! The find- er of the Zamzam well! O Abdullah! Stand up from your grave and see your beloved son!” Abû Tâlib had the same emotions and feelings, too. Our Master Rasûlullah, whose eyes have seen Allahu ta’âlâ, shed tears like a pearl and said, “Never forget me and also know that I lived far away from home with sorrow and anguish.” All of the people who heard these words cried. The angels in the skies cried, too. They said, “O Our Rabb! This is Muhammad (’alaihiss-alâm) who has the highest position and he is your beloved. What is the reason of this event?” Then Allahu ta’âlâ said, “Yes, he is my beloved. But you can not know the secret of love. You can not have a grasp of the secrets between the beloved and loving. Nobody can know this state. Nobody can understand anything from this hidden matter.”

After the caravan had traveled away from Mecca, according to the orders he was given from Hadrat Khadîja, Maysara put the precious clothes on him. He had him mount the camel which was covered with several kinds of precious fabric and deco- rated with ornaments. He held the bridle of the camel.

The people who were traveling with him saw that there was a cloud which was mov- ing with and shading him and also there were two angels who were in the disguise of birds which accompanied him until their destination.34 After he stroke the two camels, who were weak and following the caravan from behind, the camels began to stride quickly and those who saw that, loved him and they understood that his fame was go- ing to be great. When they arrived in Busra, they stopped next to a monastery. Priest Bahira, who had seen many signs of his prophethood, had died and he was replaced by his successor Nastûra. After he saw that a dried tree turned green after somebody had sat under it, he asked to Maysara “Who is that person sitting under the tree?” Maysara answered, “He is from the Harem people of Quraysh tribe.” Then Nastûra said, “Until now, nobody has sat under that tree except the prophets.” And he asked, “Does he have any redness in his eyes?” Maysara answered, “Yes, he has, and the redness never leaves.” And then Nastûra said, “In the name of Allahu ta’âlâ who has sent the Bible to Hadrat Îsâ, he is going to be the last prophet. I wish to live until his prophethood is declared.”

34 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 41.

While Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) was selling the goods of Hadrat Khadîja in the Busra market, a Jewish person said, “Make an oath on the idols of Lât and Uzzâ so that I will believe you,” because he did not believe him in the bargaining. Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) said, “I will never make an oath on those idols! Whenever I pass by them, I turn my face to another direction.” The Jewish person who saw the other signs too said, “The word is yours. I swear that this is a person to be a prophet.” He stated his admiration, saying, “Our scholars have found the attributes of this person in the books.”

Maysara was engraving in his memory everything he saw and the things he heard about our Master Rasûlullah, and his admiration was increasing. Maysara’s heart was filled with love towards to the master of the worlds. Then, he was serving with a great love and respect and following his wishes with a great care.

The goods were sold and with our Master, the Prophet’s blessings, the trade was much more profitable than usual. The caravan started their return. When they reached the place called Marr al-Zahran, Maysara suggested to our beloved Prophet (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to bring the good news to Mecca. Our Master accepted that advice and he left the caravan for Mecca.

Lady Nafîsa binti Muniyya said, “The time for the caravan’s arrival had approached. Lady Khadîja would look forward to the arrival of the caravan every day on top of her house with her maids. One day, I was with her. Suddenly, a person was seen on a camel. A cloud and two angels, in disguise of birds, were shading him. The nûr on our Prophet’s forehead was shining like the moon. Lady Khadîja understood who was coming. She was relieved. But she pretended that she did not know who he was. She asked who could be the person coming on this hot day. The maids said, “The coming person looks like Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm). In a short while, our Master Rasûlull- ah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) came to the manor of our mother Hadrat Khadîja and told her the situation. He made her very happy with the good news he brought.

Soon after, the caravan entered Mecca. Maysara revealed, in detail, to our mother Hadrat Khadîja that our prophet was shaded during the journey, what the priest Nas- tûra said, how the weak camels became faster, and many other extraordinary things which he witnessed. He praised our master, the Prophet as much as he could. Hadrat Khadîja already knew these. But these things increased her certitude. She ordered Maysara not to tell anyone what he saw on this journey. 35

35 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 59; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, I, 262; Ibn Jawzî, al-Wafa bi ahwâl-il-Mustafâ, I, 143.

Our mother Khadîja went to Waraqa bin Nawfal to inform him about what she heard. Listening to what happened with great admiration, Waraqa said, “O Khadîja, if what you told is true, Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) will be the prophet of this ummat (the community, the body of believers, of a prophet.)”

When our beloved prophet was 12 years old he traveled with his uncle Abû Tâlib for business until Busra. When he was 17, he went to Yemen with his paternal uncle Zubayr. At the age of 20, he went to Damascus and when he was 25 he went to Da- mascus again for selling the goods of Hadrat Khadîja. Thus he had traveled four times. He did not travel anywhere except these.

His marriage to Hadrat Khadîja

Our mother Hadrat Khadîja, with the glad tidings given by Waraqa bin Nawfal, and after she had seen our beloved Prophet’s character, she intended to marry him and to be honored by serving him. Nafîsa binti Muniyya who sensed her feelings, tried to be a mediator. With this intention she went before Rasûl-i Akram and asked, “O Muham- mad (‘alaihis-salâm)! What are the reasons that prevent you from getting married?” Our Prophet answered, “I do not have enough money to get married.” Lady Nafîsa said, “O Muhammad! If you want to get married with a lady who has chastity, who is honorable, rich and beautiful, I am ready to help to make this occur.” Our belov- ed Prophet asked, “Who is she?” She said, “Her name is Khadîja binti Huwaylid.” When our Master Rasûlullah asked, “Who will be the mediator?” She answered, “I will.” and then left. She went to Hadrat Khadîja and gave her the good news. Hadrat Khadîja called her relatives Amr bin Asad and Waraqa bin Nawfal and explained the situation. Also she sent a message to our Master, the Prophet and invited him to come at a predetermined time. Abû Tâlib and his brothers made the preparations and ac- companied our Master, the Prophet.

Our mother Hadrat Khadîja decorated her house with ornaments. As a sign of grat- itude she gave all her jewelry to her servants. Later on she set them free. Our Master Rasûlullah honored our mother Hadrat Khadîja’s house with his paternal uncles. Abû Tâlib said, “Thanks to our Creator who made us from the sons of Ibrahim (‘alai- his-salâm) and descendants of Ismail (‘alaihis-salâm). He made us the guardian of the Baytullah. He granted us this blessed house, Haram-i Sharif, which is the qibla of humans and around which the universes rotate and which He protects from harm. The son of my brother Abdullah is such a person that he is superior to everybody in the Quraysh. Although he does not have much property; property can not be credited with real value. Because property is like a shadow. It passes through hand to hand and goes away. My nephew’s glory and superiority has already become known by everybody. Now he wants to get married to Khadîja binti Huwaylid. How much mahr (In Islam, the mahr comprises of things like gold, silver, banknotes, or any kind of property or any kind of benefit that is given by a man to the woman he is to marry.) do you want me to give? I swear that Muhammad’s grade must be high.” Waraqa bin Nawfal confirmed his statements. The paternal uncle of Hadrat Khadîja, Amr bin Asad said, “Be a witness that I have married Khadîja binti Huwaylid to Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm).” With this, the act of marriage was completed. According to a narrative, the mahr was 400 mithqal gold and in another narrative it was 500 dirhams and also in another narrative it was 20 camels.36 [One mithqal is four grams and eighty centigrams.]

Abû Tâlib slaughtered a camel for the wedding and threw a feast which had never been seen until that day. The marriage took place. Our mother Hadrat Khadîja gave everything she had as a present to our Master, the Prophet and said, “All of these goods belong to you. I need you and I am grateful to you.”

During their marriage our mother Hadrat Khadîja always served and helped our beloved Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). This marriage lasted twenty five years until our mother Hadrat Khadîja passed away. Fifteen years of this marriage was be- fore the Bi’that (when he was informed of his prophethood) and ten years of it was af- ter the Bi’that. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) did not marry again during this marriage. He had six children, two boys and four girls. Their names were Qâsim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm-i Ghulthum, Fâtima and Abdullah (Tayyib or Tâhir). During his prophethood he had married with Hadrat Mâriya and had a son named Ibrahim from this marriage too. He did not have any children from his other wives. Zaynab was the oldest of his daughters. The youngest one Fâtima was the most loved of his father. She was born thirteen years before the Hegira. His sons passed away at their younger age and all his daughters except our mother Hadrat Fâtima had deceased before he had. Our mother Fâtima passed away six months after our beloved Prophet. She had married Hadrat Ali. The descendants of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) continued with Hadrat Fâtima’s children. 37

Our Master, Rasûl-i Akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), after he married our mother Khadîja, engaged in trade too. With their profit, they would give accommoda- tions to visitors, help orphans and the poor.

Zayd bin Hâritha

Zayd bin Hâritha, while he was a child, with his mother Su’da, had gone to visit his rel- atives. Meanwhile, they were raided by another tribe. They captured Zayd. They brought him to a bazaar named Sûq-i Ukâz in Mecca and they sold him as a slave. Hâkim bin Hizam, nephew of Hadrat Khadîja, bought Zayd for 400 dirhams. Hâkim bin Hizam gifted him to Hadrat Khadîja, his paternal aunt. She gifted him to our Master, the Prophet. At that time our master, the Prophet was married to Hadrat Khadîja. Our Master, the Prophet emancipated him immediately. He gave accommodation to him. Because he was emanci- pated, Zayd had no place to go and he had no one to raise him that would have been better than Rasûlullah. Therefore, he willingly stayed with Rasûlullah.

Zayd bin Hâritha, who had been treated kindly by our Master, the Prophet; who was created to complete, even before his prophethood was communicated to him, every kind of visible or invisible, known or unknown proper ethics such as justice, mercy, compassion, being humane, geniality, graciousness, beneficence, abiding by a promise, charitableness, generosity, trustworthiness, protecting the oppressed and the poor, loving and caring for children, honesty, truthfulness, courteousness, modesty, decency, getting along with people, bravery and courage, who is the highest of all of the creatures which have come and will come to the world and who was known as “Al-Amîn” by gaining the trust of everybody; loved our Master, the Prophet more than his father and mother and did not want to leave.

His mother and father did not know where their son was taken to and what happened to him. His father Hâritha would travel to try to find his son village by village. He would beckon his relatives, who were traveling from Yemen to several different coun- tries, asking them to bring him news about his son Zayd, by reciting poems and shed- ding tears. One of his poems, which tells about his yearning for his son, is as below.

I wept for my Zayd, I do not know what he did
Is he alive or to him has death hit?

Do not ask for him, in vain, O my Heart!
You can not know if his grave is in a field or versant.

O my Zayd, my son! If I knew that those who departed would return!
I would not want the return of anyone apart from you.

I remember him, when I see a child, when the wind breezes,
The sun reminds me of you, while rising in the morning.

I cry for my darling, I cry a thousand times,
I look for him, on my horse, though I am in ruin.

My horse and I do not know to rest or to be tired,
While it is possible for my son to be found.

However hope fools a person, it is perishable finally,
My sons! Qays, Amr, Yazîd, Jabal! My Zayd is entrusted to you.

My heart is in fire, I am away from home,
Neighbor to the Kâ’ba, although I’m separated from mother.

Do not let your agony to set fire your heart,
Do not allow your weeping to reach the skies.

Praise be to Allah, I am in such a house,
That I am grateful for the honor I attained.

In the end, before the coming of Islâm, some people who came to visit the Kâ’ba, from the tribe of Banî Kalb, saw and recognized Hadrat Zayd.   Hadrat Zayd told them, “I know that my family will cry out for me, convey these couplets to them.” and recited this poem.

36 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 43; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 9; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 321; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladun- niyya, s, 41; Ibn Asîr , Usud-ul-ghâba, I, 23.
37 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 59-61; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 82-85, 131-132; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 280-282; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 293-295; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 15-16.

Hâritha was so happy after he heard this news. He took a large sum of money and came to Mecca with his brother Ka’b. He learned where the house of our Prophet was and visited. He said, “O the leader of Quraysh, O the grandson of Abdulmuttalib, O the son of Banî Hâshim descent! You are the neighbor of Haram-i Sharîf. You treat your guests, you set your slaves free, and you save them from captivity. If you let my son who is your servant go, I will give you the money you want, please do not reject our wish!” Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “Let’s call Zayd and inform him about the situation. Let’s allow him decide. If he wants to go with you, you can take him and go without giving me any money. But, if he wants to stay with me, I swear in the name of Allah, I can not let anyone go who chooses to stay with me.”

Hâritha and his brother were very pleased by this reply of our Master, the Prophet and said, “You have treated us very justly and conscientiously!”

Then our Master, the Prophet, called Zayd to be present before him and asked, “Do you know these people?” He answered, “Yes, one of them is my father and the other one is my uncle.” Upon that our Prophet said, “O Zayd! You learned who I am; you saw my kindness and compassion and my behaviors towards you. These people came here to take you. So make a choice, either stay with me or prefer them and go!”

His father and his paternal uncle expected that he would prefer them and they would bring Zayd home. Zayd said, “I do not prefer anyone to you. You are both a father and an uncle to me. I want to stay with you.”

His father and uncle were shocked. His father got angry and told Zayd, “Shame on you! So, you prefer slavedom to freedom, your mother, your father and your uncle!” Zayd replied to his father, “Father, I have seen such compassion and well treatment from this person that I cannot prefer anyone to him.”

Our Master, the Prophet liked Zayd very much. After seeing his loyalty and af- fection, he brought him to Hijr at the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama and said to people, “Be a witness! Zayd is my son. I am his inheritor, he is my inheritor.” Zayd’s father and uncle saw that, and their anger disappeared. They returned to their homeland in happiness. After that, Ashâb-i kirâm called Zayd as Zayd bin Muhammad (the son of Muhammad). Later on, as the adoption was removed by Allahu ta’âlâ’s decrees of “Call your children with the name of their fathers, this way is better.” “Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is not the father of any one of you (like Zayd)as stated in the 5th and 40th verses of Sûrat-ul-Ahzâb, Zayd began to be called as “Zayd bin Hâritha” which means “Zayd, the son of Hâritha”. 38

The Kâ’ba arbitration

When our Master Rasûlullah was around thirty-five years old, he arbitrated in the Kâba. At those times, rains and floods had worn down the walls of the Kâba. In addi- tion, a fire had damaged the Kâba. 39 It was necessary to re-build the structure. Upon this, the Quraysh tribe tore down the Kâba to the base, which was built by Hadrat Ibrâhim (Abraham), and started rebuilding. They heightened the walls by giving a part to each tribe. Tribes, who knew that it was a great honor, could not agree on placing the stone “Al Hajar ul Aswad.” Every tribe wanted to attain this honor, so there was a great disagreement. Sons of Abduddâr made an oath, “If anyone except us does this job, we will shed blood.” Due to this disagreement, which lasted four or five days, it almost came to bloodshed.

Meanwhile, Huzayfa bin Mugîra, who was an old person and maternal uncle of Abdulmuttalib, said, “O the Quraysh community! To arbitrate on your dispute, make the person who will firstly enter from this gate the arbitrator,” and showed the Banî Shayba gate which opened to the Kâ’ba. The audience accepted this proposal. Look- ing at the Banî Shayba gate, they started to wait for the person who would enter first and solve the issue at the most critical moment. In the end, they saw that Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm), whose rightfulness and superior moral qualities, which they greatly appreciated and whom they always called Al Amîn, that is trustworthy, came. “Here is Al Amîn. We do consent to his verdict,” they said.

When our beloved Prophet Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) was notified of the situa- tion, he demanded a cover. He spread it on the ground and placed Al Hajar ul Aswad on it. He said, “Let one person from each tribe hold the cover.” He had them lift the stone up to its place. Then, he took the stone in his arms and put it in its place. Thus, seeing that the impending terrible combat was prevented, the tribes were pleased with this event. Then, they built and completed the walls from where they remained. 40

He would recite the name of Allahu ta’âlâ in each business
He is the Prophet who is praised

He was full of good ethics, morals,
Knowledge, manners and goodness

He was gentle, generous to all people
He would grant benevolences

38 Bukhârî, Tafsir, 2;  Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 487,  Safadî, al-Wâfî, VII, 2.
39 Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, I, 273.
40 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 83-105; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 192-198; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 145-147; Tabarî Târikh, II, 287-
290; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, ’98-305; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 14-15.

line HIS PROPHETHOOD AND HIS CALL

The Master of the worlds (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), when he was thirty seven years old, would hear the voices which called him “O Muhammad!” from the un- known. When he became thirty eight years old, he started seeing some light. He only spoke about his states to our mother, Hadrat Khadîja. When the time of declaration of his prophethood approached, Quss bin Saîda, who was one of the famous men of literature of that time, had given the glad tidings of his coming during a speech on a camel at Ukâz bazaar before a large crowd. Our beloved Prophet was among them. Quss bin Sâida, in a part of his famous speech, said,

“O people! Come, listen to, wait for, and take lessons! The living die, the dying perish. The things to occur will happen! Listen to me well! There is news in the skies, signs on the Earth! A religion of Allahu ta’âlâ and a prophet of Allah! His coming is very soon! His shadow has fallen over our heads. Those who listen to, and those who believe him are so blessed! Shame on those who disobey and oppose him! Shame on people, whose lives pass in negligence!”

During those times, people in Arabia had deviated from divine norms and they had been stratified as rich and poor, powerful and weak, master and slave. The anteced- ents were oppressing the successors under their dominance and were not considering them as being human. The property of the poor was being usurped and there was no one with the power or authority who could prevent it. Being devoid of bashfulness and fear, which comes from having faith in Allahu ta’âlâ, they had no remnants of goodness. Such vulgar acts as amorality and disregarding pride and honor were freely being practiced; gambling, drinking alcohol, the life of pleasure and dissipation was being regarded as normal behavior. Constant murdering, adultery and sudden attacks were terrorizing innocent people, causing them to groan and mourn under such weight as to cause sheer destruction. There was a total collapse in morality and people were drowning in the sea of ignorance. Women were being traded like merchandise and daughters were cruelly being buried alive. Worse of all, those coldhearted, stubborn, heartless people accepted it as an honor to worship idols which they had produced with their own hands and from which they neither gained any favor nor suffered any harm.

Since the time of Adam (’alaihis-salâm), there had never been seen such wildness, deviance, amorality, disbelief and blindness in the world. People had turned into mon- sters. Everybody was hostile towards each other and society was like a powder barrel. In such darkness, it was necessary for a ray of light of bliss to rise for pacification.

As this sun rises; faith would take the place of disbelief, justice would take the place of cruelty; knowledge would take the place of ignorance and the people would gain endless bliss.

Finally, at the beginning, true dreams started to be shown to our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). In a hadîth-i sharîf, it was declared that firstly the revelation would start with true dreams. Whenever he saw an event in his dream, it came exactly true. This state continued for six months. When the time of revelation approached, the frequency of voices saying “O Muhammad!” increased. During that time he desired isolation, he went away from the people, and started thinking deeply in a cave on Mount Hira. Sometimes, he used to come to Mecca, perform tawaf (circumambula- tion) around the Kâ’ba and would then go to his home where he enjoyed so much con- tentment. He would stay home for a while, then taking some food with him, he would return to the cave on Mount Hira, where he would busy himself with thinking and worshipping. Sometimes, he would stay there for days. Those times, Hadrat Khadîja would send or bring food. 41

First Wahy

When our Prophet was forty years old, on a day of Ramadan, he went again to the cave on Mount Hira and started tafakkur (contemplation). It was the 17th of Ramadan, Monday night. After midnight he heard a voice calling his name. When he raised his head and looked around, he heard again the same voice and saw that, a nûr (light) suddenly covered everywhere. It was Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ (Archangel Gabriel) that came and said, “Read!” Then, our Master, the Prophet replied, “I am not literate!” After this reply the Angel had tightly held our Prophet till he became weak and then said, “Read!” Our Prophet said again, “I am not literate!” Then the Angel tightly held him again and said, “Read!” When our Prophet said, “I am not literate!” the An- gel tightly held him for the third time. Then he left our Prophet and brought the first, five âyats (verses) of ’Alaq Sûra purporting, (O Muhammad!) Read! In the name of thy Lord, Allah Who created everything. He created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood (’alaq)! Read, and thy Lord (Allah) is Most bountiful! He, Who taught (with the use of) the Pen, taught man which he knows not.” And Muham- mad (’alaihis-salâm) recited with him. The first verse had been revealed as so and thus the Sun of Islâm which enlightens the entire universe, rose. 42

With a great anxiety and excitement, our Master Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam went out of the cave on Mount Hira and started descending. When he came to the middle of the mountain, he heard a voice. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said to him, “O Muhammad! You are the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ and I am Jabrâil”. Then, he struck his heel on the ground. A spring came out of where he struck. He started making a ritual ablution. Our Master, the Prophet was watching him carefully. When Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ finished his ablution, he told our Master, the Prophet to perform a ritual ablution as he saw. After our Master, the Prophet finished his ablution, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ became imam (When Muslims perform namâz ‘the ritual prayer’ in congregation ‘jamâ’at’, one of them leads, conducts namâz. He is called the imâm.) and they made a prayer of two rakâts. After this, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “O Mu- hammad! Your Rabb has sent you His greetings!” Then he said, “He told ‘You are My Messenger to jîns (genies) and human beings. Therefore, invite them to believe in the tawhîd (the oneness, unity, of Allahu ta’âlâ). Then he ascended to the sky. Thus, our beloved Prophet had both seen and talked to Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’.

41  Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 233-240.
42  Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 196.

Our Master, the Prophet heard every stone and tree, near which he passed by, saying to him “Assalâmu ’alaika yâ Rasûl-Allâh.” until he arrived at his home of bliss. When he entered his house he said, “Cover me! Cover me!” and had taken a rest until his anxiety calmed down. Then he told our mother Hadrat Khadîja what he had seen and said, “Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ has disappeared yet I have not been able to get over the grandeur, strength and fear of him. I was afraid of being called as mad and blackened by the people.” Hadrat Khadîja who was ready and had been waiting for these circumstances and these days said, “May Allahu ta’âlâ protect you. Haqq ta’âlâ grants you blessings and He wills nothing except blessings for you. For the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ, I believe that you will be the Prophet of this ummat (community). Be- cause, you like guests. You tell the truth and you are trustworthy. You help the weak, protect the orphans, and favor the needy. You are good natured. The owner of these traits is fearless.” 43

Then, to ask about this situation, they went to Waraqa bin Nawfal. Waraqa, after lis- tening to what our Master Rasûlullah told him, said, “O Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that you are the last prophet whom Hadrat Îsâ (Jesus) an- nounced. The angel who was seen by you is Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ who came to Mûsâ (Moses) ‘alaihis-salâm’ before you. Ah! I wish I were young now, and reached the time when they will expel you from Mecca, so I could help you. Very soon, you will be ordered to communicate the religion and to make the holy war.” Then, he kissed the blessed hand of our Master, the Prophet. He died not much later than this meeting. 44

Order to Communicate

Thus the first revelation, declaring the prophethood of our beloved Prophet, had oc- cured. It did not reoccur for three years. Meanwhile, the angel named Israfîl had come and taught him some things. They were not revelations. During this time, occasionally our Master Rasûlullah would become doleful. Whenever this occurred, Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ would appear and ease his sadness by saying, “O Habîbullah! You are the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “During the time when the revelation had ceased, when I was walking down Mount Hira, I suddenly heard a sound in the sky. I looked at the sky. I saw Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’. He was sitting on a throne standing between the ground and sky. Fear gripped me. I went home. I told them to cover me with something. Haqq ta’âlâ sent the initial âyats (verses) of the Muddaththir Sûra (purported), ‘O thou, (Muhammad), wrapped up (in a mantle)! Arise and frighten (thy people with the torment of Allah)! Deliver thy warning (about the imminent torment of Allahu ta’âlâ to those who will not believe) And thy Lord do thou magnify! And thy garments keep free from stain!’ After this, the revelation had not ceased again.”

43 Tabarî Târikh, II, 298-302; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 108-110.
44 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 140-142; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 239-240; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 129, 194-195; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 299-302; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 111; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 48.

Our Master, Fakhr-i Kâinat (alaihi afdalus salawât) started inviting people to Islâm and heralding the orders and prohibitions of Allahu ta’âlâ. While bringing revelation, Hadrat Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ (Archangel Gabriel) sometimes would guise in human form and came looking like Dihya-i Kalabî, one of the sahâbîs. Sometimes, he in- spired to the heart of our Master, the Prophet. At those times, our Prophet would not see him. Sometimes, he would come in a dream and sometimes by making a horrific sound. The latter were the most difficult and hardest form of revelation for our Master, the Prophet. In these situations, even on the coldest days, Rasûlullah would perspire. If he was on a camel, the camel would crouch due to the heaviness of the revelation. Those companions who were near him also would feel the heaviness of the revelation. Also, several times, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came in his original form.

Allahu ta’âlâ also sent revelations without the angel and curtain, that is, He sent some revelations to our Prophet without means, too. This case occurred at Mi’râj night.

Starting his prophethood with the first revelation, our Master Muhammad Mustafa’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) communicating Islam had continued for twenty three years. Thirteen years of this period had passed in Mecca and ten years had passed in Madîna.

Qur’ân al-karîm had been revealed and completed in such a period that lasted for 22 years, 2 months and 22 days.

Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ was ummî, that is, he hadn’t read books; he was not schooled in writing nor had he received lessons from anyone. Born and raised in Mec- ca, brought up among certain people, he conveyed information about facts and events in the Tawrât (Hadrat Mûsâ’s holy book), in the Injîl (the Bible), and in the books written during the Grecian and Roman centuries. In order to communicate Islam, in the sixth year of the Hegira, he sent letters to Byzantine, Iranian, and Abyssinian rulers and to other Arabic kings. More than sixty foreign ambassadors came to his service. The 48th âyat of the sûrat al-Ankabût purported, “You had not read any book before the Our’ân descended; you had not written. If you had been literate, they would have said that you had learned it from others.” 45

It was declared in a hadîth-i sharîf that, “I am Muhammad the ummî Prophet. There will be no Prophet after me.” 46 Also the third and fourth âyats of Najm Sûra

purported, “Nor does he (Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm) say (aught) of (his own) de- sire. It is no less than revelation sent down to him.” 47

First Muslims

After the first revelation to our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) came, the first person who became Muslim was our mother Hadrat Khadîja. Without any hesitation, she embraced Islam and was honored by being the first Muslim. Our Master, the Prophet, taught our mother Hadrat Khadîja to perform ritual ablution as Hadrat Jabrâil (Archangel Gabriel) taught him. Then, our Master, the Prophet became imâm and they performed a ritual prayer of two rakats. Our mother Hadrat Khadîja perfectly obeyed every word, every order of our Master, the Prophet. Owing to that, she attained very high degrees before Allahu ta’âlâ. Whenever our Master Rasûlullah was sad, tormented by the insults of the infidels, she would soothe him. She would say, “O Rasûlullah! Don’t be sorry. Don’t be sad. In the end, our religion will gain strength, the polytheists will be exhausted. Your nation will obey you…” Due to her support, one day Hadrat Jabrâil came and said, “O Rasûlullah! Inform Khadîja of Allahu ta’âlâ’s greetings.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “O Khadîja! Jabrâil (‘alai- his-salâm’) is conveying the greetings of Allahu ta’âlâ to you.48

Our Master, the Prophet once said, “Allahu ta’âlâ commanded me to give Khadî- ja the glad tidings of a house made of pearl in Paradise, where there is no illness, sadness or headache.”

After Hadrat Khadîja, the next person who became Muslim among adults was Had- rat Abû Bakr, one of the close friends of our Master Rasûlullah. Hadrat Abû Bakr had seen a dream twenty years before: “The full moon from the sky descended, came to the Kâ’ba, was divided into pieces, each piece of the moon fell over a house in Mecca, then these pieces came together and ascended to the sky again. The piece which fell over Abû Bakr’s house did not ascend. Having seen the event, Hadrat Abû Bakr had shut the door as if he prevented this piece of the moon from going out.”

Abû Bakr woke up in excitement, in the morning; he went to one of Jewish scholars and told him his dream. That scholar replied, “This is one of the complex dreams, so it can not be interpreted.” But this dream remained in his mind and he was not satisfied by the reply of the Jewish scholar. When once he was on the way for trade, he dropped by the region of priest Bahîra. When he asked for the interpretation of his dream from the priest Bahîra, Bahîra asked, “Where are you from?” When Hadrat Abû Bakr said he was from Quraysh, Bahîra said, “A prophet will appear there. His light of guid- ance will reach every place of Mecca. During his life, you will be his minister, after his death, his caliph.” Hadrat Abû Bakr was astounded by this reply. He did not tell anybody his dream and its interpretations until our Master, the Prophet announced his prophethood.

45 Sûrat-ul-‘Ankabût, 29/48.
46 Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, I, 205.
47 Sûrat-un-Najm, 53/3-4.
48 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 206; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 241;  Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, II, 416.

When Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) announced his prophethood, Hadrat Abû Bakr ran to our Master, the Prophet. He asked, “Prophets have proofs of their prophethoods. What is your proof?” In his reply, our Master, the Prophet said, “The proof of my prophethood is the dream that you asked for an interpretation from a Jewish scholar. That scholar said “It is one of the complex dreams, it can not be inter- preted”. Then, the priest Bahîra interpreted it correctly.” Addressing Hadrat Abû Bakr, he said, “O Abâ Bakr! I invite you to believe in Allah and His Messenger.”

Upon this, Hadrat Abû Bakr became Muslim by saying, “I testify that you are the Mes- senger of Allahu ta’âlâ, your prophoothood is true and a nûr which enlightens the world.”

In another narration, before prophethood was revealed to our Master, the Proph- et, Hadrat Abû Bakr had gone to Yemen for trade. On his journey, he met an old per- son, who had read many books, of Azd tribe. When this old person looked at Hadrat Abû Bakr and said, “I think you are of Meccan people.” Hadrat Abû Bakr replied, “Yes, I am.” and this conversation took place between them:

– Are you from Quraysh?

– Yes!

– Of Banî Tamîm?

– Yes!

– There is one more sign remained.

– What is it?

– Open your abdomen. Let me see it.

– What is your purpose with this, tell me?

– I have read in the books that a prophet will come in Mecca. Two persons will help him. One of them is young, the other one is old. The young one turns many difficulties into ease, wards off many troubles. And the old one is white-skinned, slim-waisted and has a black mole on his abdomen. I suppose, that one is you. Uncover your abdo- men and let me see it.

Upon this Hadrat Abû Bakr showed his blessed abdomen and when he saw the black mole over his navel, he said, “I swear, that is you!” and legated him many things.

After Hadrat Abû Bakr had finished his work, he went to the old man to bid fare- well and wanted him to say a few couplets about our Prophet. Upon that, the old man recited twelve couplets and Hadrat Abû Bakr memorized them.

When Hadrat Abû Bakr came back to Mecca, some notable people of Quraysh like Uqba ibni Abî Mu’ayt, Shayba, Abû Jahl and Abu’l Buhtarî came to his home to visit him. Hadrat Abû Bakr asked them, “Has there any incident happened among you?” Then they replied, “Such a strange event happened that Abû Talib’s orphan professes his prophethood and says to us that we, our fathers and grandfathers are of a false religion. If we had not respected you, we would have killed him so far. You are a good friend of his, please solve this problem.”

Hadrat Abû Bakr sent them away and then learned that our Master, the Prophet was in Hadrat Khadîja’s house. He went there and knocked on the door. When our Master, the Prophet met him at the door, he asked of our Prophet, “O Muhammad! What are these rumors about you?” Our Master, the Prophet replied, “I am the Messenger of Haqq ta’âlâ. I have been sent to you and all sons of Adam. Have faith in this, so that you will gain Haqq ta’âlâ’s consent and protect yourself from Hell.” When Hadrat Abû Bakr asked, “What is the proof for this?” Rasûl-i Akram replied, “The story told by the old man you saw in Yemen is the proof.”

Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “I saw many young and old men in Yemen.” Our Master, the Prophet said in his reply, “The old man who entrusted to you twelve couplets and sent them to me.” and recited all the twelve couplets. When Hadrat Abû Bakr asked, “Who informed this to you?” our Prophet said, “The angel who brought news to the Prophets who came before me.” As soon as our Prophet said this, he held our Prophet’s blessed hand and became Muslim by saying, “Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasûluh.” 49

With having such a great joy that he had for the first time in his life, Hadrat Abû Bakr came back to his home as being a Muslim. As a matter of fact, it was declared in a hadîth-i sharîf, “To whomever I offered the belief, he would grimace and doubtfully look at my face. Only Abû Bakr-i Siddîq did not hesitate to accept the belief.”

One day, Hadrat Alî saw Our Master, the Prophet and our mother Hadrat Khadîja while they were performing ritual prayer. He was ten or twelve years old. After the ritual prayer, he asked, “What is this?” Our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “This is the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ. I invite you to this religion. Allahu ta’âlâ is One. He does not have a partner. I invite you to believe in Allah who is One and has no partner and likeness…” Hadrat Alî said, “Let me consult with my father firstly.” Rasûlullah told him, “If you do not embrace Islam, do not tell anyone this secret!” Next morning, Hadrat Alî came to the presence of Rasûlull- ah and said, “O Rasûlullah! Teach Islam to me!” and became Muslim. 50 Hadrat Alî is the third person who became Muslim. His self-sacrificing that he made for the sake of our Master Rasûl-i Akram and preferring our Prophet over himself are praiseworthy.

Zayd bin Hârisa was one of the people who initially became Muslim. He was hon- ored by becoming the fourth Muslim just after Hadrat Khadîja, Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat Alî and the first Muslim among the emancipated slaves. His wife Ummu Ay- man also became Muslim with him. 51

49 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 120-121; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 249-250.
50 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 118;  Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 245-247.
51 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 247-248.

Hadrat Abû Bakr, when he became Muslim, went to his beloved friends immediate- ly. He persuaded them to embrace Islam, too. The significant ones were such notable people among Ashâb-i kirâm as ’Uthman bin Affân, Talhâ bin Ubaydullah, Zubayr bin Awwâm, Abdurrahmân bin Awf, Sa’d bin Abî Waqqas who were also the notables in their tribes.52 These eight people who became Muslim after our mother Hadrat Khadî- ja were called Sâbiqûn-i Islâm, that is, the early Muslims.

Hadrat ’Uthmân narrates how he became Muslim, “I had a maternal aunt, who was a soothsayer. One day, I had visited her. She said, ‘A lady will be allotted to you as your wife. Before her, you will have not had any wife and she will have not had any husband. She will be a pious, beautiful faced, and daughter of a great prophet.’ I was astounded by my aunt’s words. Again, she said to me, ‘A prophet has come. The rev- elations descended from the heavens to him. I said, ‘O my aunt! That secret has not been heard in the city. So, clarify this word.’ Then, my aunt said, ‘The prophethood has come to Muhammad bin Abdullah. He will invite the people to religion. Soon, the world will be enlightened by his religion and the opponents to him will be beheaded.’

The words of my maternal aunt affected me very much. I was concerned. There was a great friendship between me and Hadrat Abû Bakr. All the time, we were together. To discuss this matter, I went to Hadrat Abû Bakr. When I told him my aunt’s words, he said, ‘O ’Uthmân! You are a reasonable person. How can several pieces of stone, which do not see, nor hear; which can not do favor nor can harm anybody, deserve to be worshipped?’ I said, “You are telling the truth. My aunt’s words are correct.”

After conveying Islam to him, Hadrat Abû Bakr brought Hadrat ’Uthmân to the presence of our Master who is the Prophet of human beings and genies. Our belov- ed Prophet said to Hadrat ’Uthman, “O ’Uthman! Haqq ta’âlâ invites you to be guest in Heaven. And you accept this invitation. I have been sent to all people as a guide of the right way.” Having been entranced by Rasûlullah’s high states and words which he said with a smiling face, Hadrat ’Uthmân became Muslim with a great submission by eagerly saying, “Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasûluh.”

In the first three years of his prophethood, our Master Rasûlullah invited people to Islam secretly. People would become Muslims slowly. During that time, the number of Muslims could only reach thirty. They would do worship in their homes and they would memorize the verses of the Qur’ân al-karîm secretly.

Inviting Close Relatives

Our Master Rasûlullah had begun to invite people to Islam after the descending of Muddaththir Sûra. He invited people secretly. After some time, the 214th verse of Shu’arâ Sûra purporting, “Invite your close relatives to the right religion by threat- ening them with Allahu ta’âlâ’s torment.” 53 had descended. Upon this, Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) sent Hadrat Alî to invite his relatives to the religion and called all of them to the house of Abû Tâlib. He put in front of them one plate of food and one cup of milk which were enough only for one person. Then he started first to eat by saying the Basmala and offered the food to his relatives who were there. The number of the people who came were forty; however, the meal sufficed for all and the amount of food had not decreased. Those who came were astounded by this miracle. After the meal, our Master, the Prophet was about to begin to speak to invite his relatives to Islam. His uncle Abû Lahab, bearing hostility, said, “We have not seen any sorcery like this before. Your relative has bewitched you. O my brother’s son! I have not seen anybody who brought malignity and evil like you. And he continued his verbal assault with insults.

52 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 250-251; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 307, 309-318; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 24-33; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 18-19; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 112-113.
53 The Shu’arâ’ Sûra, 26/214.

Then our Prophet said to Abû Lahab, “You have done to me such evil that even the Quraysh and all the Arabian tribes can not do!” They dispersed without be- coming Muslim. After a short while, he invited his relatives again. Hadrat Alî called all of them again. As before, ameal was brought before them. After the meal, our Master, the Prophet stood up and said, “Praise belongs to only Allahu ta’âlâ. I beg for help only from Him. I believe in and trust in Him. I know and declare without doubt that there is no god other than Allahu ta’âlâ, He is One. He has no likeness or partner.” And, he continued his words by saying, “I never say a lie to you and I am declaring the truth to you. I am inviting you to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ Who is One and besides Whom there is no god. I am His Messenger that He sent to you and to all human beings. I swear by Allah that you will die just like you fall asleep; you will be resurrected just like you awake from sleep and you will be called to account for all your deeds; you will gain rewards against your good deeds and you will be punished for your evil deeds. And, these are eternally stay- ing in either Paradise or in Hell. You are the first among people whom I frighten with the torments of the Hereafter.”

After listening to these words, Abû Tâlib said, “O my brother’s blessed son! I don’t know anything more valuable than helping you. We have accepted your advice. We have approved your words sincerely. Now, the people who have gathered here are the sons of your grandfather Abdulmuttalib. I am certainly one of them. I will run towards what you want, before anyone. I promise not to cease to protect you anytime. Go on doing what you are ordered to do. But, regarding leaving my previous religion, I have not found my nafs (carnal soul) obedient to me.

Except Abû Lahab, his relatives and paternal uncles spoke softly. However, Abû Lahab hurled threats, “O the sons of Abdulmuttalib! Prevent him, before others bind his hands and stop him. If you accept today what he says, you will be abased, insulted later. If you try to protect him, all of you will be killed.” Against Abû Lahab, our Mas- ter, the Prophet’s paternal aunt said, “O my brother! Does leaving my brother’s son and his religion alone befit your dignity? I swear by Allah, the scholars of today say a prophet will come from the descendants of Abdulmuttalib. Here, that prophet is this.”

Abû Lahab, upon these words, continued his nasty speech. Abû Tâlib got angry at Abû Lahab and said, “O coward! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that we are his helper and protector as long as we are alive.” He turned towards Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and said, “O my brother’s son! Let us know the time when you want to invite people to believe in your Rabb; we will arm ourselves and be present with you.” Then, our Master, Fakhr-i kâinat started talking again and said, “O sons of Abdulmuttalib! I swear by Allah that there is no one among Arabs who has brought a thing superior or more beneficial to your life in the world and in the Hereafter than what I have brought (that is this religion) to his people. I invite you to utter two expressions, which are easy to say and have great importance. They are your bearing testimo- ny that there is no god but Allah and I am His born slave and Messenger. Allahu ta’âlâ has ordered me to invite you to this. Then, who from you will accept my invitation and help me on this path?” No one said anything. All of them bowed their heads. Our Master, the Prophet repeated his words three times. Each time, Hadrat Ali stood up. On the third time, he said, “O Rasûlullah! Although I am their youngest, I will help you.” Upon this, our Master Rasûlullah held Hadrat Ali’s hand. The others dispersed in astonishment.

The Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ felt very sad because of this attitude of his relatives. However, without being demoralized, he continued to invite them for their rescue from Hell and for their attainment of bliss.

In the fourth year after Bi’that, the 94th âyat of Sûrat-ul Hijr was revealed. When the divine commandment purporting, (O My Beloved!) Declare what has been decreed to you (commandments and prohibitions), distinguish between the haqq (right) and bâtil (wrong). Turn away from the polytheists! (Disesteem their words!)was re- vealed, our beloved Prophet started to invite the Meccans to Islam. One day, having climbed the Hill of Safâ, he said, “O Quraysh people! Come together here and listen to my words!” After the tribes aggregated, our Prophet said, “O my people! Have you ever heard a false word from me?” Then they replied all together, “No, we have not.” Our Prophet said, “Allahu ta’âlâ granted me prophethood and sent me as a prophet to you.” Then he recited the 158th âyat of Sûrat-ul A’râf, purport- ing, (O My Beloved!) Say to them that, O people! I am the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ, who has been sent to all of you. He is Allahu ta’âlâ Who is the Owner and Commander of the worlds and skies. No one, but He, deserves to be worshipped. He is the One who takes lives and resurrects every living being.” Abû Lahab, who was among the listeners, shouted angrily, “My brother’s son has become crazy! Do not listen to the words of a person who does not worship our idols and who is not in our religion!” He insisted on disbelief. The persons there dispersed and nobody em- braced Islam. Although they knew that our Master, the Prophet was trustworthy and had high manners, they did not accept Islam and they became an enemy.

Again one day, by obeying Allahu ta’âlâ’s order of “Declare what has been de- creed to you (commandments and prohibitions), our Prophet climbed again the Hill of Safâ. With a loud and sonorous voice, he appealed to the people that, “O sabâhâh! Come here, come together, I have important news for you!” 54 Upon this invitation, tribes ran to gather. They waited in wonder and curiosity. Those who did not attend sent their servants in order to learn the reason of that gathering. A group in attendants started to ask, “O Muhammad, the trustworthy! Why have you gathered us here?

54 Bukhârî, Tafsir, 4; Tirmidhî, Tafsir-ul Qur’an, 91.

What will you inform us of?” Then our Prophet started his speech by saying, “O the tribes of Quraysh!” Everybody was listening to him attentively. He continued his speech and said, “My and your situation is just like the situation of a man who runs towards his family in order to warn them when he sees the approach of an enemy and shouts by saying O sabâhâh (we have been besieged by the enemy! It is morning now. Get ready for the battle) for fear of the enemy reaching his family before his eyes and hurting them. O the people of Quraysh! Will you believe me if I tell you that there is an enemy army behind that mountain and it is ready to attack you?” Then they replied, “Yes, we will. For, we have not heard anything from you except rightness. We have never seen that you lied!”

Upon that, by enumerating the name of each tribe as, “O the sons of Hâshim! O the sons of Abdu Manâf! O the sons of Abdulmuttalib!” he said, “I am the informer of the bitter torment which will absolutely come. Allahu ta’âlâ commanded me to frighten my close relatives with the torment of the Hereafter. I am inviting you to embrace Islam by saying Lâ îlaha illallahu wahdahu lâ sharîka-lah (Allah is One, there is no god other than He). And I am His servant and Messenger. If you believe in this, you will go to Paradise. Unless you say ‘Lâ îlaha illallah’, I can neither help you in this world nor can I provide you any privilege in the Hereafter.” Among the tribes, Abû Lahab said, “Have you gathered us for this?” and threw a stone at our beloved Prophet. The others did not oppose him like this. They then dispersed, talking among each other.55

Even if they give the sun to my right hand!

After these invitations, our beloved Prophet communicated Islâm wherever he saw a person or group of people. He announced that the real salvation could be possible by refraining from obeying the carnal soul, cruelty, injustice and all evil deeds. Believing in Allahu ta’âlâ was necessary. Those who followed the desires of their carnal souls, who oppressed the weak and who became excessive rejected this completely. They saw that all these evil deeds of theirs would be terminated; therefore, they denied what Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm announced. They became enemy to him and those who believed him.

Previously, the polytheists were making fun of Islâm. Then, they made a decision to increase their pressures and torments. They wanted to oppress the believers and destroy Islâm. Their leaders were Abû Jahl, Utba, Shayba, Abû Lahab, Ukba bin Abî Mu’ayt, As bin Wâil, Aswad bin Muttalib, Aswad bin Abdi Yagwas, Walîd bin Mugîra…

One day, Utba, Shayba and Abû Jahl told Abû Tâlib, “You are our elder. We always respect and esteem you. Now, your brother’s son has set up a new religion. He insults our idols and accuses us of infidelity. Advise him. Make him abandon this job. If he does not, we know how to deal with him…” Abû Tâlib eased them and sent them back.

55 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 188-191; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 133; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 319; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 38-41.

He hid this event from our Prophet lest he could be sorry. After a while, the polythe- ists gathered again and came to Abû Tâlib. They said, “Before, we had come to you and informed you of the situation. You did not listen to our words. He still continues to speak ill of our idols. We don’t have any patience anymore. We will fight both of you, to the last. In Mecca, either he or we will perish.” Abû Talib tried to calm them, however, they insisted on their obstinacy. 56

Abû Tâlib wanted neither our Master Rasûlullah’s grief nor the rise of any hostility between them and their people. He came to our Prophet and said, “O Muhammad! All the people have been united on the adversity towards you and they came to me for complaining. Hostility among relatives is not good. They want you not to call them unbelievers and not to speak ill of them saying they are on a wrong path.” Upon this, our Master Habîb-i akram said, “O my uncle! Know that even if they give the sun to my right hand and the moon to my left hand (that is, whatever they promise) I will never abandon this religion or to communicate it to people. Either Allahu ta’âlâ spreads this religion over the world and my duty is completed, or I will sacrifice my life on this path.” He stood up. His blessed eyes were full of tears.

Abû Tâlib, who saw that our Master Rasûlullah was sorry, regretted what he said and told him, “O my brother’s son! Proceed on your way, do what you want. I will protect you, as long as I am alive” 57

When they understood that Abû Tâlib protected Hadrat Muhammad, ten persons of the prominents of the polytheists, taking Umâra bin Walid together, went to Abû Tâlib. They made an unacceptable offer to him by saying, “O Abû Tâlib! You know that this Umâra is the most handsome, most strong, most moral of the youth of Mecca. Also, he is a poet. Let us give him to you, so that you can employ him in your busi- ness. Against him, give us Muhammad and let us kill him. A man for a man! What do you want more?” Abû Talib got furious. When he said, “First, you give me your own sons. I will kill them, then, I will give my nephew to you”, they understood the seriousness of the situation and told him, “But, our children are not doing what he does…” Abû Talib said, “I swear that my nephew is better than all of your children. So, you will give your son to me and make me cherish him, while you take away my darling nephew and kill him! Even a female camel does not long for, except her baby. This is entirely unreasonable and illogical. Now, that has gone out of hand. Whoever is an enemy to my dear Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), I am an enemy to him. Know that so and do whatever you are able to!” 58 The polytheists stood up and left angrily. Immediately, Abû Tâlib gathered the sons of Hâshim and the sons of Abdulmuttalib. He told them about the situation and persuaded them to help our Master, the Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. The arms trying to kill Rasûlullah would be broken. In this regard, they united against the polytheists. Only Abû Lahab did not join them. Abû Tâlib told them, “O the brave! Tomorrow, gird on your swords and follow me!” The day after, Abû Talib went to the house of our Master, the Prophet. All together, they walked towards Haram-i Sharîf. The youth of the sons of Hâshim followed them. They reached the Kâ’ba and stood in front of the polytheists. Abû Talib told the poly- theists, “O Quraysh community! I heard that you decided to kill my nephew. Do you know that those youngsters, with their swords, are waiting, impatiently, for a sign from me? I swear that if you kill Muhammad, I will not leave anyone of you alive!..” Then, he began to recite poems praising our beloved Prophet. The polytheist there, Abû Jahl being first among them, dispersed.

56 Tabarî, Târikh, II, 322; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 19-20.
57 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 135; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 326-327.
58 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 134-135; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 326-377.

Torment, torture and cruelty

The notable polytheists of Quraysh would attack our Master, the Prophet, insult him and they would even attempt to beat him when they saw he was alone. They also would not hesitate to torture our Prophet’s Ashâb. One day, the prominents of the Quraysh polytheists were sitting next to the Kâ’ba-i sharîf. Then they started to mention about our Master, the Prophet and said about him, “We have endured nothing else as much as we have endured him. He says that we are dissipated, he affronts and blackens our gods, blames our religion, separates our community, after all we patient- ly keep in silence.” At that moment Habîb-i akram came to visit the Kâ’ba. He kissed the Hajar-i aswad (a stone in the wall of the Ka’ba, touched and kissed by the Prophet, so very estimable) and started circumambulation of the Kâ’ba. While our Prophet was passing near the polytheists, they started to affront him with scornful words. Our Master Rasûlullah became very sad because of these words but he continued his cir- cumambulation without saying anything. When it was the third time that our Prophet was passing near them, he stopped and as he said, “O Quraysh! Listen to me! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who holds my nafs, I have been informed that you will be wretched!” The polytheists became astonished and were in a quandary. They could not say even one word. Only Abû Jahl went to our Master Rasûlullah and started to beg by saying, “O Abû’l Qâsim! You are not a foreigner. Pay no attention to our rude behavior, go on with your worship. You are not an ignorant person to string along with us.” Upon that Muhammad (’alaihi’s-salâm) left there.

The next day, the polytheists had come together at the same place. They started to speak out against our Master, the Prophet. At that moment our Master Rasûlullah came there. The polytheists suddenly attacked the Beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ. Ukba bin Mu’ayt who was one of the most unfortunate ones among them, held our Prophet’s blessed neck. He strangled his blessed throat until our Prophet was not able to breath. At that moment Hadrat Abû Bakr came there and dived into the crowd in order to protect Rasûlullah by shouting, “Will you kill a man who says, Allah is my Rabb? He brought verses for you from Rabbâlemîn!” Then the polytheists left Habîbullah and attacked on Abû Bakr-i Siddîq. They were punching and kicking his blessed head. An unfortunate one among them, named Utba bin Rebîa hit Hadrat Abû Bakr’s blessed face with his shoes. Hadrat Abû Bakr was drenched in blood. He became unrecog- nizable. If the sons of Taym had not reached there and separated them, they would have beaten and killed him. The people from Abû Bakr’s tribe took him away to his home in a sheet. He was exhausted and wretched. They immediately turned back to the Kâ’ba and said, “If Abû Bakr dies, we swear that we will finish Utba off!” then they went to Abû Bakr. 59

Hadrat Abû Bakr could not wake up for a long time. His father and the people of Banu Taym insistently tried to wake him. He could awake towards the evening. As soon as he opened his eyes, he was able to ask with a harsh voice, “What is Rasûlullah doing? What is his condition? They insulted him too.” They said to Umm-ul-Khayr, his mother, “Ask him if he would like to eat or drink something?” Abû Bakr was so weak. He did not want to eat or drink either. When the house became empty, his mother asked, “What would you eat or drink?” he opened his eyes and asked, “What is Rasûlullah’s condition? What is he doing?” His mother answered, “I swear by Allah that I do not know anything about your friend!” Hadrat Abû Bakr said to her, “Go to the daughter of Khattab, Ummu Jamîl and asked her about Rasûlullah!”

Ummu Jamîl was Hadrat ‘Umar’s sister. She had become Muslim. Hadrat Abû Bakr’s mother went to Ummu Jamîl and said, “My son, Abû Bakr, asks you about Muhammad alaihis-salâm. What is his condition?” Ummu Jamîl said, “I do not know anything about the situation of Muhammad alaihis-salâm or Abû Bakr! Shall we go together?” When Umm-ul-Khayr said yes, they stood up and came to Hadrat Abû Bakr. When Ummu Jamîl saw Hadrat Abû Bakr Siddîq with so many wounds, she could not stop crying and said, “No doubt that the people who did this to you are fero- cious and excessive. I wish it from Allahu ta’âlâ that they will face the punishment for their wrongdoing!” Hadrat Abû Bakr asked Ummu Jamîl, “What is Rasûlullah doing? What is his condition?” Ummu Jamîl said, “Your mother is here, she will hear what I say” Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “No harm from her will touch you. She will not disclose your secret.” Ummu Jamîl said, “He is alive. His condition is good.” He asked again, “Where is he now?” Ummu Jamîl answered, “He is at the house of Arkâm” Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “I swear by Allah that I will not eat or drink unless I see Rasûlullah.” His mother said, “Now, wait for a while until everyone is asleep!” When everyone was asleep and traffic of people lessened in the streets, Hadrat Abû Bakr, getting help from his mother and Ummu Jamîl, slowly went to Rasûlullah. He kissed our Prophet alaihis-salâm. Our Master, the Prophet was saddened by the condition of Abû Bakr. Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “O Rasûlullah! May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! I do not have any sorrow other than that ferocious man turned me into an unrecogniza- ble state. This woman near me is the woman who brought me to the world, my mother Salmâ. I do request you to invoke for her. It is hoped that Allahu ta’âlâ will save her from the fire of Hell, for the sake of you.” Upon this, our beloved Prophet entreated to Allahu ta’âla for Salma’s becoming muslim. Our Master Rasûlullah’s invocation had been accepted. Thus, Umm-ul-Khayr, too, attained the guidance and became Muslim. She attained the honor of becoming one of the early Muslims.

May Abû Lahab’s Hands Be Broken

The house of our Master, the Prophet was between the houses of Abû Lahab and Ukba bin Mu’ayt, two ferocious polytheists. They tried to torment our beloved Proph- et at every opportunity. Even, at night, they threw animal stomachs before the door of our Master, Rasûlullah. Abû Lahab, his uncle, was not satisfied with this and threw stones at him from the house of his neighbor Adiyy. His wife, Ummu Jamil, was not behind him either; she would throw the thorny tree branches over roads which Rasû- lullah used so that they would hurt his blessed feet. One day, Abû Lahab was throwing the dirt he collected to the front of Rasûlullah’s door. Hadrat Hamza saw him. He ran at once, caught Abû Lahab and he poured the dirt over Abû Lahab’s head.

After these torments of Abû Lahab and his wife, the Tabbat sûra which begins with, “May the hands of Abû Lahab be withered! Then they were withered…” was revealed about them.

When Abû Lahab’s wife, Ummu Jamîl, heard that a sûra had descended about them, she started searching for Rasûlullah. When she learned that he was at the Kâ’ba, she took a big stone and went there. Hadrat Abû Bakr was being honored with the speech of our Prophet at that moment. When he saw Ummu Jamîl, holding a stone, he said, “O Rasûlullah! Ummu Jamîl is coming. She is a very bad woman. I am afraid she will harm you. Please leave here so that you will not be tormented” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “She cannot see me.” Ummu Jamîl stood in front of Hadrat Abû Bakr and said those base words. “O Abû Bakr! Tell me now where that friend of yours is! I heard that he criticized and spoke ill of me and my husband. If he is a poet, my husband and I also are poets. Now, I too criticize him. We disobey him, we do not accept his prophethood and we do not like his religion. I swear that if I saw him, I would strike this stone to his head. When Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “My Master is not a poet and he has not criticized you”, Ummu Jamîl left the place. Hadrat Abû Bakr turned towards our Master, the Prophet and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Did she not see you?” He replied, “She did not see me. Allahu ta’âlâ turned her eyes into a state which could not see me.” 60

Ummu Ghulthum, one of the blessed daughters of our Master, the Prophet was engaged with Abû Lahab’s son ’Utayba and Hadrat Ruqayya, another daughter of our Master, the Prophet, was engaged with Utba, the other son of Abû Lahab. But they had not been married yet. After the Tabbat sûra was revealed, Abû Lahab who deserved Hell, his wife and the notables of Quraysh offered Utba and ’Utayba that, “By engag- ing with his daughters, you have eased his burden. Divorce his daughters so that he will be in trouble. Let us take any girl that you wish from Quraysh.” They accepted this offer and said, “All right, we have divorced them.” The blackguard called ’Utay- ba, by going beyond the limit, went to our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and insulted him by saying, “O Muhammad! I don’t approve of you and your religion. And I divorced your daughter. Neither you nor I like each other any more! Neither you nor I visit each other!” Then he attacked our beloved Prophet and held his collar. He tore his shirt and affronted. After these events, our beloved Prophet supplicated, “O my Rabb! Set one of Your wild beasts on him!” When unfortunate ’Utayba went and related these events to his father, Abû Lahab said, “I am afraid of Muhammad’s malediction on my son.”

59 Tabarî, Târikh, II, 332-333.
60 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 71; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad,  I, 26, 50; V, 413; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LXVII, 173; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VII, 53.

A few days later, Abû Lahab sent his son ’Utayba to Damascus for commerce. The caravan had stopped at the place called Zarka. A lion started walking around. When ’Utayba saw this, he said, “Alas! I swear that Muhammad’s (’alaihi’s-salâm) maledic- tion has been accepted! This lion will eat me! Anyway, he is my killer, even if he is in Mecca!” Soon after, the lion was out of sight. After that, the lion came again at night. He smelled all the people in the caravan. He approached ’Utayba, jumped on him, tore his abdomen, held his head and killed him by sorely biting. While ’Utayba was dying, he said, “Did I not tell you Muhammad is the most truth saying of people, did I?” Abû Lahab who heard that his son was tore by a lion, wept saying, “Did I not tell you I was afraid of malediction by Muhammad on my son?” 61

Our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), was calling people to endless bliss and inviting them to salvation from burning in Hell, by inviting them to believe in the existence and unity of Allahu ta’âlâ. But the polytheists were continuing idol- atry by saying, “This is the religion of our fathers.” Our Master, the Prophet invited them to live in dignity, to be honorable, to refrain from baseness and to attain high grades. However, they insisted on their persistence. Abû Lahab was the head of those who insulted and tormented him. He continuously followed Rasûlullah and tried to persuade people not listen to him and tried to arouse doubts in their minds. When- ever our Master Rasûlullah said in public places, bazaars, “O People! Say Lâ ilâha illallah, so that you may obtain salvation!” he would come after Rasûlullah and say, “O people! This person who spoke to you is my nephew! Beware of believing his words. Keep away from him!”

One day, Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was performing a ritual prayer in the Kâ’ba. A group of seven notables of the Quraysh polytheists came and sat near Rasûlullah. Abû Jahl, Shayba bin Rabîa, Utba bin Rabîa, Uqba bin Abî Mu’ayt were among them. The remnants and rumen of a camel, which was butchered the previous day, were scat- tered around. The scoundrel Abû Jahl, turned towards his friends and made an ugly suggestion by saying, “Which of you will take that camel rumen and put it between the two shoulders of Muhammad when he makes sajda (prostration in ritual prayer)?” Uqba bin Abî Mu’ayt, who was the cruelest, the most brutal, the most ruthless, the most unfortunate of them, immediately stood up, by saying, “I will” He put the ru- mens with its contents on the blessed shoulders of our Prophet, while he was in sajda. The polytheists, who watched this, started a burst of laughter. Our Master, the Prophet prolonged his sajda and did not raise his head. At that moment, Abdullah bin Mas’ûd from the Ashâb-i kirâm saw this scene. He narrated this event as follows, “When I saw Rasûlullah under such circumstance, I became furious.

61 Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXXVIII, 301.

But I did not have my people or my tribe with me to protect me from the polytheists. I was alone and weak. At that moment I was not even able to talk. I was standing and watching Rasûlullah in deep sorrow. I wish I had had the power or a guard for protecting myself from the polythe- ists, so that I could have taken the rumens which were put on the blessed shoulders of Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm and throw them away. As I was waiting so, Rasûlullah’s daughter Hadrat Fatîma had been informed. Those days, Fatîma was a child. Then she came by running and threw away what was on her father’s shoulder. She maledicted and said stern words to those who did this to her father. Our Master Rasûlullah completed his ritual prayer, as if nothing happened and then he said three times, ‘O my Allah! I leave that group of the Quraysh to you (for punishment)! O my Allah! I leave Abû Jahl Amr bin Hishâm to you! O my Allah! I leave Uqba bin Rabîa to you! O my Allah! I leave Shayba bin Rabîa to you! O my Allah! I leave Uqba bin Mu’ayt to you! O my Allah! I leave Umayya bin Halaf to you! O my Allah! I leave Walîd bin Utba to you! O my Allah! I leave Umâra bin Walîd to you!’ The polytheists, who heard this malediction, stopped laughing. They began to fear. Because they be- lieved that the invocations said in the Baytullah would be accepted. Our Master, the Prophet told Abû Jahl, ‘I swear by Allah that you will either give up this or Allahu ta’âlâ will make a catastrophe befall you.’ I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that, in the Holy War of Badr, I saw each of these people, whose names were mentioned by Rasûlullah, were killed and they filled the crevices of Badr, as corpses stinking from heat.”

One day Abû Jahl said to polytheists of Quraysh at Baytullah, “O the People of Quraysh! You see that Muhammad doesn’t hesitate to blame our religion, to talk against our idols and our fathers who worshipped them and to regard us as foolish. I swear in front of you that, tomorrow, I will bring here such a big stone that I can hard- ly carry it and I will bash in his head when he makes sajda in the ritual prayer. After that, it is no matter, whether you protect me or not against the sons of Abdulmuttalib. His relatives can do whatever they want to me after I killed him.” The polytheists there provoked him by saying, “As long as you kill him, we swear that we will protect you and will not submit you to anybody!”

In the morning, Abû Jahl, holding a large stone, came to the Kâ’ba. He sat down with the polytheists and started waiting. As usual, our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam came to the Baytullah and began to make his ritual prayer. Abû Jahl stood up and walked towards Rasûlullah to hit him with the stone. All the polytheists were watching the incident in excitement. Abû Jahl, when he approached Rasûlullah, started shaking. The large stone fell from his hands, his face was white, and he retreat- ed with a great horror. The polytheists reached him and asked, “O Amr bin Hishâm! Tell us, what happened?” Abû Jahl said, “When I lifted the stone to kill him, a camel appeared before me. I swear that I have not seen or heard such a camel in my life. It was tall, and had big sharp teeth. If I had approached further, he would definitely have killed me.”

Again one day, Abû Jahl gathered the polytheists and asked, “Does the orphan of Abdullah perform the ritual prayer and wipes his face on the Earth here?” They said,  “Yes.” Awaiting this reply, Abû Jahl said, “If I see him at this state, I will smash his head with my foot.” One day, the Master of the prophets was performing the ritual prayer in the Kâ’ba. Abû Jahl was sitting down with his friends. He stood up and walked towards Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. He came very near. How- ever, he suddenly began to escape, wiping his face. The polytheists went to him and asked, “What has happened to you?” Abû Jahl said, “A pit of fire appeared between us. When I saw some persons attacking me, I returned.”

Whenever the notables of polytheists like Walîd bin Mugîra, Abû Jahl (Amr bin Hishâm), Aswad bin Muttalib, Umayya bin Halaf, Aswad bin Abdiyagwas, As bin Wâil and Khâris bin Qays saw Rasûlullah , they would mock him by saying, “He supposes that he is a   prophet and Jabrâil came to him.” One day, when Habîb-i akram was very much upset by these words of theirs, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and brought some âyat-i karîmas (verses) purporting, (O My Rasûl) Verily the prophets before you were mocked, too. But the scoffers were hemmed in by trouble and torment.”62

“Surely We suffice against the scoffers who mocked you. Those are such per- sons who set up another god before Allahu ta’âlâ. They shall soon know (what will happen to them). And surely We know that your breast straitens at what they say (their polytheism, slanders against Qur’ân-i karîm and mocking you).63

One day, when the sultan of the worlds was circumambulating the Kâ’ba, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and said, “I have been ordered to destroy them (those who mocked our Prophet).” Soon after, Walîd bin Mugîra passed by. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked our Prophet, “How is that person who is passing?” Then our Master, the Prophet said, “He is one of the most evil servants of Allahu ta’âlâ.” After that, Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ pointed out Walîd’s leg and then said, “I have destroyed him!” After a while, As bin Wâil had passed. As he asked about him and took the same answer, he pointed out his stomach and said, “I have destroyed him, too!” When Aswad bin Mut- talib was passing, he pointed out his eyes and when he saw Abdiyagwas, he pointed out is head. And when Khâris ibn Qays was passing, he pointed out his stomach. Then he said, “O Muhammad! Allahu ta’âlâ has saved you from their harm. Shortly, each of them will face a calamity.”

A thorn pricked As bin Wâil’s foot. Although they prepared many medicines, they could not cure it. At last his foot expanded as big as a camel’s neck and then he died by shouting, “Muhammad’s Allah killed me.” Aswad bin Muttalib went blind. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ eliminated him by making him hit his head against a tree. The face and body of Aswad bin Abdiyag became black when he was in a place named Bâd-i samûm. When he came back to his home, his family could not identify him and sent away. He died by slamming his head on the door of his house, due to his grief. Khâris bin Qays had eaten salty fish. He started to feel very thirsty. Although he drank too much water, he could not quench his thirst. At last he burst. And a piece of iron pricked Walîd bin Mugîra’s calf. His wound didn’t heal. He lost much blood and then died by shouting, “Muhammad’s Allah killed me.” Thus, each of them received his response. Also, it was declared by âyat-i karîmas that the polytheists will stay in Hell forever.

62 Sûrat al-An’âm, 6/10.
63 Sûrat-ul-Hijr, 15/95-97.

One day, our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam met Abu’l-As. After he departed, Hakam (Abu’l-As) made mockery of Rasûlullah, he made mimicry, mov- ing his mouth, face and body. Rasûl-i Akram, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam with the light of the prophethood, saw this and invoked on him to stay in the same condition. Hakam’s body started shaking, and this shaking continued until the end of his life.

Tortures done to the Ashâb al-Kirâm

The polytheists not only tormented our Master, the Prophet, they tortured his glo- rious companions too. They especially preferred those who were poor and helpless, making pressure and cruelties on them without hesitation. One of those who were tor- mented, was Bilâl-i Habashî. Hadrat Bilâl, a slave of a polytheist named Umayya bin Halaf, became a Muslim, because of Abû Bakr as Siddîq. Among his twelve slaves, Umayya liked Bilâl the most, therefore, he made him watchman of a shrine for idols. When Hadrat Bilâl became Muslim, he re-positioned all the idols to the position of sajda (prostration). When Umayya heard this, he was shocked. He summoned him and asked, “Have you become a Muslim. You are making sajda to Muhammad’s Rabb, aren’t you?” Hadrat Bilal replied, “Yes, I make sajda to Allahu ta’âlâ, Who is Great and Almighty.” When Umayya received this reply, which he abhorred, he started to torment him immediately. At noon, when the sun was at its zenith, he used to undress him and put stones which were heated from the heat of the sun, on his naked body. After laying him on his back, on top of a stack of stones, and laying some of them on his stomach, he used to tell him, “Abandon Islâm! Believe in the idols of Lât and Uzzâ.” However, Hadrat Bilâl announced his faith each time saying, “Allahu ta’âlâ is one! Allahu ta’âlâ is one!”

As Umayya bin Halaf saw such patience from him, he would become very angry, and by rubbing thorns against his body, he would hurt and torture him. Without regard for the blood which was profusely flowing from his body, Hadrat Bilâl would say, “O my Allah! I consent to what comes from You! O my Allah! I consent to what comes from You!” and would persevere in his belief.

Hadrat Bilâl had explained this case as follows, “That evil Umayya would tie me up in the heat of the day and would torment me at night. It was a hot day. As usual, he started to torment me. Whenever he commanded me, ‘Worship our idols! Deny Mu- hammad’s Allah, deny Him, deny Him!’ to force me to give up my religion, I would say, ‘Allah is One! Allah is One!’ In order to soothe his anger, he put a very big rock on my chest. At that moment I lost consciousness. When I regained consciousness I saw that the rock on my body had been removed and the sun had gone behind the clouds. I thanked to Allahu ta’âlâ and told to myself, “O Bilâl! Everything that comes from Janâb-i Haqq is beautiful and nice.”

Again one day, Umayya bin Halaf brought out Bilâl-i Habashî to torture him. He undressed him; left with only his undergarments and made him lie on hot sand in the heat, then put stones on him. The polytheists gathered and heavily tortured him. They said, “If you do not abandon your religion, we will kill you.” Under these unbearable tortures he said, “Allah is one! Allah is one! At that moment, our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm was passing by there. When he saw this situation of Bilâl-i Habashî, he became very sorry. He said, “Saying the name of Allahu ta’âlâ will save you.”

Shortly after he returned to his home, Hadrat Abû Bakr came. He told Abû Bakr the tortures Bilâl-i Habashi endured, and said, “I have been very sorry.” Hadrat Abû Bakr went there immediately. He told the polytheists, “What will you gain by doing this to Bilâl? Sell this person to me.” They said, “We would not sell him even if you gave us gold as much as the world. However, we can exchange him for your slave Âmir.” Âmir, Hadrat Abû Bakr’s slave, used to conduct his commercial business and would earn so much money. Apart from his personal properties, he had ten thousand golden coins. He was the helper of Hadrat Abû Bakr and conducted his every trade. However, he was a disbeliever and insisted on his disbelief. Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “I have given you Âmir with all his properties and money, for Bilâl.” Umayya bin Halaf and other polytheists rejoiced very much. They said, “We have deceived Abû Bakr.”

Hadrat Abû Bakr removed the heavy stones on Bilâl-i Habashî at once and raised him. Bilâl-i Habashî was weak due to hard torments. Holding his hand, Hadrat Abû Bakr directly brought him to our beloved Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! Today, I have emancipated Bilâl for Allah’s sake.” Our Master Rasûlullah became very happy. He made many good prayers for Abû Bakr. Just then Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ brought the 17th and 18th âyat-i karîmas of Layl Sûra heralding that Abû Bakr is far from Hell. These âyat-i karîmas purport, “The one (like Hadrat Abû Bakr) who has much de- votion (who avoids polytheism and sins) and gives his property for charitable pur- poses in order to be pure in the sight of Allahu ta’âlâ (and for attaining the bless- ings Allahu ta’âlâ promises), have been kept away from it (Hell).”

Hadrat Khabbâb bin Arat was one of the persons who were tortured to force him to abandon his religion. Hadrat Khabbâb too was without relatives or friends. He was a slave of a polytheist woman named Ummu Anmâr. Since he had no relatives who would protect him, the polytheists used to gather, remove his clothes and stick his body with thorns. Sometimes, they made him wear a shirt of iron on his naked body and made him wait in the sun. They used to press stones which they heated under the sun or in fire on his naked body and say “Abandon your religion. Worship Lât and Uzzâ!” Khabbâb persisted in his faith and resisted them by saying, “Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammadun Rasûl-Allâh.”

One day, the polytheists gathered and set a fire at the village square. They tied up Hadrat Khabbâb and brought him there. They undressed him and made him lie over the fire. They would either make him abandon his religion, or they would burn him in the fire. Hadrat Khabbâb, who was forced to lie on the fire, invoked, “O my Allah! You see my condition, you know my situation. Fix my belief in my heart, grant me a great patience!” One of the polytheists, with his foot, stepped on Hadrat Khabbâb’s chest. However, they did not know that Allahu ta’âlâ protected the believers. Years after, when they asked about this incident to Khabbâb, he opened his back and showed the wounds and said, “They set a fire for me, then, threw me into it. Only, my flesh put that fire out.”

While they tortured Hadrat Khabbâb in this manner, his proprietress Ummu Anmâr used to heat an iron rod in the fire and press it against and cauterize his head. He would endure all the pains for his religion and would not perform what they offered and did not abandon his faith.

One day Hadrat Khabbâb went to the presence of our beloved Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! Wherever the polytheists see me, they burn me with fire. In the house, my owner, Ummu Anmâr, burns my head with a heated iron. I beg for your prayer!” Then he showed the burns on his back and his head. Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm pitied him much, he could not bare the torments Hadrat Khabbâb endured in order to not leave his religion and he invoked, “O my Rabb! Help Khabbâb!” Janâb-i Haqq accepted His Messenger’s invocation immediately and gave a vehement headache to Ummu Anmâr. Ummu Anmâr would groan all night due to her headache. They said to her that she should burn her head with a fire-heated iron as cure. In the end, she called Khabbâb and ordered him to heat the iron bar in the fire and burn her head… Hadrat Khabbâb would burn her head with the iron…

In the first days of Islam, the polytheists did not care about Khabbâb bin Arat. But, the number of Muslims increased day by day. Finally, they had to take the matter se- rious. They increased the torments done to Hadrat Khabbâb. They hit, beat, wounded and tortured him greatly.

Despite all, Hadrat Khabbâb made no compromises about his faith. But the tor- tures and torments had become unbearable. Explaining the events to the Master of the worlds, he asked him, “O Rasûlullah! Could you say a prayer so that we will be freed from these tortures we have been suffering?” Upon this, our Master Rasûlullah said, “Among the communities which came before you, there were such people that they would not apostatize, even though their skins and fleshes would be excoriated with iron combs. They would be divided into two pieces from their head with a saw but still they would not apostatize. Allahu ta’âlâ will consum- mate this (Islâm) for sure. He will make it superior to all other religions. So that a man traveling alone from San’a to Khadramût on his mount will be afraid of nobody except Allahu ta’âlâ and concerned about nothing except a wolf attack to his sheep herd. But, you have been hastening.” and said a prayer by patting him on his back. These nice words of Rasûlullah, which are cure and healing for souls, had relieved Khabbâb’s pains.

Hadrat Khabbâb had a considerable amount due him from Âs bin Wâil, a ferocious polytheist. He went to him to claim it. When Âs bin Wâil said to Khabbâb, “Unless you deny Muhammad, I will not give you your due.” Hadrat Khabbâb replied, “I swear by Allah, I cannot reject and deny my prophet, either in life or when I rise up from my grave after death. I abandon everything; however, I cannot make this denial.” Upon this, Âs bin Wâil said, “Will we resurrect after death? If there is anything like that, there will be my property and my sons. I will pay you my loan that day.”

Upon these words of Âs bin Wâil, Allahu ta’âlâ decreed in the 77-79th âyat-i karîmas of Maryam Sûra of the Qur’ân al-kerîm, which purports, (O My Beloved!) Have you seen now the man (Âs ibn-i Wâil) who denies our âyats and says, ‘I will be given property and sons (in the Hereafter) for sure’? Has he acquainted himself with the ghayb (unknown) or has he got a promise in the presence of Rahmân? No, it is not so! We will write down what he has said. (Based on this, we will call him to account on the Day of Judgment) and We will increase his torment more and more.”

The torture until falling unconscious…

Regarding torture, the polytheists did not differentiate between women and men. One of the first Muslims, Lady Zinnîra, who had no protectors, was a slave. The pol- ytheist, who learned that she had become Muslim, did not hesitate to torture her. She used to be tortured, strangled until she could not breathe and fainted. She was forced to worship the idols named Lât and Uzzâ. Despite that, she would never abandon her faith and did not obey them. Especially, Abû Jahl used to greatly torment her. For this reason, she became sightless. Once, Abû Jahl said, “You see! Lât and Uzzâ blinded you.” Lady Zinnîra, as a sign of her belief, said, “O Abû Jahl! I swear by Allah that your words are not true. The idols you call Lât and Uzzâ are good for nothing. They do not even know who worship them or not. Certainly, My Rabb is able to give back the light of my eyes to me and to return me to my previous state.”

Abû Jahl was amazed at Hadrat Zinnîra’s unshakeable belief. Allahu ta’âlâ had accept- ed Zinnîra’s invocation and her eyes started to see better than before. Although Abû Jahl and the Quraysh polytheists witnessed that, they were obstinate and they did not believe in Islam. Furthermore, they said, “This is one of their prophet’s magic too! Will you not wonder at the idiots who follow the path of Muhammad? If their path were beneficial and real, we would obey him before everyone. Has a slave found the truth before us?”

Upon this Allahu ta’âlâ sent the 11th âyat-i karîma of Sûrat-al Ahqâf purporting, “Those disbelievers said for believers, ‘If there had been a benediction in it (Islâm), they (the poor) could not got ahead of us and run to it before us.’ However they will say, ‘This Qur’ân al-kerîm is an old lie (which was brought out by Muhammad) since they could not find the true path with it (with Qur’ân al-kerîm like believers) (in order to deny the Qur’ân al-kerîm).

Dâr-ul-Arkâm

Our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was very sad because of the persecutions and tortures made against his Companions by the polytheists. It was necessary to find a safer place for spreading and learning Islâm. Our Master chose the house of Hadrat Arkâm for this holy duty. This house was located in the east of Safâ Hill, in an alley and on a higher platform. Kâ’ba-i muazzama was easily seen from this house. The entrance and exit doors were very suitable in the way of controlling the passer-byes. Besides, Hadrat Arkâm was one of the notables in Mecca and a person of high standing. Our Master Habîb-i akram was explaining Islâm to his Companions in this house. The people, who were to become newly Muslims, would come to this house and be honored by accepting Islâm and would be blessed with listening to our Prophet’s words which cure the hearts. They would listen to our Master, the Prophet in such a manner that it was as if birds had landed on their heads and if they had said a word, the bird would fly away. They would memorize, as if swallowing, his blessed sayings without missing any word. Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would allocate his daytime for the house of Arkâm and would be busy with teaching his Companions from morning till night. This house was the first headquarters of Mus- lims. It was “Dâr-ul Islâm.” The early Muslims would gather there, thus they would be protected from all evil deeds of the polytheists.

Ammâr bin Yâser reports, “I wanted to go to Dâr-ul-Arkâm, see Rasûlullah ’alai- his-salâm and become Muslim. I met Hadrat Suhayb at the gate. When I asked him, “What are you doing here?” he asked me the same question. I said, “I want to go to the presence of Hadrat Muhammad, listen to his words and become a Muslim.” He said, “I have come here for this too.” Together, we went to his high and honorable presence. He informed us of Islâm. We became Muslims” 64

Ammâr was one of the mujâhîds who did not hesitate to announce his Muslimhood. He would endure the heaviest torments, in order to not leave his religion. When they found him alone, the polytheists would bring him to the rocks of Mecca, at the Ramda location; they would undress him and put an iron shirt on him. They made him wait in the burning sun in this manner and he was tortured. Sometimes, his back was burned with fire, he was under long torments. Each time, they would command, “Deny it! Deny it! Worship Lât and Uzzâ so that you will be free!” Hadrat Ammâr replied to these unbearable torments by saying, “My Rabb is Allah, my prophet is Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm.” The polytheists became greatly angered and put heated rocks on his chest. Sometimes, they threw him into a well and tried to drown him. One day, Am- mâr bin Yâsar was honored by being present before our beloved Prophet. He said, “O Rasûlullah! The torments done to us by the polytheists have reached extreme levels.” Our Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam felt sorry over the condition of Hadrat Am- mâr and said, “Be patient O the father of Yahzân!”, then he prayed, “O My Lord! Do not make any member of the Ammâr family taste the torments of Hell!”

64 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 227; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 449; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXIV, 219.

First martyr

The father of Hadrat Ammâr, Yâsar, his mother Sumayya, his brother Abdullah had become Muslim. The polytheists would torture them more than they tortured Hadrat Ammâr. During tortures, they would want them to say their words of disbelief, how- ever, they would reply, “Even if you peal our flesh us, even if you cut our flesh into pieces, we will not listen to you,” and say “Lâ ilâha illallah, Muhammadun Rasû- lullah.” Again, one day, at a place called Bathâ, while the Yâsar family was being tormented, our Master, the Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam was passing by. He became very sad when he saw the torments his Companions endured. When Hadrat Yâsar asked, “O Rasûlullah! Will our lives be full of those torments?” Our Master replied, “Be patient, O family of Yâsar! Be rejoiced, O family of Yâsar! Verily, your place of reward is Paradise.”

Again, one day, the Meccan polytheists were tormenting and torturing Ammâr with fire. Our Master, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm honored there. He said, “O Fire! Be cool and safe to Ammâr as you were to Ibrâhim (Abraham) (’alaihis-salâm)!” Later, when Ammâr opened his back, the sign of the fire was seen. That sign had appeared before Rasûlullah’s invocation.

Again, one day while they were tormenting the Yâsar family, they martyred Hadrat Yâsar and his son Hadrat Abdullah by shooting arrows at them. Abû Jahl had Had- rat Sumayya’s blessed feet fastened with rope. Then he had two camels tethered at the ends of this rope and he made the camels head towards opposite directions until she was divided into two parts. Thus he martyred Hadrat Sumayya. Our Master, the Prophet and his Companions became excessively sad when they got the news that merciless, pitiless, cruel Abû Jahl and the other polytheists martyred the Yâsar family with their torments. This event caused the companions to unify even more. 65

When they would perform the ritual prayer, the Ashâb-i Kirâm used to go a desolate place and make their worships in secrecy. Again one day, Sa’d bin Abî Wakkas, Sa’îd bin Zayd, Abdullah bin Mas’ûd, Ammâr bin Yâsar, Khabbâb bin Arat were perform- ing the ritual prayer at a location called Abû Dub. It was a valley of Mecca. Mean- while, Ahnas bin Sharîk and some polytheists who followed them came and started making jokes about their worships and speaking ill of them. Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Wakkas and his friends could not bare this and they attacked the polytheists. Hadrat Sa’d found a camel bone and with it, he bloodied one of the polytheist’s head. The polytheists became afraid and they ran away. Thus, Muslims shed the blood of infidels for the first time.

Abû Zarr-il-Ghifâri’s conversion to Islam

One by one, those who would attain guidance and the light of Islam spread from Mecca and started illuminating the world.

Against the news of Islâm’s birth and spreading, the polytheists tried various meth- ods to impede it. This news reached the Banî Ghifâr tribe too. When Abû Zarr-il- Ghifâr heard this news, he sent his brother Unays to Mecca and wanted him to inquire into the situation. Unays went to Mecca, attended the presence of our Master, the Prophet. He admired him and returned. His brother, Hadrat Abû Zar asked, “Which news have you brought?”

65 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 42; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 264; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 86.

He answered, “O our master! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that I saw a very great person who orders the good and forbids the evil.” When Abû Zarr- il-Ghifâri asked, “What do people say about him?” Unays, who was one of the well known poets in his time, replied, “They say he is a poet, a soothsayer, or a magician. However, his words are not like those of soothsayers or magicians. Also, I compared his words to every kind of poem of the poets. They do not resemble them either. These unique words can not be compared to anyone’s words. I swear by Allah, that person is saying the truth, communicating the truth. Those who do not believe him are liars and deviants.”

Upon this news, Abî Zarr-il-Ghifâri decided to go to Mecca, see our Master, the Prophet and become a Muslim. Taking a walking stick and some food, he set off for Mecca enthusiastically. When he reached Mecca, he did not tell anyone about his in- tentions; because, the polytheists would vehemently treat our Master, the Prophet and new Muslims as enemies and they increased their torments day by day. Particularly, they would particularly torture those Muslims who were strangers and without help- ers. Abû Zarr did not know anyone in Mecca. He was a stranger. Therefore, he did not ask anyone anything. Near the Kâ’ba, he waited for an opportunity to see Rasûlullah and looked for a sign to learn his whereabouts.

In the afternoon, he sat down at a street corner. Hadrat Ali saw Abû Zarr. He un- derstood that he was a stranger. So, he brought him to his house. Since he did not inquire anything from him, Abû Zarr did not disclose his secret. In the morning, he went to the Kâ’ba again. Although he walked around until the evening, he again could not attain his wish. He went to sit where he previously sat the day before. Hadrat Ali was passing there that night too. He said, “So, this poor man could not learn where his house is yet” and brought him to his home again. In the morning, he again went to Baytullah and sat down. Hadrat Ali invited him to his house again. This time, he asked him why he had come and from where. Hadrat Abû Zarr said, “If you give me an absolute promise to tell the truth, I will tell you” When Hadrat Ali replied, “Tell me, I will not disclose your secret to anyone.” Abû Zarr-il-Ghifârî said, “I heard that a prophet appeared here. I have come to talk with him and attain his presence.” Hadrat Alî said, “You have found the truth and done a reasonable thing. Now, I am going to that person! Follow me; enter the house which I will enter. If I understand that there is a person on the road who will harm you, I will behave as if I am arranging my shoes. Then, you will not wait for me and go on walking, passing me by.”

Abû Zarr-il Ghifâri followed Hadrat Alî. Finally, he was honored by seeing the blessed face of our Prophet. And he greeted him by saying, “Assalâmu alaikum.” In Islam, this greeting was the first salâm and Abû Zarr-il Ghifâri was the first person who made salâm. Our Master, the Prophet replied to his salâm and said, “May mercy of Allahu ta’âlâ be upon you.” When our Master, the Prophet asked him, “Who are you?” He answered, “I am from the Ghifâr tribe.” Our Prophet asked, “How long have you been here?” He replied, “I have been here for three days and three nights.”

“Who gave food to you?” “I could not find any food or drink except zamzam. As long as I drank zamzam, I felt no thirst or hunger.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “Zamzam is blessed. It satiates who he is hungry.” Then Abû Zarr-il Ghifârî told our Master, the Prophet, “Communicate Islam to me.” Our Master, the Prophet recited the Kalima-i Shahâda to him. He repeated and was honored with Islam and became one of the early Muslims.” 66

66 Bukhârî, “Manâqib”, 11; “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 62; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 83.

Hadrat Abû-Zarr-il-Ghifârî, after he became Muslim, told our Prophet, “O Rasûlull- ah! I swear by Janâb-i-Haqq who has sent you as a true prophet, I will announce this openly among the polytheists.” He went near the Kâba and with a loud voice he said, “O the Quraysh community! Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muham- madan abduhu wa rasûluh (I know and believe as if I saw that there is no god, nobody besides Allahu ta’âlâ, whose existence is necessary and who is worth worshipping and obeying. I know and believe as if I saw that Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm is both a born servant and the Prophet of Allahu ta’âlâ).” Hearing this, the polytheists attacked him immediately. They beat him with stones, sticks and bone pieces and bloodied him. Hadrat Abbâs, seeing this event, said, “Leave this man alone, you will kill him! He is of a tribe which settles on the path where your trade caravan passes. How will you pass there again?” He saved Hadrat Abû Zarr from the polytheists. Abû Zar was very happy with the rejoice of being honored by becoming Muslim. The next day, near the Kâba, he recited again the Kalima-i shahâdat with a loud voice. The polytheists beat him up. He fell down. Again Hadrat Abbâs came and saved him from the polytheists.

Our Master, the Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam commanded Hadrat Abû Zarr-il-Ghifârî to return to his homeland and spread Islam there. Upon this order, he returned to his tribe and he communicated the unity of Allahu ta’âlâ and Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm was His Prophet. He said to them that what he communicated was real and correct; the idols which they worshipped were false, vain and meaningless. Some among the crowd who listened to him started protesting his words. Meanwhile, Haffâf, the chief of the tribe, silenced the shouters and said, “Stop, let us listen and see what he will tell.” Upon this, Hadrat Abû Zarr-il-Ghifârî went on:

“Before I became Muslim, one day, I had gone to the idol Nuham and put some milk before it. I saw that a dog approached, drank the milk and dirtied the idol. I understood completely that the idol had no power to stop this. How can you like worshipping an idol which is insulted even by a dog? Is it not madness? This is what you worship.” Everyone bowed their heads. One of them said, “All right, what is the prophet you mentioned announcing? How have you understood that he is telling the truth?” Hadrat Abû Zarr, with a loud voice, said, “He is announcing that Allahu ta’âlâ is one. There is no god but Allah. He is announcing that Allah is the one who creates everything and owns everything. He is calling people to believe in Him. He is inviting people to good ethics and helping each other. He is denouncing the evilness of burying daughters alive and the ugliness of each bad action, injustice and cruelty you commit. He is announcing to refrain from these.” He explained Islam in detail. He enumerated the wrong way of his tribe. Then, he stated the harms and ugliness of these wrong doings. Many people among the audience, including chieftain Haffâf and his own brother Unays, became Muslims. 67

Clearly reading the Qur’ân al-Karîm at the Kâ’ba

One day, the Ashâb-i Kirâm gathered at a desolate place and conversed. They said, “We swear by Allah that there is no one except Rasûlullah to make the Quraysh pol- ytheists listen to the Qur’an Al-Kerim clearly. Is there anyone who will recite and make them listen to the Qur’ân al-Karîm clearly?” There was Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas’ûd too. He said, “I will make them listen!” Some of the Ashâb said, “O Abdullah! We are afraid that the polytheists will harm you. We want a person who has a people and a tribe which will protect him against the polytheists when required.” He insisted by saying, “Give me permission so that I can go. Janâb-i-Haqq will protect me.”

The next day before noon, he came to the place called Maqâm-i Ibrâhim (the station of Abraham). The polytheists had gathered there. Ibn-i Mas’ûd, standing, said the Basmala-i Sharîfa and started reciting the sûra of Rahmân. The polytheists asked each other, “What is the son of Ummu Abd saying? Possibly, he is reciting the words Mu- hammad brought.” They attacked him. By punching, slapping and kicking him, they bruised his face and eyes, causing him to be unrecognizable. However, he continued reciting during the attack. He came back to the Ashâb-i Kirâm with wounds on his face. The Ashâb-i Kirâm were very sorry. They said, “We had feared that you would encounter this. In the end, it happened as we feared.”

However, Abdullah ibni Mas’ud was not at all sad. He said, “I had never seen the enemies of Allahu ta’âlâ as weak as they were today. If you wish, I can make them listen again tomorrow morning.” The Ashâb-i Kirâm said, “No, it is enough for you. You made those ferocious unbelievers listen to what they did not like.” 68

Tufayl bin Amr’s conversion to Islam

During the years our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) started to explicitly spread Islam in Mecca, he would advise people, day and night, inviting them to the Is- lamic religion. The Meccan polytheists strove to hinder our Prophet’s struggles. They would make every kind of slander and torment against those who listened to and be- lieved him. Whenever they would see a person speaking with our Master, the Prophet, they would immediately take them aside and try every kind of trick and slander to keep them from listening and believing him. They would do whatever was necessary to keep people from outside Mecca from coming to listen to him.

During these times, while Muslims were in difficulty and were being tormented by the infidels, Tufayl bin Amr ad-Dawsî had come to Mecca. Seeing this, the leaders of the polytheists, went to him and said, “O Tufayl! You have come to our homeland.

67 Bukhârî, “Manâqib”, 10; “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 62; Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 122-123; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 83.
68 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 166; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 314-315; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 234-235.

The orphan of Abdullah, who arose from us, has many amazing states. The words which he uttered are like magic. They are separating son from his father, brother from his brother, husband from his wife! With the opinions he puts forward, he causes trouble in public. A son who hears his words, does not listen to his father anymore, he becomes obedient to him. Now, no one listens to each other, people are becoming Muslim. We are afraid that this separation calamity which we are affected with, will affect your people too. Let it be our advice to you, never speak to him! Neither say any word to him, nor listen to his words. Do not pay attention to what he tells! Be very cautious. Do not stay here very long, either. Leave here immediately.” Tufayl bin Amr tells of the henceforth as follows:

“I swear, they had said these so much so that I decided not to speak to him and not to listen to his words. I had even stuffed cotton into my ears so that I would not hear his words when I entered the Kâ’ba. The next day, during the morning, I went to the Kâ’ba. I saw that Rasûl alaihis’-salâm performing ritual prayer. I stayed at a place near him. With the hikmat (hidden divine cause) of Janâb-i-Haqq, I heard some of his reciting. How beautiful the words were which I had heard! I said to myself, ‘I am not such a man who cannot tell the difference between good and evil. Furthermore, I am a poet. Why should I not listen to what this person says? If I find his words beau- tiful, I will accept them, if I do not find them beautiful, I will abandon them.’ I hid somewhere and stayed there until Rasûlullah performed his prayer and returned to his home. Then, I followed him. When he entered his house, I also went in and said, ‘O Muhammad alaihis’-salâm! When I came to this land, your people told me so-and-so. They wanted me to keep away from you. Out of my fear I filled my ears with cotton, not to hear your words. However, Allahu ta’âlâ made me hear some of your reciting. I have found them so beautiful. Now, inform me of what you will tell! I am ready to accept.’ Our Master, Rasûlullah communicated Islam to me and recited some parts of the Qur’ân al-kerîm. I swear that I had not heard more beautiful words than these. At once, I said the kalimat ash-shahâda and I became Muslim.

At that moment, I said, ‘O Rasûlullah! I am an influential, important person among my people. None of them object to me. Let me go and invite them to the religion of Islam. Do pray so that Allahu ta’âlâ grants me a sign! Thus, that sign be an ease, a help for me while I invite my people to Islam.’ Upon this request of mine, our Master, Rasûlullah invoked, ‘O my Allah! Create an âyat, a sign for him!’

After this event, I turned back to my town. During a dark night, when I arrived at the hill which is located against the headwater where my tribe resided; a nûr like a candle appeared on my forehead and started to give out light. Then I prayed by say- ing, ‘O my Allah! Cause this nûr to be conveyed to another part of my body, lest the ignorant ones of the Daws tribe assume it as a divine penalty given by Allah due to apostatizing, when they see it on my forehead.’ Then that nûr immediately came to the end of my whip and was suspended there like a candle. When I was approaching the town of my tribe and started downhill, people attending there were showing each other the nûr suspending like a candle at the end of my whip. In this circumstance I walked downhill and reached home. My father came and saw me first. He embraced me out of his love. My father was very old. I said to him, ‘O my father! If you remain in your current situation, neither I am from you, nor are you from me!’ When my fa- ther heard this from me he was astonished and asked, ‘What is the reason, o my son?’ As a responds, I said, ‘I became Muslim by embracing the religion of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm.’ Upon that my father said, ‘O my son, I embraced the religion which you embraced, too. Let your religion be my religion, too!’ and became Muslim by saying the Kalima-i shahâdat. After this, I taught him what I knew about Islam. Then he took a bath and put on clean clothes. Later on my wife came next to me. I said to her the same things. She accepted and became Muslim, too.

In the morning, I went into the Daws tribe. I informed all the Daws people of Is- lam. I invited them too. Yet, they were hesitant to accept it. Even, they opposed it for a long time. They did not give up their sinful and evil deeds. They went further and made fun of me by mimicries. Because of their addiction to charging interest and gambling, they did not listen to me. They refrained from obeying Islam. They became disobedient to Allah and His Messenger.

After a while, I came to Mecca and complained of my people to Rasûlullah; I said,

‘O Rasûlullah! Daws tribe has become disobedient to Allahu ta’âlâ. They did not ac- cept my invitation to embrace Islam. Do pray for them!’ Our beloved Prophet, whose tenderness and compassion for everyone was great, opened his hands, turning towards the Kâ’ba, and invoked, ‘O my Rabb! Show the true path to the Daws people and bring them to the religion of Islam!’ He said to me, ‘Return to your people! Con- tinue to invite them to Islam with a smiling face and sweet tongue! Behave mildly towards them!’ I went to my homeland immediately. I never ceased, at any time, to invite the Daws people to the religion of Islam.” 69

Invitation at festivals

Every year on certain days, to visit the Kâbe, people came to Mecca from various cities. Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam met with those who arrived and spoke about Islam with each group. He advised them that Allahu ta’âlâ was one (there is no god but Allah) and he was a true Messenger. He announced that salvation was on this path. One day, Walîd bin Mugîra gathered the polytheists and said, “O Quraysh people! The season of visiting the Kâ’ba has come again. Muhammad’s voice has spread over the world. Arab tribes come to him, become inclined to his sweet words and embrace his religion. We should find out a preventive measure. Let us agree on this and let us not be contradictory with each other by saying different things about him.” The Qurayshîs said, “O the father of Abdishams! You are the most farsighted among us. We will tell them whatever you see appropriate.” When Walîd replied, “No, you tell me, I will listen to you,” they said, “Let us call him a soothsayer.” Walîd refused immediately, “No, I swear that he is not a soothsayer. We have seen many soothsayers. They say the right and the wrong without hesitation. The recitations of Muhammad are not like the ones which were made up by the soothsayers.

69 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 382,385; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 168; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, ıı, 417.

Further- more, we have not heard a lie from Muhammad so far. If we say this, no one will be- lieve us.” This time they said, “Let us call him insane.” Walîd opposed again, saying, “No! I swear that he is not insane or crazy. We know and well understand the signs of insanity. He does not have the feeling of drowning, trembling or baseless fears. If we say this, they will refute us.” The Qurayshîs said, “Let us call him a poet.” Walîd rejected again, “He is not a poet either! We know each kind of poem very well. His reciting is not alike to any kind of poem.” This time, they said, “Let us call him a magician.” Walîd said, “He is not a magician either. We have seen magicians and their magic. There is no sign of magic in his words. Muhammad’s words are victorious over the entire world. He is not an unknown person. We cannot stop people from talking to him. He is superior to the people in eloquence and fluency. In short, whatever we say about him, the people will understand that it is a lie.” When the Qurayshîs could not find another thing, they said, “You are the oldest and most experienced of us, we agree to what you say.”

Upon this, Walîd bin Mugîra thought for a while. Then he invoked the people around him by saying, “The best is to let us call him a magician, a sorcerer, this is the most reasonable choice. Because, with his words, he is separating people from their own nation and he is putting distance between brothers and friends.” The Qurayshîs dispersed immediately and they said to the people in Mecca, “Muhammad is a magi- cian!” They spread this word among the people. When tribes started to come to visit the Kâ’ba, there was no one left that had not to be warned against speaking with our Master, the Prophet.

Due to these acts of the polytheists, Islam was announced within all Arabian states, developing great doubt in their minds, regarding idols.

Allahu ta’âlâ sent verses informing that He will bitterly torment the disbeliever named Walîd bin Mugîra. Muddaththir Sûra, from its 11th   âyat-i karîma, purports, (O My Rasûl!) Leave to Me to deal with (punish) the creature (a disbeliever like Walîd bin Mugîra who was born without abundance) whom I created alone! (I am enough to avenge upon him. I created that unbeliever) and I granted him properties in abundance (afterwards I made this ungrateful person who did not have anything, attain many blessings. I granted him many orchards, vineyards and goods.) and sons (living with him in Mecca-i mukarrama) to be by his side! (They all lived in opu- lence.) I made his life and position extend! (He attained a high presidency in Mecca. He owned various vineyards and orchards between Mecca and Tâif. He was named as Rayhânat-ul Arab. He was introducing himself to his tribe as an eximious (select, chosen) man. He should have been grateful for these blessings, hadn’t he? He should have accepted and believed in Allahu ta’âlâ Who granted him all these blessings, hadn’t he?) Then he (this greedy, ungrateful person) wants that We should add yet more on what We granted (property and sons) him. (He does not appraisingly try to be grateful for the blessings he attained. What a big ambition is this and what an ugly ungratefulness?) By no means! (The wish of this unbeliever and greedy person will not be accepted. His property and sons will not be increased.) For to Our verses (Qur’ân-i karîm) he has been refractory! (Although he understood at heart that My Rasûl is trustworthy and a prophet, he dared to deny due to his obstinacy. What a big heresy!) I will expose that unbeliever to saûd torment… (Regarding saûd, men- tioned in this verse, it was declared in a hadîth-i sharîf that, “Saûd is a mountain in Hell. A disbeliever can climb it in seventy years. Later he falls down. And it con- tinues so.”) Then that disbeliever thought (how he could talk against the Qur’ân-i karîm that he heard from Rasûlullah.) and plotted (in his opinion and prepared some words.) Woe to him! How he contemplated and plotted (about Qur’ân-i karîm)! Again and again woe to him! How he plotted! Then he looked (at his people’s faces for what he will say about Qur’ân-i karîm.) Then he frowned and scowled (because of his anger and since he could not find anything to say against Qur’ân-i karîm.) Then he turned back (from believing in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Rasûl) and was haughty. And he said, “This (what Muhammad says) is nothing but magic, learnt from sorcer- ers and conveyed to us. This is nothing but the word of a human being!” However, he had previously confessed when he was among his people that Qur’ân-i karîm was a wonderful word and bore no resemblance to the words of humans and ge- nies. Then this denier, by changing his words, slandered Qur’ân-i karim, which it never deserved, in order to please his people. Then he made himself deserve the divine torment. Allahu ta’âlâ said, “I will cast him into Seqar, Hell. What has been explained to you as to what Seqar, Hell is? That Hell both leaves nothing from the body (perishes everything), and it reinstates again and continues (to apply the same torment).

Polytheists’ listening to the Qur’ân al-Karîm

The notables of the polytheists were preventing people from embracing Islam by various tricks and cruelties. They would prohibit the Meccan people from listening to the verses recited by Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. However, they themselves would secretly come near the house of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, hide in a corner and listen to the verses. As morning came, things became clear in the daylight, and when the notables of the polytheists noticed that each of them had secretly come to listen to the Qur’ân-i karîm at night, they would blame one another and say, “Let’s not do this again.” But, they would go again without informing each other and listen to Qur’ân-i karîm by hiding in a corner. When they saw each other in the morning, they would be astonished. They would disperse, swearing not to do the same thing again, but they would not be able to keep their words. However, by yielding to their carnal souls, by becoming arrogant and having vain hopes, and since they were afraid of being blamed by other polytheists, they did not become believers. They prevented others too. More- over they shouted in the streets, “Muhammad is a sorcerer.”

One afternoon, the polytheists gathered around the Kâ’ba and said, “Let us invite Muhammad and talk about this problem, so that people will not criticize us and reject us in the end.” They sent a message to our Master Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. Upon this invitation, our Master, the Prophet came to the Kâ’ba and sat across from the polytheists. The polytheists said, “O Muhammad! The reason for our sending a message to you is to make an agreement with you. We swear that there was no one among Arabs who caused troubles for his people as you did! You have condemned our religion! You have belabored our gods! You did not appreciate our reason! You have divided our unity and put us against each other! There is no catastrophe left that you have not caused for us. If you would like to be rich with these behaviors and words of yours, let us collect goods more than you want. If you would like to get fame and honor, let us accept you as our master. If you would like to be ruler, let us proclaim you ruler and gather around you. If there is anything which you are affected by, let us save you from it. If it is a sickness caused by genies, let us look for its cure by spend- ing all our wealth!”

The Master of the worlds, after listening to them patiently, gave this great reply, “O the Quraysh community! None of the things you mentioned exists on me. With the things I brought to you, I came neither to want your properties, nor to gain glory among you or to be your ruler. But Allahu ta’âlâ sent me as a prophet to you and descended the Book to me. He ordered me to be a herald (with Paradise) for you (the believers among you) and to warn (with Hell, the ones who don’t be- lieve). And I have announced this order of my Rabb to you and gave you advice. If you accept what I brought for you, they will be your shares and provisions in both this world and the Hereafter. If you don’t accept and if you refuse it, what falls to my share until Allahu ta’âlâ adjudges between me and you, is standing out and enduring against all difficulties in order to fulfill Janâb-i Haqq’s order to me.”

Abû Jahl, Umayya bin Khalaf and other polytheists said, “O Muhammad! You know that there are no other people in more difficult conditions regarding sustenance than us. As you are a prophet, pray to your Rabb, so that He removes those mountains which annoy us and which make our living difficult! He enlarges our lands and makes rivers as in Damascus and Iraq run on it! In addition, He revives some of our prede- cessors, firstly Kusayy bin Kilâb. Kusayy bin Kilâb was a truthful, great person. Let us ask him whether your words are true or false! If he affirms you and if you fulfill our requests, we will affirm you. With this, we will have learned your degree before your Rabb. If you do not do these for us, get something for yourself from your Rabb. Ask Him to send you an angel who will affirm your words and who will send away us from you! Also, your Rabb gives gardens, mansions, treasures so that you get rid of economic hardships! Because, you are walking in the markets and working for your livelihood as we are!”

Our Master Fakhr-i âlam, said, “I was not sent to you with these things. I have brought to you from Janâb-i Haqq, only with what I have been sent by Allahu ta’âlâ. I have announced it to you. I am not such a person who makes a wish (for property) from his Rabb. Allahu ta’âlâ sent me as a herald (with Paradise for the believers who accept what I brought among you) and to warn (with Hell the ones who don’t accept). If you accept what I brought for you, they will be your shares and provisions in both this world and the Hereafter. If you don’t accept and if you refuse it, what falls to me until Allahu ta’âlâ adjudges between me and you, is standing out and enduring against all difficulties in order to fulfill Janâb-i Haqq’s order to me.”

This time, the polytheists said, “As your Rabb, if He wishes, can do anything, ask Him to tear and fall down that sky over us!.. Unless you do this, we will not believe you!” Our Master, the Prophet said, “This does belong to Allahu ta’âlâ. If He wants to do this to you, He will certainly do!” Upon this, the polytheists went further and said, “O Muhammad! Did your Rabb not know that we would sit down with you, what we would ask of you and what we would ask from you, that He did not teach them to you before by informing you? Why did He not announce what He would do to us if we did not accept of what you notified us? Unless you bring the angels as witness, we do not believe you. We do not have any obligation to you anymore. We swear that we will not leave you alone. Either we will destroy you or you will destroy us!” Our beloved Prophet, who saw that they moved away from him completely instead of approaching, left the place.70

Upon Meccan polytheists’ refusal of the sultan of the universe, Allahu ta’âlâ de- scended a revelation with Jabrâil alaihis-salâm and replied to them with âyat-i karî- mas. He communicated the severe torments which they would bare. It has been pur- ported in the âyat-i karîmas from the fourth to the eleventh of the Sûrat-ul-An’âm: “There is not even a verse, among the verses of their Rabb, (a verse among the verses or a proof among the proofs or a miracle among the miracles of the Qur’ân-i karîm) from which they have not turned away their faces. They are the ones who contradict when they are informed of what is Right (Qur’ân-i karîm). But the message (punishment) for that which they have ridiculed and mocked, shall reach them soon. Haven’t they (people of Mecca) seen that we annihilated many gener- ations before them? Haven’t they intimately known of that? We had given them all opportunities that we have not given to you. We had bountifully sent rains over them. We had granted them rivers flowing (under their orchards, gardens and palaces). Then we had annihilated them due to their sins (and they had not made praise for these blessings). We had created different generations in their place.

If we had descended upon you a written book in paper form and if they had held it with their hands, again those disbelievers, out of their obstinacy, would have said that, ‘This is nothing but obvious magic.’ Furthermore they said, ‘If at the least an angel (which we could also see) had been sent to him (Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm) (and would have said that he was a prophet).’ If we had sent an angel (and if they had not become believer), the matter would have been completed for sure (a verdict would have been given to destroy all of them). Then they would have not been granted a term of respite in the blink of an eye, nor would they have been taken into consideration. If we had made him (the Prophet) an angel, again we would have shown him in a man (figure) for sure and again we would have thrown them into the same suspicion. They had also ridiculed and mocked the prophets before you, and then they had been surrounded with the disaster and torment as punishment for their deeds. Say that, “Look around you and see. How was the end of those that had contradicted the prophets been?”

70 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 315.

It has been purported in the 7th and 10th âyat-i karîmas of Furqân Sûra, “The disbe- lievers said, ‘How is this a prophet? He eats and drinks, and walks on the streets like us. If he was a prophet, an angel would come to him. He would have helpers and they would also bring us messages and frighten us with Hell. Or his Rabb would send him money treasures or he would have fruit gardens, farms and he would eat whatever he wanted.’ Those cruel people said to each other, ‘If you follow him, then you are tied to a bewitched man.’ (O My Beloved!) Take into consideration that they have made many bad slanders about you, they have deviated from the right way and have fallen into heresy. From now on they are not able to come out of heresy and find the right way. Allahu ta’âlâ’s glory is so high that, if He wishes, He gives to you more beneficial orchards, gardens under which rivers flow and makes palaces for you!”

It has been purported in the 21st âyat-i karîma, “Those who don’t expect to reach us said, ‘If only angels had descended for us (so that they would have informed us that Muhammad told the truth) or if only we had seen our Rabb.’ They have felt ar- rogance and gone beyond the limit with a great excessiveness…”

It has been purported in the 9th âyat-i karîma of Saba’ Sûra, “If we had wished, we would have pushed them into the ground (like Croesus, due to their contradic- tions, although they see Our evident verses) or drop pieces of fire from the sky over them.”

It has been purported in the 97th âyat-i karîma of Isrâ Sûra, “…We will resurrect them while their faces are down and as blind, dumb and deaf on the Day of Judgment! The place that they will reach is Hell, the flame of which we increase whenever it dies down!”

The polytheists completely increased their hostility after the âyat-i karîmas about them had been revealed. Especially Ubay bin Halaf and his brother Umayya would make Rasûlullah’s heart bleed. Unfortunate Ubay came in the high presence of our Prophet while he was holding a carious bone in his hand. Then he said, “O Mu- hammad! Allegedly your Allah will resurrect this bone after it has decayed, is that right? So you think that your Rabb will resurrect this bone after it has decayed!” and crumbled the bone. Then he blew the dust of the bone towards our beloved Prophet. By continuing he said, “O Muhammad! Who will be able to resurrect this after it has decayed so?” Our Master, the Prophet said, “Yes. Allahu ta’âlâ will kill you and it, too… Then He will resurrect you and put you into Hell.” Upon this event, Janâb-i Haqq revealed the âyat-i karîma purporting, “Did not that person (disbeliever) see and closely know that we have created him out of semen? Even it is so, he became an apparent bellicose. Forgetting his creation, he gave an example to Us by saying, ‘Who resurrects this bone while it has decayed and spread around?’ (O My Rasûl!) Say that, “Who firstly created (Allahu ta’âlâ) them (out of nothing) will res- urrect and He is the One Who rightly knows every created being. He (Allahu ta’âlâ) is the One Who brought out fire from a very green tree. Now you light a fire from it. Isn’t the One Who created the skies and earth, strong enough to create such as these? He is strong enough for sure. He is the Creator of everything and knows everything…” 71

Belief of Khâlid bin Sa’îd

In the early times of the invitation to Islam, Khâlid bin Sa’îd had seen a dream. In his dream, he was standing near Hell. His father wanted to push and cause him to fall. He saw that, at that moment, our Prophet rescued him from falling down to Hell by holding his waist. He woke up by crying and he said, “I swear that this dream was true.” When he went out, he met Hadrat Abû Bakr and told him his dream. Hadrat Abû Bakr said to him, “Your dream is true. This person is Allahu ta’âlâ’s prophet. Now, go and obey him. You will abide by him, you will accept his religion and you will accompany him. He will protect you from falling down to Hell, as you saw in your dream. But your father will stay in Hell.”

Hadrat Khâlid bin Sa’îd was under the influence of the dream. He did not lose time and he went immediately to the place called Ajyâd, to the presence of Muhammad alaihis-salâm. He asked, “O Muhammad! To what do you invite people?” Our prophet said, “I invite people to believe in one Allah, who has no partner or match and the fact that Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is His born slave and prophet, to abandon worshipping some pieces of stone which does not hear or see and who do not know who worship them or not.” Upon this, Khâlid bin Sa’îd immediately became Muslim by saying, “I, too, testify that there is no god but Allah and again I testify that you are His prophet.” His becoming Muslim made our Prophet very happy. After him, his wife, Umayya, was honored by becoming Muslim too.

Hadrat Khâlid bin Sa’îd wanted his brothers to become Muslims and made many efforts for that. Of them, ’Umar bin Sa’îd had become Muslim too. When his father, Abû Uhayha, who was a vehement foe of Islam, learned that Khâlid and ‘Umar be- came Muslims and that they performed ritual prayers at a solitary place in Mecca, sent his non-Muslim sons to bring them to him. Then, he told them to abandon their new religion. He started scolding them and beating them. Then, he told Khâlid bin Sa’îd, “Have you become subject to Muhammad? However, you see that he contravenes his own people. He insults our idols and ancestors by what he brought.” When Had- rat Khâlid bin Sa’îd said, “I swear to Allah that Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm tells the truth. I have become subject to him. I die, but I will not leave my religion!” his father became even more angry. He beat him with a stick until it was broken, then he said, “O my bad son! Go wherever you want. I swear that I will not give you any bread!” Hadrat Khâlid said, “If you cut my allowance, surely, Allahu ta’âlâ will grant me myfood.” His father threatened his other sons by saying, “If any one of you speaks with him, I will do to you what I did not do to him.” He imprisoned Hadrat Khâlid in the cellar of the house. He left him without food and water for three days in the heat of Mecca.

71 Sûrat-u Yâsîn, 36/77-81.

Hadrat Khâlid bin Sa’îd found an opportunity and escaped from his father. His fa- ther contracted a serious disease. Abû Uhayha, out of his enmity towards Islam, was saying, from his bed, “If I get rid of the illness and stand up, everyone in Mecca will worship our idols. No one will be able to worship other than them.” Hadrat Khâlid, to end his father’s enmity towards Islam and not to harm his Muslim brothers, invoked that, “O my Allah who created the worlds! Do not make my father recover from this illness.” Janâb-i Haqq accepted his invocation; Abû Uhayha could not recover and he died.

Mus’ab bin Umayr’s conversion to Islam

Mus’ab belonged to one of the noble and rich families of the Quraysh. When he heard the blessed words of our Prophet alaihis-salâm, a great love arose in his heart. He longed for seeing him. In the end, he went to Dâr-ul-Arkâm and became Mus- lim. Hearing that, his mother and his father began to torment him, too. To make him abandon his religion, they imprisoned him in the cellar of their house. They left him hungry and thirsty for days. In the burning sun of Arabia, they made heavy and un- bearable tortures on him. However, Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr endured these heavy and merciless torments and he did not give up Islam.

Hadrat Mus’ab, before becoming Muslim, due to his family’s richness, was brought up in wealth and abundance. Everyone wanted to be like him. When he became Mus- lim, his family deprived him of everything and tortured him. One day, Mus’ab bin Umayr, who endured every difficulty for the sake of his religion, went to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah. Hadrat Ali related his coming as follows, “We were sitting with Rasûlullah. At that moment, Mus’ab bin Umayr came. He had patched clothes on. He was in a pitiable state. When Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam saw his situation, his blessed eyes filled with tears. In spite of the poverty and torments Mus’ab endured, he did not abandon his religion. Upon this, Rasûlullah said, “Look at this person whose heart is enlightened by Allahu ta’âlâ. I had seen that his parents nourished him with the best of food and drink. The love of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger turned him into that state which you see.”

lineHEGIRA TO ABYSSINIA

In the fifth year of the prophethood of our Master Rasûlullah, despite the tortures of the polytheists, the number of Muslims continued to increase. However, the pol- ytheists increased their tortures too and they were doing everything they could to torment Muslims. Our Master, the Prophet, was greatly saddened by the fact that his Companions were under unbearable tortures and that they were being torn apart by being tied to camels and drawn to opposite directions. These tortures intensified day by day and his heart, full of compassion, could not bear it. One day, he gathered the Ashâb-i kirâm and said, “O my Companions! Disperse over the Earth now. Allahu ta’âlâ will bring you together again soon!” They asked, “O Rasûlullah! Where shall we go?” Our Master, the Prophet, with his blessed hand, showed the land of Abyssinia and said, “There! To the land of Abyssinians! 72 For, there is a ruler near whom no one is tyrannized. It is a country of truth. Until Allahu ta’âlâ opens a way out from your difficulties to salvation, stay there” Thus, our Master, Sarwar-i âlam Muhammad Mustafâ (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) decided that his Companions would be safe from the tortures and he himself would continue the struggle against the Meccan polytheists. Our beloved Prophet, who said, “My Ummet (my people)! My Ummet (my people)!” when he came into the world, was making a self sacrifice for his companions’ safety. Upon this permission of his, some of the Ashâb-i kirâm left their homeland and immigrated!.. But, their sorrow was great, due to their departing from our beloved Prophet.

In this first migration, Hadrat ‘Uthmân and his wife Ruqayya binti Rasûlullah, Abû Huzayfa and his wife Sahla binti Suhayl, Zubayr bin Awwâm, Mus’ab bin Umayr, Ab- durrahmân bin ‘Awf, Abû Salama bin Abdulasad and his wife Ummu Salama, Khâtib bin Amr, Âmir bin Rabîa and his wife Laylâ binti Abî Hasma, ‘Uthmân bin Maz’ûn, Abû Sabra bin Abî Ruhm and his wife Ummu Gulthum binti Suhayl, Suhayl bin Bay- dâ and Abdullah bin Mas’ûd had joined. 73

Our Master, the Prophet said about Hadrat ’Uthman, “Verily, ’Uthman is the first person who immigrated with his wife, after the prophet Lût.” Secretly, some of the Ashâb-i kirâm left Mecca on animals, some on foot. By paying fares to traders, they reached the coasts of Abyssinia on ships through the Red Sea. The polytheists learned of this and they started to track them down. But, their efforts were in vain and they returned in disappointment.

72 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 194; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 321; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 203-204; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 411; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 94.
73 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 205-210; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 204.

The Negus, ruler of Abyssinia, treated Muslims well. He settled them in his coun- try. The Ashâb-i kirâm said of Abyssinia, “We experienced having a good neighbor and protection here. Our religion was intact, we were not hurt. Nor did we hear any unpleasant words, either. In peace, we worshipped Allahu ta’âlâ.” 74

Hadrat Hamza’s conversion to Islam

The voice of Islam spread ear to ear, day by day and reached the lands beyond. This situation made the Quraysh polytheists furious. They could not stop the spreading of Islam in spite of all their efforts.

It has been reported in the books named “Dalâil-un Nubuwwa” and “Ma’ârij- un Nubuwwa”: Walîd, one of the polytheists, had an idol. They would gather on the hill called Safâ and worship this idol. One day, our Master, the Prophet went to them and invited the polytheists to Islam. An unbeliever genie entered that idol and said inappropriate things about our beloved Prophet. Our Master, Fakhr-i âlam (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) became sad. Another day, an invisible genie greeted our Master, the Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! I heard that an infidel genie spoke of you improperly. I have found and killed him. If you wish, would you honor the Hill of Safâ tomorrow? You invite them to Islam again; I will enter that idol and say praising things about you.” Our Master, the Prophet accepted the offer of this genie whose name was Abdullah.

Our beloved Prophet, the next day, went there and invited the polytheists to faith again. Abû Jahl was there, too. The Muslim genie entered the idol in the hands of the polytheists and said praising words and poems about our beloved Prophet and Islam. The polytheists, when they heard these words, broke the idol and attacked Rasûlullah. His blessed hair was torn and disheveled. His blessed face was bloodied. He showed patience to these torments of the polytheists and said, “O the Qurayshîs! You are hitting me. However, I am your Prophet.” He left there and came to his house. A maiden girl had seen the entire incident.

At that moment, Hadrat Hamza was hunting on a mountain. He was about to shoot an arrow at a gazelle. Suddenly, the gazelle said to him, “O Hamzâ! Instead of shoot- ing the arrow at me, it will be better for you to shoot it at those who want to kill your nephew” Hadrat Hamzâ was astonished by these words. He went to his house quick- ly. As a custom of his, after returning from hunting, he would visit Haram-i sharîf for making tawâf (the circumambulation of the Kâ’ba). That day, during the tawâf, the maiden girl came and told him what Abû Jahl had done to Muhammad (’alai- his-sâlam). Due to the zeal of kinship, Hadrat Hamza became very angry. He took his weapons and went to where the polytheists were present. He bloodied Abû Jahl’s head with his bow, saying, “Are you the person who said bad words to and hurt my brother’s son? His religion is my religion too. If you are able to, do to me, whatever you did to him!” The infidels there wanted to attack Hadrat Hamza. But Abû Jahl told them, “Do not touch him! Hamza is right. I said bad words to his nephew” After Hadrat Hamzâ’s leaving, Abû Jahl told the people around, “Do not irritate him! I am afraid that he will get angry at us and become Muslim. In this case, Muhammad will gain strength.” He allowed his head to be bloodied lest Hadrat Hamza become Muslim and pointed out how worthy of respect Hadrat Hamza was and how much strength and respect he enjoyed.

74 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 194-204; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 321-332; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 204; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 411.

Hadrat Hamza came to our Master, the Prophet and said, “O Muhammad! I have taken your revenge from Abû Jahl. I bloodied him. Don’t be sad, rejoice!” Our belov- ed Prophet replied, “I do not rejoice at things like that!” When Hadrat Hamza said, “To make you rejoice and to save you from sadness, I will do whatever you want”, our Master, the Prophet replied, “I will rejoice only at your believing and saving your precious body from the fire of Hell.” Hadrat Hamza became Muslim at once. An âyat-i karîma was revealed about him. According to the report of Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbâs, “In the Qur’ân al-karîm, in the 122nd âyat-i karîma of the Sûrat-ul-An’âm; the person who was resurrected and made to attain the light is Hadrat Hamza and in the same âyat-i karîma, the person who floundered in darkness is Abû Jahl.”

Hadrat Hamza went to the polytheists and told them he became Muslim and would protect the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, even if it would cost him his life. He recited an eulogy. He said in this eulogy, “Praise be to Allahu ta’âlâ that he made my heart inclined to Islam and the truth. This religion has been sent by Allahu ta’âlâ Who knows everything His slaves commit, Who treats everyone with His blessings and Whose power is triumphant over everything. He is the Rabb of the universes. When the Qur’ân al-karîm is recited, tears come down from eyes of the reasonable and good hearted. The Qur’ân al-karîm has been descent to Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm as explained verses in a fluent language. He, Muhammad Mustafa is an esteemed, respected, blessed person among us. O polytheists! Beware of speaking ill of him! If you want to kill him, no one can touch him unless stepping over our corpses.”

Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam rejoiced greatly at the conversion of Hadrat Hamza to Islam. The Muslims became much stronger with his joining.

With Hadrat Hamza’s embracing Islam, the situation changed, because, Meccans knew what a great warrior, dependable, chivalrous hero he was. Thus, the Quraysh polytheists could not maltreat Muslims with wanton anymore. Especially, they were afraid of the sword of Hadrat Hamza.75

Hadrat ’Umar’s conversion to Islam

Islam was spreading day by day and the light of Qur’ân al-karîm was illuminating the souls. Sinful people were converting to Islam as a gift from Allahu ta’âlâ and embracing the right way. Having been honored by joining the Ashâb-i kirâm, these blessed people were coming together and they were serving our Master Rasûlullah with a great enthusiasm. Even if it was a small request from him, they saw it as a command. They were racing against each other to help him and they were not even hesitating to give their lives. Polytheists were in great panic and anxiety. Also, one of their most prominent, Hadrat Hamza, had become Muslim and he was standing together with them. This unexpected occasion made polytheists crazy.

75 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 151-153; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 291-292.

’Umar, the son of Khattâb (at that time he had not yet become Muslim) went out of his house to kill our Master Rasûlullah. He saw our beloved Prophet while he was praying in Masjid-i harâm. He wanted him to finish his prayer and began listening to him. Our Master, the Prophet was reciting the Surâ of Al-Hâqqa. It purports, “The Doomsday which is absolutely going to happen!… What is that Doomsday which is real? Who has told you about that Doomsday which is going to come rightly? (The people of) Samûd and Âd denied and disclaimed the Doomsday which will shake the hearts. The people of Samûd were destroyed due to their being depraved (by the shout of Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm). As for the people of Âd, they perished by a ravaging, thundering, wild and violent hurricane. Allahu ta’âlâ imposed that hurricane on them during seven nights and eight days. (They had been turned into such a state that if you had been present there) you would have seen how they per- ished and fell like hollow date palm trunks which collapse after they have broken from their roots! Can you see anybody remaining from them now?

Pharaoh, those before him and the community that had been turned upside down (the people of Lût) always committed the same mistake (polytheism and diso- bedience). In this way they revolted against the prophets (against Lût ’alaihis-salâm and other prophets) of their Rabb. Thereupon a torment stronger than the previ- ous communities suffered caught them… In fact we carried you (your ancestors who caused your existence) in the ark when it had flooded everywhere (during the flood of Noah) in order for it to be a lesson for you and to be memorized by those whose had heard it. When the Sûr is sounded once, the earth’s surface and the mountains will be removed and shaken. That day is the Doomsday; the sky, by loosing its strength and firmness, will be torn and dispersed and the angels will be around the firmament. (Angels will be ready for the commands of their Rabb). That day, eight angels (among the angels around the firmament) will undertake to carry the Arsh of your Rabb. That day, you will be presented (to Allahu ta’âlâ for giving account). So much so that none of your secrets (you supposed that you hid while you were in the world) will be secret (for Allahu ta’âlâ).

At that time the person who has been given his book to his right hand says (in happiness), ‘Take it and read it! Because, I surely knew that I would reach my reckoning.’ He is in a life which has been consented. He is in a high Paradise… He is so close (to the fruits) that he can quickly collect. (They will be told that,) ‘Eat, drink and good appetite, because of the good deeds you committed in the past days (in the world).’

As for the person whose book has been given to his left hand he says, ‘Alas! I wish my book had not been given to me… I wish I would not even know what was in my account. Alas! I wish it (my death) would have been a permanent end (for my life) (and I would never be resurrected)! My properties did not provide me any benefit. (All) my pride (power, evidence, all that I have) has left me and became destroyed!’ (Allahu ta’âlâ orders the angels in Hell,) ‘Hold him and tie (his hands to his neck)! And throw him to the burning fire! Then put him (again) in there with a chain the length of seventy yards! Because, he would not believe in Allahu ta’âlâ, the Almighty. (He was far from feeding the poor, even) he would not encourage an- ybody to feed the poor. That’s why, today he has no akin (and friend) who will pity him. There is no food for him except gislîn (pus with blood of the people in Hell). Nobody except those (disbelievers) who (knowingly) erred eat it…”

Hadrat ’Umar was listening to the recitings of our Master, the Prophet with admira- tion. He had not heard such beautiful words in his life before. Later he himself said, “I admired the eloquence, smoothness and neatness of these words which I listened to. I told myself, I swear that this person should be a poet as the Qurayshîs say!” Meanwhile, our Prophet continued to recite the âyat-i karîmas:

“I swear by the things you see and you do not see, definitely it (Qur’ân al-karîm) is a word which has been brought (from his Rabb) by a Messenger who is very honorable in the presence of Allahu ta’âlâ. It is not the words of a poet. How little believing people you are!..”

Hadrat ’Umar reported, “Again I said to myself, He must be a soothsayer. Because he has understood what I thought!” Rasûlullah continued to recite the chapter:

“It is not a soothsayer’s word either. How twisted minded people you are!.. It (the Qur’ân al-karîm) has been descended from the Rabb of the worlds (to Mu- hammad ’alaihis-salâm thru Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm). If he (the Prophet) fabricated some words (which We did not say) on Us, certainly, We would take out his right hand (that is his power) and then we would absolutely tear out his jugular vein (that is We would not allow him to live)! That time, none of you would be able to prevent it! Verily, it (the Qur’ân al-karîm) is a definite advice for the people who abstain from the prohibitions. We surely know that there are some who deny it among you (as there are some who affirm it). Absolutely, it (the Qur’ân al-karîm) is an (inevitable) longing for the infidels (who see the blessings given to those who affirm it in the Hereafter). Absolutely, it (the Qur’ân al-karîm) is the haqq-ul-yaqîn (It enables those who obey it and act according to its commandments and prohibitions to reach the degree called haqq-ul-yaqîn). Therefore, praise the name of your al- mighty Rabb.”

Hadrat ’Umar said, “After Rasûlullah recited all the chapter, an inclination towards Islam arouse in my heart.”

Three days after Hadrat Hamza’s becoming Muslim, Abû Jahl gathered the pol- ytheists and said, “O Quraysh! Muhammad has defamed our idols. He has said our ancestors, who came before us, are tormented in Hell and we will go there too! There is no way other than killing him! I will give one hundred red camels and innumerable gold coins to the one who will kill him!” Suddenly, the inclination towards Islam dis- appeared in the heart of ’Umar, son of Khattâb. He jumped and said, “There is no one to do that except the son of Khattâb.” They applauded him by saying, “Go ahead, the son of Khattâb! Let us see you.”

He girded his sword and set off. While he was going, he met with Nu’aym bin Ab- dullah. He asked, “O ’Umar! Where are you going with this vehemence and anger?” He answered, “I am going to kill Muhammad who has caused disunion among people and enmity between brothers.” Nu’aym said, “O ’Umar! This is a difficult job. His companions show great attention and devotion to him. They are extremely careful so that nothing harms him. It is very difficult to approach them. Even if you kill him, you will not be able to escape from the sons of Abdulmuttalib.”

Hadrat ’Umar became very angry with these words. He held his sword and said, “Are you one of them too? I will kill you first.” He said, “O ’Umar! Leave me! Go to your sister Fâtima and her husband Sa’îd bin Zayd. They have become Muslim too.” Hadrat ’Umar did not believe these words. He said, “If you don’t believe it, go and ask them! You’ll see.”

If Hadrat ‘Umar succeeded, the religious separation would end but the blood feud which was a custom of Arabs would start, the Quraysh would be divided into two and clashes would begin. Thus, not only ’Umar bin Khattâb, even all the sons of Khattâb would be killed. However, he could not think of all these because he was very strong, brave and furious. He wondered about his sister and went to their home immediately. At that time, Tâhâ Sûra had recently descended. Saîd and Fâtima had it written, they had brought one of the Companions, Hadrat Khabbâb bin Arat and they were reading out Tâhâ Sûra. Hadrat ’Umar heard their voices at the door. He knocked on the door very harshly. When they saw him with his sword and that he was angry, they hid the writing and Hadrat Khabbâb. Then they opened the door. When he entered the house he asked, “What were you reading?” They said, “Nothing” He became even more angry and said, “So it is true what I heard, you, too, are fooled by his magic.” He held Hadrat Sa’îd’s neck and threw him to the ground. While his sister was trying to save her husband, he slapped her face too. When he saw that her face started bleeding he pitied her. Fâtima was in pain and blood. But, the power of her belief made her to say, “O ’Umar! Why do you not feel shame of Allah and why do you not believe in his Prophet whom He sent with signs and miracles? Now, my husband and I have been honored by becoming Muslim. We will not abandon this religion; even if you cut our heads off.” then she recited the Kalima-i shahâdat.

Hadrat ’Umar, upon his sister’s belief, calmed down suddenly and sat down. With a soft voice, he said, “Bring out that book which you read.” Fâtima said, “I will not give it to you unless you clean yourself.” Hadrat ’Umar performed a ritual bathing. Then Fâtima brought the page of the Qur’ân al-karîm. Hadrat ’Umar was an able literate. He started to read out the Tâhâ Sûra. The eloquence, fluency, meanings and superior- ities of the Qur’ân al-karîm increasingly softened his heart.

When he read the âyat-i karîma, which purported, “In the skies and on the Earth and those between them and the things under the ground (with seven layers) all belong to Him” 76, he started thinking deeply. He said, “O Fâtima! Do all these innu- merable existences belong to Allah Whom you worship?” His sister answered, “Yes, they do! Do you have a suspicion?” His amazement increased, he said, “O Fâtima! We have about one thousand five hundred ornamented sculptures made of gold, silver, bronze, stone. None of them owns anything on the Earth.” He read more;

“There is no true god except Allahu ta’âlâ Who deserves to be worshipped. The most beautiful names are His.”77. He thought over this âyat-i karîma. “Certainly, what a true word,” he said. When Habbâb heard this, he leaped up and said takbîr. Then, he said, “Glad tidings to you O ’Umar! Rasûlullah prayed to Allahu ta’âlâ say- ing, ‘O my Rabb! Strengthen this religion either with Abû Jahl or ’Umar.’ Now, this blessing is bestowed upon you.”

This âyat-i karîma and that prayer completely erased the animosity in Hadrat ’Umar’s heart. He asked right away, “Where is Rasûlullah?” His heart has been drawn to Rasûlullah. That day Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was giving advice to his Companions in the house of Hadrat Arkam. Ashâb-i kirâm, having gath- ered, were burnishing their hearts by seeing his luminous face and listening to his sweet and impressive words and refreshing their souls by turning into different states in infinite enjoyment, pleasure and cheer.

Hadrat ’Umar’s coming was seen from the house of Arkam. He had his sword too. Since Hadrat ’Umar was a redoubtable and powerful person, the Ashâb-i kirâm sur- rounded Rasûlullah. Hadrat Hamza said, “Why do you refrain from ’Umar? If he came with good intentions, he is welcome. If not, I will behead him before he draws his sword!” Rasûlullah said, “Let him come in!”

Hadrat Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ (Archangel Gabriel), previously, had informed our Master, the Prophet that Hadrat ’Umar was on the road and he was coming to embrace Islam. Our Master Rasûlullah welcomed Hadrat ’Umar with a smile. He said, “Leave him alone.” Hadrat ’Umar sat down before Rasûlullah. Rasûlullah held Hadrat ’Umar from his arm and told, “O ’Umar, believe!” Hadrat ’Umar recited the Kalima-i shahâ- da sincerely. The Ashâb-i kirâm, out of their joy, said takbîrs loudly.

Hadrat ’Umar explained his situation after he embraced Islam as follows, “When I converted to Islam, Ashâb-i kirâm were hiding from polytheists and they were praying secretly. I was so upset for that reason and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Aren’t we on the right path?” Our Master, the Prophet answered by saying, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that whether you are dead or alive, you are on the right path.” Upon that I said, “Since we are on the right path and the polytheists are on the wrong path then why are we hiding our religion from them? I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that we deserve and have right more than the polytheists to declare the religion of Islam against infidelity. The religion of Allahu ta’âlâ is going to prevail in Mecca for sure. It will be very good if our tribe behaves, if they want to make a fuss, we will combat them.” Upon that our Master, Rasûlullah said, “We are few in number!”

76 Sûrat-u Tâhâ, 20/6.
77 Sûrat-u Tâhâ, 20/8.

I said, “O Rasûlulah! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who has sent you as a true prophet, without any hesitation and fear, no polytheist community to which I do not tell about Islam will be left. Let us arise.” When it was accepted, we went out as two rows and walked to the Haram-i sharîf. At the head of one row, there was Hamza, at the other, I was present. With harsh steps, as if we were turning the soil into flour, by raising a cloud of dust, we entered the Masjid-i harâm. The Quraysh polytheists were looking at me and Hamza successively. They were so grieved that perhaps they had never fallen into such agony before in their lives.”

Upon this coming of Hadrat ‘Umar, Abû Jahl went forward and asked, “O ’Umar! What is that situation of yours?” Hadrat ’Umar, without paying any attention to him, said, “Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasûluh.” Abû Jahl could not know what to say. He was petrified with astonishment. Hadrat ’Umar turned towards this group of polytheists and said, “O the Quraysh! Some of you know me! He who does not, should know that I am ’Umar, son of Khat- tâb. Those who want to make his wife widow and his children orphan may move! I will cut them down with my sword, anyone who moves!…” The Quraysh polytheists dispersed and went away immediately. Rasûlullah and his high Companions formed a row and said takbîrs loudly. The sky of Mecca was full of interjections of “Allahu Akbar!… Allahu Akbar!” For the first time, a ritual prayer was performed publicly in the Haram-i sharîf. 78

When Hadrat ’Umar became Muslim, the 64th âyat-i karîma of the Anfâl Sûra de- scended. It purported, “O my Prophet! As helpers, Allahu ta’âlâ and those believ- ers who follow you will suffice for you.” Some people in hesitation, when they saw that Hadrat ’Umar became Muslim, chose Islam. They were honored by becoming Ashâb. Now, the number of Muslims started to increase greatly day by day.

Second hegira to Abyssinia

The Muslims in Abyssinia received incorrect news that, “The Muslims and the pol- ytheists had made an agreement in Mecca!” Upon this, they thought, “Our immigra- tion and leaving our lands was due to the animosity of the polytheists. Now, their en- mity has turned into friendship. So, let us go and be honored with serving our Master Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam.” For this reason, they obtained permission from the ruler of Abyssinia and returned to Mecca. Whereupon they learned that the news was incorrect.79

78 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 160-165, 221-229; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 342-350; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 119.
79 Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 205

Then, they went before the presence of our Master, the Prophet. They told him in detail that Abyssinia’s weather and fruits gave strength, there were four houses of worship, everyday camels and sheep were slaughtered there, the poor and those who were strangers were invited and well treated, their ruler came to visit them himself and gave them asylum and their difficulties were dispelled. They ex- pressed their pleasure.80

When Ashâb-i kirâm (alaihimurridwân) returned to Mecca, polytheists began to torture and torment them again. They increased their oppression day by day. They were committing every kind of torment without hesitation. One day Hadrat ’Uthman said, “O Rasûlullah! I saw Abyssinia as a good trading place. A month of trade brings a great deal of earnings. Until Allahu ta’âlâ commands a destination for migration, there is no better place than it for Muslims. At least the Mu’mins (believers) will rid themselves of the cruelty of the Quraysh in this way. Negus offered many gifts and did many favors for us.” Upon that our Master, the Prophet commanded, “Go back to Abyssinia, so that you will be protected by the name of Allahu ta’âlâ.”

When Hadrat ’Uthman said, “O Rasûlullah! If you honor there by visiting, perhaps they will convert to Islam. Since they are a people of the book, they will easily accept Islam and they will not withhold their help.” Our Master, the Prophet replied, “I have not been ordered to have ease and comfort. I am waiting for the command of Allahu ta’âlâ regarding the hegira. I act according to what I am commanded.”

According to a report, a caravan of one hundred and one people, set off for Abyssin- ia the second time. Hadrat Ja’far bin Abî Talîb had been appointed as the commander of this caravan. They reached the country of Negus in sound health. The events they had lived through in Abyssinia were explained by Hadrat Ummu Salama radiyallâhu anhâ, the esteemed wife of our beloved Prophet, as follows:

“When we reached Abyssinia, we met with a very good neighbor. This neighbor was (ruler of Abyssinia) Negus. He fulfilled our every wish. We could perform the orders of our religion as we wanted. We could worship Allahu ta’âlâ freely and we were not hurt. We did not hear any bad words.”

When the Meccan polytheists learned of the situation, they decided to send two envoys to the ruler of Abyssinians (Negus). They prepared very valuable presents for him. They prepared leather products of Mecca which he very much liked. They also allotted presents for Negus’s men and governmental officials. Abdullah bin Abî Rabîa and Amr bin Âs were appointed as envoys. They were taught what they would say before Negus. They were told, “Before speaking to the ruler, give presents to each of his patriarchs and commanders. Then, bestow Negus’ presents to him. After that, re- quest the delivery of Muslims to you. Do not give an opportunity for Negus’ to speak with the Muslims.”81

The envoys came to Abyssinia. After meeting with the governmental officials and giving their presents, they told each of them, “Some people have appeared among us. These people have made up a new religion that neither you nor we know of. We would like to bring those people, who came here, to their own homelands. When you meet with your ruler, try to ensure the delivery of those people to us, without their talking to your ruler. Those who can deal with them best are their own parents and neighbors.

80 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 194; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 364; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 208; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 414.
81 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 195; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 334.

They know these people very well.”82 The patriarchs accepted this suggestion. Then, the Meccan envoys submitted the presents to Negus. Negus accepted the presents, invited them and spoke for a while.

The envoys spoke to Negus as follows, “O Ruler! Some of our people have taken refuge in your country. Those who came abandoned the religion of their nation and they did not embrace your religion either. They have a made-up religion, in accordance with their own mentality. Neither we nor you know of this religion. We have been sent by the notables of their people. These notables are the fathers and relatives of those who took refuge in your country. Their wish is for you to return them. For they know their states more closely. They know better what they do not approve of in their own religion…” Both Amr bin Âs and Abdullah bin Abî Rabîa wanted very much for Negus to listen to their words and act in accordance with their desire. After the envoys’ speech, the patriarchs of Negus took permission to speak and said:

“These people told the truth. Their people can deal with them better. They can better appreciate what they like or not. Because of this reason, do deliver these people, so that they can bring them to their own people and land.”

Negus became very angry upon these words. “No, I swear by Allah! I will not deliv- er these men. I cannot betray people who came to me, who immigrated to my country. These people have preferred me over others and they came to my country. Therefore, I will invite the immigrants to my palace, I will ask them what they will say against the words of these men and I will listen to their answers. If the immigrants are like what these men have said, I will give them and return them to their own people. If they are not, I will protect them and be good to them as long as they stay in my country.” Previously, Negus had studied the Heavenly Books. He knew that the time for Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm’s coming was near and his people would deny him saying that he was a liar and they would expel him from Mecca.

Negus asked the Meccan envoys, “In whom do they believe?” They answered, “Muhammad.” When he heard this name, Negus understood that he was a prophet; however, he did not enunciate this. He asked them again, “What is his religion and his sect, to which he invites people?” Amr replied, “He has no sect.” The Negus said, “How can I deliver a community, whose religion or sect I do not know, and who took refuge to me? Let us assemble them and have them face you. So that everyone’s state will be clear and I will know their religion.” They invited the Muslims to the palace.

The Muslims firstly consulted among themselves and they asked, “What shall we say that the ruler of Abyssinia will like and be appropriate for his character?” Hadrat Ja’far said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that all we know about this issue is only what our Prophet told us. We consent to the result, whatever it will be.” They all accepted, and decided unanimously that only Hadrat Ja’far would speak. They came to the presence of Negus. Negus assembled his scholars. A large meeting was prepared. Then, they brought the immigrants. When the Muslims came, they greeted him. However, they did not make sajda (prostration as in the ritual prayer). Negus asked them, “Why have you not made sajda?” They said, “We do not make sajda for anyone except Allahu ta’âlâ. Our Master, the Prophet has forbidden us from making sajda, except for Allahu ta’âlâ and said, “Sajda is made only for Allahu ta’âlâ.”

82 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 195; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 332.

Negus asked the immigrants, “O the people who came to my presence! Tell me! Why have you come to my country? You are not traders; you do not have a request either. What is the situation of your Prophet who has appeared? Why do you not greet me in the same manner as the ones who came from your lands? Ja’far radiyallâhu anh said,

“O the Ruler! Firstly, I will tell you three things. If I speak correctly, approve it, if not, deny it. First of all, command that only one of these men speak and others be silent!” Amr bin Âs said, “I will speak.” Negus said, “O Ja’far, you speak first.” Hadrat Ja’far said, “I have three remarks. Ask that man, are we slaves who should be caught and returned to their masters?” Negus asked, “O Amr! Are they slaves?” Amr answered, “No, they are not slaves! They are freemen!” Hadrat Ja’far asked, “Have we killed anyone without a legitimate reason so that we will be returned to the harmed people?” Negus asked Amr, “Have these people killed anyone unjustly?” Amr replied, “No, they did not shed even a drop of blood!” Hadrat Ja’far asked Negus, “Have there been any goods which we took from others unjustly and we should have paid back?” Negus said, “O Amr! If these people have debt, even if they are many gold coins, I will pay them, tell me.” Amr replied, “No, they do not have any debts even one qirat (a unit of currency)!” When Negus asked, “So, what do you want from them?” Amr answered, “Previously, we were on the same religion and on the same path with them. They abandoned these. They have become obedient to Muhammad and his religion.” Negus asked Ja’far, “Why did you leave your religion and follow another one? You have abandoned your people’s religion; you are not of my religion either. So, what is the religion that you believe? Will you give me information?”

Hadrat Ja’far said, “O Ruler! We were a negligent people. We used to worship idols. We used to eat carrion. We used to commit evil deeds. We used to cut ties with our relatives and treat our neighbors badly. Those who were strong among us used to oppress the weak and they did not know what compassion was. Until Allahu ta’âlâ sent us a prophet from our nation, whose trustworthiness, chastity and nobility we know, we were in that status. That prophet invited us to believe in the existence and unity of Allahu ta’âlâ, to worship Him and to abandon the stones and idols which our ancestors worshipped. He ordered us to speak the truth, not to usurp entrusted goods, to observe the rights of relatives, to maintain good relations with neighbors, to refrain from sins and shedding blood. He has forbidden us from every kind of immorality, saying lies, usurping property of the orphan, slandering chaste women. He command- ed us to worship Allahu ta’âlâ without making anything a partner to Him. We have accepted these and we believed what he brought from Allahu ta’âlâ. We fulfilled what he ordered. We worshipped Allahu ta’âlâ. We regarded prohibited what He prohibited and we regarded permitted what He allowed for us and acted so. For this reason, our people became an enemy to us and made cruelty to us. They tormented us, to force us to abandon worshipping Allah. They tortured us. They oppressed us. They interfered between us and our religion. They wanted us to detach from our religion. So, we left our country and took refuge in your country. We preferred you over others. We desired your protection and neighborliness. We hope that we will not face injustice.” Hadrat Ja’far went on with his speech,

“As for the greeting, we have saluted you with the greetings of Rasûlullah. We greet one another in the same manner. Our Master, the Prophet communicated that the greetings in Paradise are also the same. For this reason, we have saluted your Excellency in that manner. Since our Master, the Prophet said performing prostration (sajda) before human beings is not permissible, we trust ourselves to Allahu ta’âlâ from prostration before anyone other than He.

Negus asked, “Do you know from some of what Allah communicated?” When Had- rat Ja’far said “Yes,” Negus said, “Recite some to me.” Hadrat Ja’far started to recite the first âyats of Maryam Sûra (It has also been reported that it was Sûrat-ul ’Ankabût or Rûm Sûra). Negus wept. The tears from his eyes wetted his beard. The priests also wept. Negus and the priests said, “O Ja’far! Recite more from these sweet and beautiful words.” Hadrat Ja’far recited the beginning parts of the Kahf Sûra, which purported,

“May praise be to Allahu ta’âlâ Who revealed the right book, (Qur’ân al-karîm) which has no disorder in wording or contradiction in meaning (far from excess and understatement), to His born servant (Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm), in order to frighten the disbelievers with a bitter torment (Hell) from Him, the Almighty, to herald the believers who do good deeds, with a grand reward (Heaven) in which they will stay forever and to frighten those who say, ‘Allahu ta’âlâ has had a child.’ Neither they (who say that Allahu ta’âlâ has had a child) nor their ancestors have any knowledge about it (that word). That word they said was a great disbelief (polytheism). They only tell lies.

(O my Rasûl!) If they do not believe in this Qur’ân al-karîm, are you going to exhaust yourself with sadness and wrath after them? We have made the things on the earth (minerals, animals and plants) as ornaments, to try those whose deeds are good (who have abandoned the worldly desires)…”83 Negus could not stop himself from saying, “I swear by Allah that, this is a light which shines from the same candle. Mûsa and Îsâ (alaihim-us-salâm) came with it too.” Then he turned to the envoys of Quraysh and said, “Go, I swear by Allah that I neither deliver them to you, nor I wish harm on them.” Abdullah bin Abî Rabîa and Amr bin Âs went out from the presence of Negus.84

Amr told Abdullah, “I swear that I will make one of their faults known before Ne- gus. You will see that I will root them out.” His friend told Amr, “Although they oppose us, at the least, we do have a kinship with them. Do not do that.” Amr replied, “I will notify Negus of the fact that they regard Jesus alaihis’-salâm a born slave of Allahu ta’âlâ.”

83 Sûrat al-Kahf, 18/ 1-7.
84 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 195; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 332-333.

On the following day, he went to Negus and said, “O Ruler! They are speaking ill of Îsâ (Jesus), son of Maryam (’alaihis-salâm). Send a man to them and ask what they say about Îsâ ’alaihis-salâm. Negus sent a man to the Muslims to take their views about Hadrat Îsâ. They came again. They asked themselves, “What will we say if he asks about Îsâ ’alaihis-salâm?” Hadrat Ja’far said, “I swear by Allah that we will tell about him what Allahu ta’âlâ said, what our Master, the Prophet brought to us.”

When they went to the presence of Negus, he asked them, “What do you say about Îsâ (Jesus), son of Maryam (’alaihis-salâm)?” When Hadrat Ja’far replied, “We say about Îsâ (’alaihis-salâm) what our Master, the Prophet brought from Allahu ta’âlâ and communicated. We accept that he (Îsâ ’alaihis-salâm) is Allahu ta’âlâ’s slave and messenger and His word that Allahu ta’âlâ granted Hadrat Maryam, who was chaste and had devoted herself to Haqq ta’âlâ by giving up the world and men. That is the situation and glory of Îsâ, the son of Maryam. We say, as Allahu ta’âlâ created Hadrat Adam (’alaihis-salâm) from soil, He created Îsâ (’alaihis-salâm) without father.” Ne- gus reached his hand to the ground and grabbed a piece of straw and said, “I swear that Îsâ (’alaihis-salâm), the son of Maryam is not more than what you said. There is not any difference between him and your saying even as much as this straw.”

When Negus said this, the governmental officials and commanders began whisper- ing and murmuring. As he noticed this, he said, “No matter what you say, I swear I think good things about these people.” Then he turned to the Muslim emigrants and said, “I congratulate you and those whom you came here with! I believe in the fact that he is the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. We have already seen of him in the Bible. Îsâ (’alaihis-salâm), the son of Maryam informed of that Rasûl, too. I swear if he was here, I would carry his shoes, wash his feet! Please go and live in safety and peace, far from any kind of assault, on the untouched part of my country. I will destroy anybody who harms you. Even if they give me gold as much as a mountain, I will not sadden even one of you!”

After that, Negus said, regarding the gifts brought by the Quraysh envoys, “I don’t need them! Allahu ta’âlâ did not take a bribe from me when He returned me my possession, which had been usurped by others, and when He made my people obey me,” and returned their gifts. The Quraysh envoys returned empty-handed. And the fortunate Negus made the Ashâb-i kirâm happy by embracing Islam.

Years of sorrow…. Siege

The polytheists were constantly trying to impede Islam’s spread and penetration to the hearts. Despite this, Muslims were increasing in number every day. Tortures and cruelties were not turning Muslims away from their path; on the contrary, they caused to strengthen their unity and solidarity. None of them gave up his religion; they did not hesitate to sacrifice their lives for the sake of our Master Rasûlullah. As the tribes of Mecca heard of this, their interest in Islam was increasing and the lights of Islam were reaching further places. The polytheists were furious with anger when they learned that their men who were sent to Abyssinia did not attain their wishes, moreover Negus Ashama himself became Muslim, he protected Muslims and treated Muslims well. To take revenge and to root out Islam, they assembled and made this horrible decision: “Wherever he is, wherever he is seen, Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) will be definitely killed!” The disbelievers took successive oaths for this.

Abû Tâlib became very sad when he learned of the polytheists’ decision. He was anxious about his blessed nephew’s life. He gathered his tribe and ordered them to protect the Master of the worlds against the Quraysh polytheists. With zeal of kinship, the sons of Hashim united to execute this order. For this, they invited our Master, the Prophet, and all his Companions, to Shi’b-i Abû Tâlib, that is the neighborhood of Abû Tâlib. Our Master Rasûlullah gathered his Companions and stayed at Shi’b. Among the sons of Hashim, only Abû Lahab opposed the decision of protecting our Master, the Prophet. He did not go to Shi’b. Including him, the polytheists united and started looking for an opportunity to kill our Prophet. 85

When they saw that our Master, the Prophet and his Companions gathered in Abû Tâlib’s neighborhood, the polytheists met again. Then they decided:

“Until Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) is delivered to the Quraysh for the purpose of being killed, no girl will be taken as a bride from the sons of Hashim!… No girl will be given to them!… Nothing will be sold to them!… Nothing will be bought from them!… No one will meet and speak to them!… No one will enter their homes and neighbor- hoods!… A demand for making peace from them will never be accepted!… They will never be pitied!…” They stamped these decisions on a paper, written by a polytheist named Mansûr bin Ikrima. They hung the paper on the Kâ’ba so that everyone could see and abide by it.

When this news came to our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm), he grieved much and he invoked. His invocation was accepted immediately. The unfortunate Mansûr’s hands suddenly became useless. The polytheists were in astonishment. They said, “Look! Against our cruelty toward the sons of Hâshim, Mansûr’s hands became use- less, he has faced a calamity.” Instead of coming to their senses, they became inflamed even more. They put watchmen on the roads to Shi’b. They prevented entry of food and clothes. They told the sellers who came to Mecca not to go to Shi’b, not to bring their goods there. They said they would buy the goods at a high price if necessary. They supposed that they would kill the people in Shi’b out of hunger or the sons of Hâshim would be regretful and would deliver our Prophet to them. This situation would go on every year until the visiting season of the Kâ’ba.

According to tradition, during this period, no blood would be shed. Therefore, the sons of Hâshim would go to Mecca and make trade for their annual requirements. When one of them would go to a trader to buy goods, some of the prominent of the polytheists like Abû Lahab and Abû Jahl would reach them immediately and say, “O Traders! Greatly increase your prices against the Companions of Muhammad. So that no one can buy anything due to its expensiveness. If your goods are not sold due for this reason, we are ready to buy them all.” The traders would set high prices for their goods and Muslims would go back without buying anything…

85 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 130-140; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 335-336; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 8487; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 24-25; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 230.

For this reason, our beloved Prophet, our mother Hadrat Khadîja, Hadrad Abû Bakr-i Siddîq spent all their properties, they tried to stop the cries of children out of hunger. When they spent all their money, they ate tree leaves and wild grass. To stop the cries of children, they wet dried leather parts, cooked them in fire and gave it to them to eat. Our Prophet and other companions tied stones on their blessed abdomens. Mothers were all skin and bones from trying to stop the cries of children. If a polythe- ist felt compassion and brought something secretly, other polytheists would beat him up and greatly insult him. In short, there was no traffic of goods and Muslims were in a very difficult situation.

The polytheists, in vain, expected that, with their severe cruelty, the sons of Hâshim would come to their senses and Abû Tâlib would deliver our Master, the Prophet to them. However, contrary to these thoughts of the polytheists, the Muslims in the Abû Tâlib neighborhood protected our Master, the Prophet and they took every measure lest he could be harmed. To prevent a possible assassination, Abû Tâlib set guards at the place where our Master Rasûlullah slept or he accommodated him at his own house. Our Master, the Prophet, not spending even a second of time uselessly, was striving to spread Islam, inviting people to the religion, in order to help them escape from Hell. With patience, he continued to advise them on this path. One day, our Master Rasûlullah, in order that the Quraysh polytheists, who denied him, understand what the famine was like, invoked, “O my Allah! Help me, by befalling the tor- ment of famine on those people for seven years as in the time of Yûsuf (Joseph ’alaihis-salâm).”

During the days that followed, not even one drop of rain had fallen from the sky. The soil became parched. It was impossible to see a green plant on the ground. The Quraysh polytheists were completely perplexed. They tried to escape death by eating animal carrions and smelly dog skins. Their children too started to cry out because of hunger. Many died of hunger. Because of hunger, when they would look at the sky, it was as if they saw everywhere as covered with smoke. They began to come to their senses and understood the severity of the cruelty they had done. They sent Abû Sufyân to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. Abû Sufyan came and made an oath. He said, “O Muhammad! You are saying that you have been sent as a mercy for the worlds. You are commanding us to believe in Allah and to observe the rights of relatives. However, your people are dying of famine and hunger. Pray to your Rabb for removal of this catastrophe from us; Allah will accept your invocation. If you pray accordingly, we all will believe!..”

Thus, they had put away their cruelties and tortures; they had fallen into difficulty and started to entreat our Master Rasûlullah. Our Master, the Prophet did not remind them of what they had done, upon their promise “We will believe”, he outstretched his blessed hands and prayed to Janâb-i-Haqq. Allahu ta’âlâ accepted His Darling’s invocation and sent a great deal of rain over Mecca, the earth was quenched with water and plants started to turn green. Although the polytheists had rid themselves of drought and scarcity, they forgot their promise and insisted on disbelief.

Allahu ta’âlâ declared in the âyat-i karîmas He descended as a response to these, purported, “On the contrary, they are in doubt (about the Qur’ân al-karîm and the resurrection) and they make fun (of you). Therefore (O my darling!) wait for the day when the sky will bring an obvious smoke. That smoke will surround all peo- ple; they will say, ‘This is a grave torment! O our Rabb! Remove this torment from us so that we will believe’. How will they think and draw a lesson? Even though a prophet explaining the truth has come to them, they have turned away from him. They said, ‘He is brain-washed, love-crazed’. We will remove this torment (smoke or hunger) a little (or for a short time). However, you will return to disbelief and polytheism again. On the day which we will strike them vehemently (the Badr day), verily, we will take the revenge from them.

For the sake of My glory, verily, We had tested the nation of the Pharaoh (by giving time and many properties) before these (the Quraysh people). An honorable prophet came to them from us (he was Mûsâ ’alaihis-salâm). He said to them, “Give me the slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ (the sons of Isrâil). (Send them with me. Do not harass them. Do not torment them.) Absolutely, I am a trustworthy prophet who has been sent by Allahu ta’âlâ with revelation. Do not be arrogant against Allahu ta’âlâ. Because, I have come to you with the proof that is an evidence that my cause is true. I have come with a miracle. Know that I have no fear that you would stone and kill me. I take refuge in Allahu ta’âlâ Who is Rabb of you and me. He will protect me. If you do not affirm and believe me, let me go. (I am not interested in good from you. It is enough that your evil does not harm me).” (They did not have faith and denied him. Furthermore, when they started torments and tortures), Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) invoked to Allahu ta’âlâ, “O my Rabb! These are a na- tion who are intent on disbelief.” Allahu ta’âlâ revealed to him and said, “In the night, go out (from Egypt) with My slaves (the sons of Isrâil)! The Pharaoh and his cohorts will come after you when they learn (Surely, they will follow you). After you pass the sea with your nation, leave it as it is (do not hit the ground with your crook again. Do not close the opened roads. Leave them open). For, the Pharaoh and his soldiers will enter those roads and they will be drowned.” 86

The polytheists did not keep their word, “We will believe,” and started oppression again. One day, Allahu ta’âlâ, by revelation, informed our Prophet that He had made a woodworm infest the document that was hanging at the Kâ’ba and the worm ate all the writings except the name of Allahu ta’âlâ. Our Master, the Prophet told Abû Tâlib, “O uncle! My Rabb, Allahu ta’âlâ, made a woodworm infest the document of the Quraysh. Except the name of Allahu ta’âlâ, He did not leave anything mentioned such as cruelty, cutting relations with the relatives, slander. He destroyed all of them.”

86 Ad-Dukhan Sûra, 44/ 17-24.

When Abû Tâlib asked him, “Has your Rabb informed you of this?” Our Master, the Prophet answered, “Yes.” Then, Abû Tâlib said, “I bear testimony that you speak only the truth.” Immediately he went to the Kâ’ba. The notables of the polytheists were sit- ting there. When they saw Abû Tâlib was coming, they said, “Probably he is coming to deliver Muhammad to us!..” When Abû Tâlib reached them, he said, “O community of Quraysh! My brother’s son, whose alias is Al-Amîn and who never said lies, told me that all the writings on the document you wrote, except the name of Allahu ta’âlâ, was destroyed by a woodworm. Bring the document you wrote before us so that we will see! If this word is true, I swear that we will continue to protect him until we die! Now, you should give up your cruelty and bad behavior…”

The polytheists took down the document from the wall of the Kâ’ba and brought it in excitement. When Abû Tâlib said, “Read it out!”, one of them opened the page and saw that all the text was eradicated except “Bismika Allahumma.”87 The polytheists were in astonishment. They could not say anything. Some of them dissuaded the oth- ers from the siege, thus, they lifted this intense siege of three years, which left deep wounds in the hearts. However, they did not abandon their enmity, they used more violence. They tried every way to prevent Islam from spreading. Despite all their ef- forts, Islam spread rapidly, our beloved Prophet, Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) worked to save the people from the darkness of the age of nescience and he made them at- tain true bliss. Those who attained this happiness, thanked Allahu ta’âlâ for the great blessing they gained and they did not lose heart against the insults and torments of the polytheists. Many hearts, seeing the miracles of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and the persistence of the Muslims on their religion, were illuminated by the light of Islam.

Dividing of the moon into two

One of the greatest miracles of our Master, the Prophet is the partition of the moon into two. A group of polytheists, including Abû Jahl and Walîd bin Mugîra too, told our Master, Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, “If you are really a prophet, divide the moon into two, half of it should be seen over Mount Kuaykian and half of it over Mount Abû Qubays!” Our Master, Rasûlullah asked, “If I do that, will you have the belief?” They answered, “Yes, we will.” Our Master, Rasûlullah invoked Allahu ta’âlâ for the Moon’s partition. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) came to our beloved Prophet immediately and said, “O Muhammad! Inform the Meccans so that they will watch the miracle this night.” Our Master, the Prophet heralded that during that night when there was a full moon, it would be divided into two, and those who wanted to draw a lesson should watch it. That night, when our beloved Prophet made a sign with his blessed finger, the moon was divided into two. One part was seen over Mount Abû Qubays and the other over Mount Kuaykian. Then, they united in the sky again.

87 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 210, Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 376; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 209; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 79; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 159; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 69.

Rasûlullah told his Ashâb, “O Abû Salama bin Abdulasad, Arkam bin Abi’l Arkam! Witness it!” He told his other Companions near him too, “Witness it!” The polytheists saw another miracle with their own eyes. However, they did not keep their words, they did not believe. Furthermore, to prevent others from believing, they said, “This can only be magic of Muhammad! But, he cannot enchant all the people! Let us ask the people coming from other places. Let us see if they have witnessed the same event? If they have, Muhammad’s claim of prophethood is true. Otherwise, it is a magic.” They asked the people that had come, they sent men to other places and made inquiries. They heard the same thing, “Yes, that night we saw the Moon parted into two.” They again denied. The deniers were headed by Abû Jahl. In order that the people would not attain the blessing of belief, he was corrupting the hearts, by saying, “The magic of the orphan of Abû Talib has affected even the sky!..”88 Upon his denial, Allahu ta’âlâ descended âyat-i karîmas, purporting:

“The time (the Doomsday) neared and the moon was split (it was divided into two). Whenever they (the Quraysh infidels) see a miracle (which is a proof that Mu- hammad ’alaihis-salâm is Prophet) they turn away (from contemplating and having faith in it) and say, “It is a constant (ceaseless, exhaustive and strong) magic”. And they denied (the Prophet or the miracle). They became subject to their own wishes (to the demands and desires of their carnal souls). However, every work (as predes- tined) will take place (for whom those of Paradise from the good, for whom those of Hell from the evil) (for those who are of Paradise will enter Paradise, those who are of Hell will enter Hell). And many important news (in the Qur’ân al-karîm, about the states of past communities and the Hereafter) came to them (to the polytheists of Mecca) which will make them give up (infidelity and stubbornness vehemently). That it is a perfect meaning. (If they do not affirm it), the Messengers who warn them with the torment of Hell will never benefit them. So, (o my Darling! After communicating your prophethood and inviting to the truth) stay away from them. The Day when that inviter (Isrâfil or Jabrâil) invites (the disbelievers) to the thing they deny (the reckoning) they will come out of their graves like dispersed locusts as servile and despicable (in a state of ignorance from the terror in which they will be). The disbelievers (bowing their heads) will say, “Today, what a difficult and hard day it is for us” while they will be running to that inviter.”89

May Allah give guidance to you too!

After the siege of three years, which the polytheists applied to Muslims, a group of people from Najrân came to our Master Rasûlullah. They were about twenty in number. They had heard of Islam from the Ashâb al-kirâm who migrated to Abyssinia. They had come to Mecca to learn of Islam and to attain the bliss of seeing our Master, the Prophet. They met with our Master, the Prophet near the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama.

88 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 512; Bayhaqî, Dala›il al-Nubuwwa, II, 141, Fâqihî, Akhbâru Macca, VII, 137; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 116; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 278-279; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 352.
89 Sûrat al-Qamar, 54/ 1-8.

They asked many questions. They received replies more perfect and more beautiful than what they had wished for. The polytheists of the Quraysh were watching them. Our beloved Prophet, who has been sent as a mercy for the universes, recited some verses of the Qur’ân al-karîm. They were deeply touched and wept. Then, upon the in- vitation of our Master, they were very pleased and became Muslim by saying the Kali- ma-i shahâda. When they requested to return to their homeland, Abû Jahl approached and insulted them, saying, “We have, till now, never seen such idiotic people as you!.. Upon sitting near him once, you abandoned your religion and approved whatever he said!” These people, who were newly honored by being Companions, replied, “We wish that Allahu ta’âlâ guides you to the right way too. Against you, we will not re- taliate with insults and such foolish acts as you have committed against us. However, know well that, by the words of a few ignorant people, we do not want to lose this great blessing which we attained. We will never give up this religion.”90

Allahu ta’âlâ declared in the âyat-i karîmas regarding this incident (purporting): “Before this (the Qur’ân al-karîm), there are many people that we gave them the Book, they believe in this (the Qur’ân al-karîm). When it (the Qur’ân al-karîm) was recited to them, they said, “We have believed in this. No doubt that this is a truth from our Rabb. Verily, we were people who accepted Islam previously.” These will be given rewards twice due to their patience (and perseverance). They repel the evil with the good. They spend on the good from the things we grant them. When these hear a bad word, they turn away and say, “Our Works belong to us and your works belong to you. Salâm (Peace) be upon you. We do not look for the ignorant (and we do not want their friendship)”.”91

Year of Sorrow

Qâsim, who was the eldest son of our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had passed away while he was seventeen months old. Years after this sorrow- ful event, Abdullah, his other son passed away too. Our Master Rasûlullah, weeping, turned towards a mountain and said, “O Mountain! If what happened to me had happened to you, you could not have bore it, you would have collapsed!” and expressed his grief. He answered our Mother Hadrat Khadîja’s question, “O Rasûlullah! Where are they now?”, “They are in Paradise.”

The polytheists greatly rejoiced knowing that the Master of the worlds, our beloved Prophet lost both his sons. Disbelievers, such as Abû Jahl, regarded this as an opportunity and blustered, “Now, the posterity of Muhammad has been cut off. He has no son left to continue his lineage. When he dies, his name will be forgotten.” Upon this, Allahu ta’âlâ descended Sûra al-Kawthar and soothed His Messenger. The Sûra purported; (O my Dar- ling!) Truly, We have given you the Kawthar (We have bestowed upon you the Kawthar pool, many blessings). Therefore, perform the ritual prayer for your Rabb. Sacrifice animals… Verily, the person who insults you by saying (without posterity) is bad and without posterity… (He is without lineage, not honorable and infamous. As for you, O my Darling, your clean lineage, your name will continue until the day of Reckoning. Many great honors also are allotted to you in the Hereafter.)

90 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 199-200; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 391-392.
91 Sûrat-ul-Qasas, 28/ 52-55.

During the days that followed our Master Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sons passing, Abû Tâlib became ill and his disease intensified day by day. The Quraysh polytheists, who heard of this, came to Abû Tâlib. Their thinking was, “While Abû Tâlib was alive, he had strove to protect Muhammad. Now, his time to die quickly approaches. Let us pay a visit to him, even if these are his last times. Because Arab heros like Hamza and ’Umar, whose bravery and fearlessness is apparent like the sun, have become Mus- lims. Each day, groups of people from Arabian tribes are coming to him and are obedient to him. Thus, Muslims are increasing in number. Therefore, it will be necessary for us to either obey them or to be ready for war and combat. Let us go to Abû Tâlib so that he will reconcile us. Let us not attack Muhammad’s religion, so that he will not attack ours.”

Well known people, like Uqba, Shayba, Abû Jahl, Umayya bin Halaf, sat down next to the pillow of Abû Tâlib. They said, “We believe in your greatness, we accept your superiority. Therefore, we had never opposed you. We are afraid that, after you die, Muhammad will confront us, the hostility between us will continue. Reconcile us so that we will not attack each other’s religion.”

Abû Tâlib sent for our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) and said, “All the no- tables of the Quraysh request from you not to interfere with their religion. If you accept this, they will be at your service and help you.” The Master of the worlds said, “O Uncle! I want to invite them to only one word that, with it, all Arabs will be subject to them and non Arabs will pay them jizya (a kind of tax).” He also told the notables of the Quraysh, “Yes! If you tell me one word, with it, you will rule over all Arabs and non-Arabs will be subjects to you.” Abû Jahl asked, “All right. We will say it ten times. What is that word?” When our Master, the Prophet replied, “If you say ‘Lâ ilâha illallah’ and if you throw away the idols that you worship apart from Allahu ta’âlâ.” The polytheist reacted immediately, “Ask for another thing from us!…” Our Master, the Prophet told them, “Even if you brought the sun and placed it in my hands, I would not ask another thing from you.”

The polytheists said, “O Aba’l Qâsim! You are offering us an unimaginable thing. We do want to please you. However, you do not please us!” Then, they stood up and left. When they went, Abû Tâlib told our Master, the Prophet, (’alaihis-salâm), “What you wanted from the Quraysh was very appropriate. You told the truth.” These words of his uncle made our Master, the Prophet hopeful. He understood that Abû Tâlib would believe. He said, “O Uncle! Say! ‘Lâ ilâha illallah’ one time! So that I may intercede for you in the Judgment Day.” Abû Tâlib replied, “I am afraid that people will criticize me saying, ‘He feared of death and he became Muslim.’ Otherwise, I would make you happy.” He expressed that embracing Islam was a heavy thing to his carnal soul. His illness became more severe and he died.92

Demise of our mother Hadrat Khadîja

Three years before the Hegira, in the beginning of Ramadan, at the age of 65, the sharer of the sorrows of our Master, the Prophet, his wife for twenty four years, our Mother Hadrat Khadîja passed away after the siege of three years which was full of troubles and agonies.93 Our Master Fakhr-i Kâinât sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam him- self interred our Mother Hadrat Khadîja. He was very sad over her demise. Our Mas- ter, the Prophet was in great agony due to the deaths of our Mother Hadrat Khadîja and his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib. For this reason, that year was called the year of sadness.

The demise of our Mother Hadrat Khadîja had shaken and saddened our beloved Prophet greatly. Because, she was the first person who believed and affirmed our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm). In addition, she was his biggest supporter and comforter. When everyone was an enemy, she had loved him greatly. She had spent all her properties for the sake of Islam and she had worked all the time to serve our be- loved Prophet. She never made Rasûlullah sorry, she never hurt him. Our Master, the Prophet told about this from time to time and remembered his blessed wife’s virtues.

One day, Hadrat Khadîja, when our Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) was out of the home, she went out to look for him. Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm, in a human form, was seen by her. Our mother Hadrat Khadîja wanted to ask him about our Master, the Prophet. However, she thought that he might be one of his foes, so she went back. When she saw our beloved Prophet in the house, she told him about the incident. Our Master Fakhr-i kâinât said, “Do you know who is the person that you saw and wanted to ask about me? He was Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm). He wanted me to convey to you his greetings. He told me to inform you that a building, made of pearls, has been pre- pared for you in Paradise. Of course, there will be nothing sorrowful, troubling, difficult or burdensome.”

His hand stuck to his neck

Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam would talk to his Ashâb, who were among the most fortunate of mankind, and enlighten their hearts. He would ex- plain the descended âyat-i karîmâs and he would not leave anything untold and not un- derstood. He also would go to the places where the polytheists assembled and, without tiring, he would invite them to belief. Abû Jahl and Walîd bin Mugîra were furious about that, and were saying, “If this continues, Muhammad will convert everybody into his religion; he will not leave anyone who will worship our idols.” One day they decided that to finish this business, there was only one way, and that was to have our beloved Prophet killed. Abû Jahl took Walîd bin Mugîra and several youngsters from the sons of Mahzûm and came to Baytullah. At that moment, our beloved Prophet was performing the ritual prayer. Holding a stone, Abû Jahl sprang forward. When he lifted his hand to hit our Master Habîb-i akram with the stone, his hands became motionless in the air. He could not do anything. He was astonished. He returned in thesame manner. When he reached the polytheists, his hand returned to its previous state and the stone fell to the ground.

92 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 214; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 127.
93 Abû Ya’la, al-Musnad, IV, 299, VIII, 74.

One of the sons of Mahzûm grabbed the same stone and walked up to our Master, the Prophet. He was saying, “You’ll see! I will kill him!..” When he approached, his eyes became sightless. He could not see anything around him. Upon this, the sons of Mahzûm together charged towards our beloved Prophet. When they came closer to our Master, the Prophet, they were suddenly unable to see him. However, they were hearing his blessed voice from behind them. When they walked towards where the voice came, the voice came again from behind, when they turned behind; the voice came from the previous place. They witnessed the same occurrence several times. Finally, fully astonished, they left there without being able to hurt our Master, the Prophet. Upon this, Allahu ta’âlâ sent an âyat-i karîma, purporting,“We have set up a wall before them. We have drawn a curtain before their eyes. From now on, they will not be able to see.” 94

94 Sûrat-u Yâsîn, 36/9.

His call of the people of Tâif to belief

Although they had seen many miracles of our beloved Prophet ’alaihis salâm, the polytheists did not believe, out of stubbornness. Furthermore, they did not refrain from tormenting their children, brothers, relatives and friends, who had become Mus- lims. Our beloved Prophet was very sad due to their intensifying cruelties and tor- tures. He thought of going to Tâif, which was near to Mecca, and inviting its people to Islam. For this reason, he took Zayd bin Hâritha with him and reached Tâif. He spoke with the sons of Amr; Abd-i Yâlil, Habîb and Mas’ûd, who were the notables of Tâif. He told them about Islam and wanted them to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ. They did not believe and they insulted him. In addition, they said, “Could Allahu ta’âlâ not find anybody to send as a prophet apart from you? Is Allahu ta’âlâ unable to send anyone except you as a prophet? Go away from our land, to wherever you wish! Your people did not accept your words, so you have come here, haven’t you? We swear that we will keep away from you! We will not accept any request of yours.”

Our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) left there in sorrow. He invit- ed the Sakîf tribe to Islam for ten days or one month. However, none of them believed. Furthermore, they made mockery, torture and rudely shouted at him. They had young- sters and children lined up along the road sides and had them throw stones and attack our Master. Using himself as a shield, Hadrat Zayd was trying to protect our Prophet from being harmed by the stones. He did not care about the stones hitting himself. Wasn’t he waiting to sacrificing his life for these days? Now, they were stoning the Master of the worlds, they were trying to expel him from their lands by torments and tortures.

While Hadrat Zayd was running about, trying to protect our Master Rasûlullah, the stones, one after another, were hitting his head, body, feet. Due to this, Hadrat Zayd’s whole body was in blood. To protect his beloved Prophet, he was shouting at the cruel people who threw stones, “Don’t!.. Don’t hit! He is the Master of the worlds. He is the Messenger of Allah! Cut my body into pieces but do not harm our Prophet!” The stones, which passed Zayd bin Hâritha, reached our Master Rasûlullah and made his blessed feet bleed.

Sad, tired and wounded, our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) came close to the garden of the brothers Utba and Shayba. Our Master, the Prophet, for whose sake all the believers want to sacrifice their lives, wiped off the blood from his blessed feet. He performed a ritual ablution and made a prayer of two rak’ats under a tree. Then, he raised his hands and invoked Allahu ta’âlâ.

The owners of the garden were watching this. They had seen what happened to our Master Rasûlullah, they had witnessed his loneliness. Their compassion overwhelmed them and they sent grapes to him via their slave, named Addâs. Our beloved Prophet said the Basmala (Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm) when he was about to eat the grapes. The slave who brought the grapes was a Christian. When he heard the Basmala, he was surprised. He asked, “I have been here for years, I did not hear such a saying from anybody. What is this word?”

Rasûlullah asked, “Where are you from?” Addâs answered, “I am from Ninawa.” Rasûlullah said, “So, you are from the homeland of Yûnus (‘alaihis-salâm’).” Ad- dâs asked, “How do you know Yûnus? No one here knows him.” Rasûlullah replied, “He is my brother. He was a prophet like me.”

Addâs said, “The owner of this beautiful face and these sweet words cannot be a liar. I now believe that you are Allah’s Messenger.” He became Muslim. Then, he said, “O Rasûlullah! I have been serving these cruel and lying people for many years. They usurp people’s rights. They cheat them. They have not even a single good attrib- ute. They can commit any baseness to get what is worldly and to fulfill their sensuous desires. I hate them. I want to go with you, become honored with your service, to be the target of the irreverence which the ignorant and the idiots will commit against you and to sacrifice myself to protect your blessed body.” 95

Our Master Rasûlullah smiled, “Stay with your masters for the time being! Af- ter a short while, you will hear of my name far and wide. Come to me then.” he commanded. Having rested for a while, he walked towards Mecca. When there were two day’s journey left to Mecca, he saw that a cloud shaded him. When he looked at it attentively, he understood that it was Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm (Archangel Gabriel). He informed our Mother Hadrat Âisha-i Siddîqa about this later on.

It has been declared in the book “Sahih-i Buhâri” and also in “Musnad” by Ah- mad bin Hanbal that one day our mother Hadrat Âisha had asked, “O Rasûlullah! Have you ever had a more anguished day than Uhud?”, our Master Rasûlullah had answered, “I swear by Allah that I did not suffer as much from the infidels in the Battle of Uhud as I had suffered from your people.

95 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 42; Tabarî, Târikh, I, 344-346; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 135-137; Ya’qubî, Târikh, II, 29-30; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 227.

When I introduced myself to Ibn-i Abd-i Yâlil bin Abd-i Kulâl (that is when I announced my prophethood and invited him to the religion) he did not accept. When I had left them, I was in such agony that I could not come to myself until I came the place called Qarn-i Saâlib. There, I raised my head. I saw that a cloud was shading me. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) was standing in the cloud. He addressed me, “O Muhammad! Haqq ta’âlâ heard what your people said about you. He knows that they do not want to protect you. He sent you that angel who is in charge of the moun- tains so that you may command him as you wish..” “That angel too addressed and greeted me, and then it said, “O Muhammad! As Jabrâil told you, Haqq ta’âlâ sent me, the angel in charge of mountains, so that you may give a command of whatever you wish. I am at your service. If you want these two big mountains (Kuaykian Moun- tain and Abû Qubays Mountain) to reach each other over the Meccans (and to squash the polytheists), command me and I will do so.” I did not consent to it and said, “(No! I have been sent as a mercy for the universes) I pray to Allahu ta’âlâ that He creates a generation who will worship Allahu ta’âlâ only and who will not attrib- ute any partner to Him from the descendants of these polytheists.”

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), during his return to Mecca from Tâif, rested a while at Nahla. Once, he was performing a ritual prayer. A group of genies of Nusaybin was passing from there. They heard the Qur’ân al-kerîm which our beloved Prophet recited. They stopped and listened to it. Then, they spoke with our Master, the Prophet and became Muslims. Our Master, the Prophet said to them, “When you reach your folks, tell them about my invitation to belief. Invite them also to belief.” When those genies went to their folk and announced this, all the ge- nies who heard became Muslims.96   This event is declared in Jîn Sura in the Qur’ân al-kerîm and in the well known hadîth-i sharîf books of “Buhârî” and “Muslim.After this event, he walked to Mecca.

Be saved, by saying “Lâ ilâha illa’llâh”

Our Master Habîb-i Akram, the Honorable Prophet came to Mecca under the pro- tection of Mut’im bin Adî. He went on inviting the people to the right path. Against this, the polytheists, excessive again, began to practice torture and cruelty more than ever. Upon this, Janâb-i Haqq ordered our Master, the Prophet to talk with Arab tribes, which came to visit the Kâ’ba during the visiting season, and invite them to Islam.

Our beloved Prophet, upon this order, used to go to Zulmajâz, Ukâz and Majanna bazaars, which were located around Mecca, and invite them to believe in the unity of Allahu ta’âlâ and to worship Him. He used to tell them to accept his prophethood and announce that, if they accept, Janâb-i-Haqq would give them Paradise. Unfortu- nately, none of them would listen to these invitations, which our Master, the Prophet made imploringly. Some of them would maltreat him, insult him, some of them would frown at and speak ill of him. Furthermore, the Quraysh polytheists would follow him and corrupt the tribes he went to.

96 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 212.

According to the reports of Imâm-i Ahmad, Bayhakî, Tabarânî and Ibn-i Ishâq; Rabîa bin Ahmad narrated that, “I was young. We had gone to Minâ with my father. Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm would go to places where Arab tribes camped and say, “O sons of so-and so! I am the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ Who orders you to throw away the idols which you worship, to worship Allahu ta’âlâ without attributing a part- ner to Him, to believe and confirm me, to protect me until I explain and fulfill the duty with which I have been sent!…” A cross-eyed man, with trussed hair, was following him and saying, “O sons of so-and so! This person is forbidding you to wor- ship our idols at-Lât and al-’Uzzâ and he is inviting you to a religion which he made up! Beware… Do not listen to him and do not obey him!…” I asked my father, “Who is the one following this person?” He answered, “Abû Lahab, his paternal uncle.”

Tabarâni narrated from Târiq bin Abdullah that, “I had seen Rasûl (’alaihis-salâm) in the Zulmajâz bazaar. He was announcing loudly so that people could hear him, “O people! Say Lâ ilâha illallah (There is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ) and be saved.” A person, following him, was throwing stones at his feet and saying, “O people! Do not believe him!… Beware of him! Because, he is a liar!…” The stones made his blessed feet bleed; however, he was going on with his invitation without being tired or ex- hausted. They asked, “Who is this young man?” A person answered, “A young man from the sons of Abdulmuttalib.” When they asked, “That person who throws stones, who is he?” he replied, “His paternal uncle Abû Lahab.”

Imâm-i Buhârî in his book named “Târih-ul-Kabîr” and Tabarânî in his book named “Mu’jam-ul-Kabîr” mentioned, “Mudrik bin Munib narrated from his father and his father narrated from his grandfather that: , “One day, we had come to Minâ and stopped there temporarily. We met a group of people. A person was telling them, “O people! Say Lâ ilâha illallah and be saved.” Some people around him were spitting at his beautiful face, some others were throwing earth on his head, and some others were cursing him and making various insults. This continued until noon. Meanwhile, a little girl came with a water pot. When she saw him in this state, she started crying. After that person drank the water, he turned towards the girl and said, “O my daugh- ter! Regarding your father, do not be afraid that he will be trapped and killed, or that he will face abasement!” We asked, “Who is this person and who is this girl?” They answered, “This is Muhammad, from the sons of Abdulmuttalib and the girl is his daughter, Zaynab.”

Sa’îd bin Yahyâ bin Sa’îd Al-Amawî narrated from his father in his book “Maghâzî,and his father narrated from Abû Naîm, Abdurrahman Âmirî and Abdurrahman Âmirî from many other people that: One day, our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal- lam went to Ukâz bazaar. He found Banî Âmir tribe and asked them, “O Banî Âmir! How do you protect refugees?” They replied, “No one can ambush us, no one can get warm from our fire without taking our permission!…” Our Master, the Prophet said, “I am the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. Will you protect me until I notify people of my duty of prophethood which was given by my Rabb?” They asked, “To whom do you belong from the Quraysh?” Our Master answered, “I am from the sons of Abdulmuttalib.” They asked, “If you are from the sons of Abdulmuttalib, why do they not protect you?” Our Master Rasûlullah replied, “They have been the first among those who deny me.” The Banî Âmir group said, “O Muhammad! We will neither reject you nor believe in what you have brought. But, we will protect you until you inform people of your duty of prophethood.”

Upon this, our Master, the Prophet sat near them. Bayhara bin Fâris, who was among the leaders of Banî Âmir tribe, finished the trade in the bazaar and returned. He asked them, by pointing out our Master, the Prophet, “Who is this person?” they said, “Muhammad bin Abdullah.” Bayhara asked, “What do you have with him that you made him sit near you?” They replied, “He says he is the Messenger of Allah and asks for our protection until he communicates his mission of prophethood to people.” Bayhara said to our Prophet, “Our trying to protect you will mean to make our chests a target for arrows of all the Arabs.” And he told his people that, “There is no other tribe which returns to its homeland with a worse thing than you. So, you will fight against all Arabs, you will make your bodies a target of their arrows! If his tribe saw him as good, they would protect him before you. You are trying to protect a person which his own people denounced and purged! You think wrongly!”

Then, he turned towards our beloved Prophet and uttered these unfortunate words, “At once, leave us and return to your people!… I swear that if you were not among my people, I would behead you now!…” Upon this, the Master of the worlds, in a great sorrow, got onto his camel. That insolent Bayhara made our Master Rasûlullah fall from his camel. A lady from the Ashâb-i kirâm, named Dabâa binti Âmir, screamed and called for her relatives, saying, “How can you see it suitable what has been done to the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ? For my sake, is there no one who will rescue Rasûlull- ah from these people?” Of the sons of her paternal uncle, three persons stood against the unfortunate Bayhara. Although two persons from Bayhara’s people wanted to help him, the others beat Bayhara and his supporters. Our beloved Prophet, who watched this event, prayed for the three persons who fought for him, “O my Rabb! Bestow Your blessings upon these people”, and for Bayhara and his supporters, he said, “O my Rabb! Make them away from Your pity.”

The persons, for whom he made good prayers, converted into Islam and the others died as disbelievers. When they returned to their homeland, the members of the Banî Âmîr tribe told an elderly person in their tribe, who had read the Heavenly Books, about what had happened in Mecca. When that person heard our Master, the Prophet’s name, he criticized them by saying, “O Banî Âmîr! What did you do? So far, none of the sons of Ismâil claimed a false prophethood. Absolutely, he was saying the truth. Now, it is very difficult to compensate this missed opportunity.”

What if I had carried that great Prophet’s blessed foot on my head as my crown

He, the owner of that foot, is the one

Rose of the prophethood’s garden

O Bakhtî, on his feet, do not wait, wipe your face. SULTAN AHMAD I (BAKHTÎ)

line  MÎ’RÂJ (ASCENSION)

Our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), in this way explained Islam to every tribe he saw. He requested them to protect and help him in announcing Islam to the people. However, they neither became Muslim nor accepted to protect him. Furthermore they insulted, tormented, tortured, mocked and accused him of being a liar. The Master of the worlds was very tired, hungry, thirsty, sad and very despondent. Days were passing in this manner and it continued until late in the evenings. Meccan polytheists were perpet- ually following him, and as they were preventing those who came to visit the Kâba from becoming Muslim, they would not hesitate to torment Habîb-i akram. There was no longer a place to go for our Master Rasûlullah. The enemy was everywhere. At last he went to the district of Abû Tâlib, where the house of Umm-i Hânî, his uncle’s daughter, was.

Those days, Umm-i Hânî had not become Muslim yet. “Who is there?” she said. Rasûlullah said, “It is me, Muhammad, your uncle’s son. I have come here as a guest, if you accept me.”

Umm-i Hânî said, “I will gladly sacrifice my life for such a true, trustworthy, honor- able and noble guest as you are. But if you had said in advance that you would honor us, I would have prepared something. I have no food to give you now.”

Our Master Rasûlullah said, “I want nothing to eat and drink. I care for none. A place will suffice where I can worship, entreat my Allah.”

Umm-i Hânî received Rasûlullah, gave him a mat, a bowl and an ewer. It was con- sidered as the most honorable duty among the Arabs to do kindness to a visitor and to protect him against an enemy. Any harm given to a guest in a home, would be a grave shame for the host. Umm-i Hânî thought, “He has a lot of foes in Mecca. There are even those who want to kill him. I will be on the watch for him till morning in order to protect my honor.” Taking her father’s sword, she began to walk around the house.

(The one with blessed destiny and great dignity, was, at night, in the house of Umm-i Hânî.)

Rasûlullah was greatly harmed that day. Performing an ablution, he began to entreat his Rabb, ask for forgiveness and pray so that people would have faith and attain the bliss. He was very tired, hungry and aggrieved. He lied down on the mat and soon fell asleep.

At that moment, Allahu ta’âlâ commanded to Hadrat Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’, “I have afflicted My beloved Prophet so much. I have hurt his blessed body, his tender heart so much. But he still entreats Me. He does not think of anything except Me. Go! Bring Me My beloved! Show him My Paradise and Hell. Let him see the blessings I have prepared for him and for those who love him. Let him see the torment I have prepared for those who disbelieve him, who hurt him with their words, writings and actions. I will console him. I will cure the wounds of his tender heart.”

Within a moment Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ was near Rasûlullah. He found him sound asleep. He did not have the heart to wake him up. He was in a man’s figure. He kissed the bottom of his blessed foot. Because he does not have a heart or blood, his cold lips woke Rasûlullah. At once he recognized Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ and, fearing that Al- lahu ta’âlâ might have gotten offended with him, he asked, “O my Brother, Jabrâil! Why are you here at such an unusual time? Have I done something wrong, have I offended my Rabb? Have you brought bad news for me?”

Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ answered, “O You, the highest of all creatures! O You, the beloved of the Creator, O You, the Master of Prophets, O You, the honorable Prophet, the source of goodness and superiorities! Your Allah sends His greetings to you and He invites you to Himself. Please get up. Let us go.”

Our beloved Prophet performed an ablution. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ put a turban made of nûr (light) on Rasûlullah’s blessed head, clothed him with a garment of nûr, fixed a belt made of ruby on his blessed waist and gave in his blessed hand a rod made of emerald and embellished with four hundred pearls. Each pearl was shining like Venus. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ also had him put clogs made of green emerald on his blessed feet. Then, holding each other’s hand, they went to the Kâ’ba. There, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ cleaved our beloved Prophet’s chest. He took out his heart. He washed it with the water of Zamzam. Then he brought a bowl, full of hikmat (wisdom) and îmân (belief) and poured them inside and then closed his chest.

Then, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ by showing the white animal named Burâq brought from Paradise, said, “O Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)! Mount this! All angels are awaiting your arrival.” Meanwhile, our Prophet felt sad and started to contemplate. At that moment Allahu ta’âlâ commanded Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm,’ “O Jabrâil! Ask! Why is My beloved so doleful?” As he asked, our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) answered, “I have been respected and honored so much. It came into my mind about how the situation of my weak ummat (community) would be on the Day of Judgment? How would they endure so many of their sins in the place called Arasât for fifty thousand years, standing, and how would they pass the Sirat Bridge which is a way of thirty thousand years?”

Then Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “O My beloved! Be pleased. I will make the period of fifty thousand years as a moment for your ummat. Don’t worry!”

Our Master, the Prophet mounted Burâq. Burâq was going so fast that with its one step it could reach beyond the place that eye can see. During the journey, at some plac- es, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said to our beloved Prophet to dismount and perform namâz (ritual prayer). Thus, the Master of the worlds dismounted and performed namâz at three places. Then Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked him if he knew the places that he per- formed namâz. By giving the answer to his own question Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said that the first stop was Medina and informed our Prophet that he would migrate to this city. And respectively informed of the other places as the Tûr-i Sînâ, where Hadrat Mûsâ had spoken with Allahu ta’âlâ without direction and in an unknown manner and at last Bayt-i Lahm, where Hadrat Îsâ was born. Then they arrived at the Masjîd-i Aqsâ in Quds (Jerusalem).

In Masjîd-i Aqsâ, where he made a hole in the rock with his finger, Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ tied Burâq. The souls of some past prophets, in their own figures, were present there. He offered Hadrat Âdam, Hadrat Nûh (Noah) and Hadrat Ibrâhîm (Abraham), respectively, to become the imâm so that they would perform the namâz in jamâ’at. Asking to be excused, they all refused it. Hadrat Jabrâil suggested Habîbul- lah by saying, “When you are present, no one can be the imâm.”

Our Master, the Prophet, being the imâm to the other prophets, conducted two rek’ats of namâz. Then, he informed of the remaining events as follows, “Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ brought me one vessel of sherbet from Paradise and one vessel of milk. I chose the milk. Then Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ told me that, by doing so, I had chosen the disposition (the bliss of two worlds). Then I was offered two more vessels. One of them was water and the other was honey. I drank both of them. Jabrâil explained, ‘Honey points out that your ummat (community) will last till the end of the world and water points out that your ummat will purified from their sins.’ Then we ascended together. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ knocked on the gate. It was queried, ‘Who is this?’ ‘I am Jabrâil.’, ‘And the one next to you?’,

‘He is Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm),’ ‘Was it (the wahy and Mi’râj invitation) sent to him for the ascension?’, ‘Yes, it was.’ Then they said, ‘Merhabâ (welcome) to the person that came! What a beautiful traveler is he!’ and the gate was imme- diately opened. I found myself in front of Âdam (’alaihis-salâm). He said to me ‘Merhabâ’ and prayed…I saw a lot of angels there. All of them were at qiyâm (standing position) with khushû (deep, humble, submissive reverence) and hudû and busy with the invocation of ‘Subbûhun quddûsun Rabbul-melâiketi wa-r-rûh.’ I asked to Jabrâil, ‘Is this the worship of these angels?’ He replied, ‘Yes. From the time they have been created, they will have been at qiyâm position until the end of the world. Entreat Allahu ta’âlâ that He grants this to your ummat.’ I entreated Haqq ta’âlâ. He accepted my prayer. That is the qiyâm in namâz.

I stopped by a jamâ’at (there). Angels were crushing those people’s heads on the ground, then their heads would return to their previous state. As they were crushed once more, their heads were taking their former shapes again. ‘Who are they?’ I asked. He replied, ‘Those who abandon the Jum’a (Friday Prayer) and jamâ’at and do not properly perform the rukû’s (bowing during salât) and sajdas (prostrating).’

I saw a jamâ’at (group of people). They were hungry and naked. Zabânîs (Angels of Hell) were pushing them to graze in Hell. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ He answered, ‘These are the ones who do not show mercy to the poor and do not give their zakât.’

I stopped by a jamâ’at. There were delicious foods in front of them. Apart from these foods, there was carrion. They left those delicious foods and were eating that carrion. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ He said, ‘These are the men and women who abandon the halâl (permitted) and inclined to harâm (prohibited) and who eat harâm although they have that which is halâl.’

I saw several people who were exhausted due to the weight of the burden on their backs. Even under that position, they were shouting to the people and re- questing them to put even more burden on their back. I asked ‘Who are they?’ He said, ‘They are those who misappropriated. While they usurped people’s rights, they continued to oppress them.’

Then we stopped by a group of people who were cutting and then eating their own flesh. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, ‘They are back- biters and those who made gossip.’

I saw a group of people whose faces were black, eyes were blue, their top lip reached to their forehead, lower lip sagged to their feet and from their mouths, blood and pus flowed. They were forced to drink poisonous blood and pus in cups flowing with fire from Hell and they were braying like donkeys. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ He said, ‘These are those who drank alcohol.’

We saw a group of people. They were being tortured as their tongues were pulled out from their heads and their shapes altered into swine (pig). Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, ‘They are perjurers.’

We saw another group of people. Their stomach protruded and sagged, their colors were blue, their hands and feet were tied, and they were not able to stand. I asked Jabrâil about them. He said, ‘These are those who took fâiz (interest).’97

We saw a group of women. Their faces were black and eyes were blue. They were clothed in fire. Angels were beating them with mallets of fire. They were whining like dogs and pigs. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ Jabrâil said, ‘They are adul- teresses and those women who hurt their husbands.’

I saw a jamâ’at. They were very crowded. They were imprisoned in the valleys of Hell. Fire was burning them, then they were resurrected, and again the fire was burning them. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ He said, ‘These are the ones who were disobedient to their fathers.’

I stopped by a jamâ’at. They were harvesting and the crops were growing again instantly. I asked, ‘Who are they?’ Jabrâil said, ‘These are the ones who worshipped only for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ.’

I arrived at an ocean. It is impossible to explain the extraordinary aspect of this ocean. It was whiter than milk and had waves as big as mountains. I asked ‘What is this ocean?’ He replied, ‘Its name is the Sea of Life. Haqq ta’âlâ will make rain from this sea when He will resurrect the dead. Decayed and scattered bodies will rise from the graves like the grasses that sprout…’

Afterwards, we ascended to the second layer of the heavens. Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ knocked again on the gate. It was queried, ‘Who is this?’ ‘I am Jabrâil.’, ‘And the one next to you?’, ‘He is Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)’, ‘Were the wahy and Mi’râj invitation sent to him?’ ‘Yes, they were.’ Then they said, ‘Merhabâ (welcome) to he who has arrived! What a beautiful traveler is he!’ and the gate was immediately opened. I found myself next to my cousins Îsâ (Jesus) and Yahyâ bin Zakariyyâ (John, son of Zechariah) (alaihimassalâm). They said to me, ‘Merhabâ’ and prayed for me.

I encountered a jamâ’at of angels. Forming a row, all of them were at rukû’ (bowing) position. They had a tasbîh peculiar to themselves. They were contin- ually staying in the rukû’ position and they were not looking up by raising their heads. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, ‘This is the worship of these angels. Entreat Haqq ta’âlâ that He grants this to your ummat.’ I entreated. He accepted my prayer and granted rukû’ in the namâz.

Then we ascended to the third layer of the heavens. After the same question and answer, the gate was opened and I found myself next to Yûsuf (’alaihis-salâm). As I looked at him I saw that half of all beauteousness had been given to him. He said to me ‘Merhabâ’ and prayed for me.

I saw a lot of angels. In a row, all of them were at sajda (prostrating). They have been at sajda since they were created and have been performing their tasbîhs (glorifying Allah) peculiar to themselves. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, ‘This is the worship of these angels. Beg Allahu ta’âlâ that He grants this to your ummat.’ I begged. He accepted my prayer and granted this to you in namâz.

Then I reached the forth layer of the heavens. It had a luminous gate made of pure silver. There was a lock made of nûr (light) on it. It was written on the lock that, ‘Lâ ilâha illallah Muhammadun rasûlullah.’ After the same question and answer, the gate was opened and I found myself next to Idrîs (’alaihis-salâm). He said to me, ‘Merhabâ’ and prayed for me. Allahu ta’âlâ decreed about him (pur- porting), ‘We raised him to a high place.’98

97 Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 208.
98 Sûrat-u Maryam, 19/57.

I saw an angel, sitting on a throne, worried and sad. There were so many an- gels that only Janâb-i-Haqq knows their number. I saw luminous angels on the right side of that angel. They wore green clothes and had odorous scents. It is impossible to look at their faces because of their beauteousness. On the left side of that angel, there were angels spreading fire from their mouths. There were fiery spears and whips in front of them. They had such eyes that it was unendurable to stare at. The angel sitting on the throne had eyes from his head to feet. This angel was always looking at the ledger in front and never left his eyes from it even for an instant. There was a tree in front of that angel. On each leaf, it was written a name of a person. There was something like a bowl in front of that angel. In turn, that angel was taking something from that bowl with his right hand and deliv- ering to the luminous angels on his right side and taking something with his left hand and delivering to the zulmânî angels on his left side. When I stared at (that) angel, a fear came to my heart. I asked of Jabrâil, ‘Who is that angel?’ He an- swered, ‘This is Azrâil (Angel of Death). Nobody can endure to see his face.’ Go- ing towards him, Jabrâil said, ‘O Azrâil! He is the Prophet of the Doomsday and the habîb and beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ.’ Holding his head, Azrâil (’alaihis-salâm) smiled. Standing up, he revered me and said, ‘Merhabâ! Haqq ta’âlâ has not cre- ated anyone more honorable than you. Likewise, your ummat is superior to all of the other ummats. I show mercy to your ummah more than their parents do.’ Then I said, ‘I have a request from you. My ummat is weak. Treat them softly. Gently take their souls.’ And he said, ‘For the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ who sent you as the Last Prophet and made you Beloved of Himself, Allahu ta’âlâ commands me seventy times a day and night: Take the souls of Ummat-i Muhammad softly and easily and serve them graciously. That’s why I show mercy to your ummat more than their parents do.’

Then we ascended to the fifth layer of the heavens. We met Hârûn (Aaron) (’alaihis-salâm) there, he said to me “Merhabâ!” and wished blessings for me.

I saw the worship of the angels of the fifth layer of the heavens. They were all standing and staring at their toes, never looking at another side, loudly saying tasbîh. I asked to Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’, ‘Is this the worship of these angels?’ He replied, ‘Yes, entreat Haqq ta’âlâ that He grants this to your ummat.’ I entreated. Janâb-i-Haqq granted.

Then we ascended to the sixth layer of the heavens. We met Mûsâ (Moses) (’alaihis-salâm) there, he said to me ‘Merhabâ!’ and wished blessings for me. Af- terwards, we ascended to the seventh layer of the heavens, after the same ques- tion and answer, I found Ibrahîm (’alaihis-salâm) leaning his back against Beyt-i Ma’mûr. The Beyt-i Ma’mûr of which seventy thousand angels are entering everyday (and they never have another turn). I greeted Ibrahîm (’alaihis-salâm). He accepted. He said, ‘Merhabâ sâlih (pious, devoted) prophet, sâlih son.’ (Then) He said, ‘O Muhammad! The place of Paradise is immensely pleasing and its soil is clean. Tell your ummat to plant a lot of trees there.’ I asked, ‘How shall a tree of Paradise be planted?’ He replied, ‘By saying the tasbîh of ‘Lâ hawlâ walâ quwwata il-lâ bil-lâh’ (According to another report; ‘Subhânallâhi walhamdulil- lahi walâ ilâha illallahu wallâhu akbar.’)’ Then Jabrâil (‘alaihissalâm’) took me to Sidrat-ul-muntahâ (a tree in the sixth heaven). It was as if its leaves were like elephant ears and its fruits were like towers.99 When it received any commands from Allahu ta’âlâ, it was changing and becoming so beautiful that none of Allahu ta’âlâ creatures could explain its beauty.

Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) had me continue beyond the Sidrat-ul-muntahâ and bid me farewell. I asked, ‘O Jabrâil! Are you leaving me alone?’ Jabrâil (’alai-his-salâm) collapsed from suffering. He started shuddering from the grandeur of Haqq ta’âlâ and said, ‘O Muhammad! If I take one (more) step, I would be destroyed because of the grandeur of Allahu ta’âlâ. My whole body would burn and perish.’”

The Master of the worlds had traveled thus far together with Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm. There, Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm revealed himself to Rasûlullah, in his own shape as he had been created, opening his six hundred wings, each endowed with pearls and ru- bies. Then came a green carpet of Paradise named Rafraf, the radiance of which was brighter than the sun. It was constantly making dhikr of Allahu ta’âlâ (remembering Him and mentioning His name) and the sound of the tasbîh (saying “Subhânallah,” which means, “I know that Allâhu ta’âlâ is far from all sorts of imperfection.”) per- meated everywhere.

It greeted our Master, the Prophet. Then Rasûlullah sat on Rafraf. In an instant, they ascended to very high levels, passing through seventy thousand curtains named hijâb. There was a great distance between each hijâb. There were angels in attendance at every curtain. Rafraf carried our Prophet through the curtains one by one. Thus, they went beyond the Kursî, Arsh and the world of souls.

While passing through every curtain, our Prophet Habîb-i-akram and Nabiyy-i mu- htaram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, would hear a command saying, “Have no fear O Muhammad! Come closer, come closer!” He went so much closer that he reached the rank of Kâ’ba-Qawsayn. He reached the heights that was willed by Allahu ta’âlâ in an unknown, incomprehensible and inexpressible manner. Without place, time, di- rection and manner, ru’yat occurred, that is, he saw Allahu ta’âlâ. Without eyes, ears, means and place, he spoke with his Rabb. He attained blessings that could not be known or comprehended by any creature.

Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî states in his Maktûbât that, “At Mi’râj night, that Sarwar alaihissalâtu wassalâm (Rasûlullah) saw his Rabb (Allahu ta’âlâ) not in this world but in the Hereafter. Because, Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm, went out of the frame of time and place during that night. He found an eternal moment. He saw the beginning and the end, as one point. He saw, that night, the entrance of and existence in Paradise, of those who will go to Paradise thousands of years later. Seeing at that rank is not as the seeing is in this world. It is to see as the seeing is in the Hereafter.”

99 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 164, IV, 208; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 427; Dâra Qutnî, as-Sunan, I, 25, 40; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, I, 265; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 179; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, III, 170.

When it was decreed to our Prophet, “Eulogize your Rabb!”, he immediately said,

“Attahiyyâtu lillahi wassalavâtû watayyibât” (that is, may all praises, complimentsand eulogies in all languages, services and worships made by body, favors and ben- efactions made by all forms of property and humans be for Allahu ta’âlâ). Firstly, Allahu ta’âlâ greeted His Habîb by saying without eyes, ears, means and place, “As- salâmu alayke ayyuhannabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakâtuh.” (O My Rasûl! My greeting, blessing and mercy be upon you). Then our Master, the Prophet replied by saying, “Assalâmu alaynâ wa alâ ibâdillahissâlihin” (O my Rabb! May greeting be upon us and Thy sâlih {pious} slaves, too). The angels who heard this, said all to- gether, “Ashhadu an lâ ilâha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ’abduhu wa rasûluh.” (I know and believe as if I saw with my eyes that there is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ; and Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm is His slave and His Messenger).

When our Master, the Prophet said, “Assalâmu alaynâ…”, Allahu ta’âlâ said, “O My Habîb! There is no one else here, except the both of us. Why did you say alaynâ (upon us)?” Our Master Rasûlullah answered, “O my Rabb! Yet, the bodies of my ummat are not with me. But their souls are with me. My sight of mercy and full- ness of favor are not far from them. You greeted me and made me far from all of the evils. How can I divest my poor, aggrieved ummat, who have been incurred to the fitna (mischief, instigation) of the last age, of such great honoring and ben- efactions? How can I cause them to be deprived of such blessings?”

Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “O My Habîb! You are my guest this night. Make your wish.” Our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “I want my ummat (O my Rabb).

According to a report, Haqq ta’âlâ repeated this question seven hundred times. Our Master Rasûlullah always gave the same answer, “I want my ummat.” When Allahu ta’âlâ said, “You always want your ummat”, he said, “O my Rabb! I am the wisher, You are the endower. Forgive all my ummat for me.” Then Janâb-i Haqq said, “If I forgive all of your ummat for you tonight, My Mercy and your excellence will not be evident. I have forgiven one part of your ummat tonight for you and I postpone forgiving two parts of them. On the Day of Judgment, you will want and I will forgive them. So that, My Mercy and your excellence (honor) will be apparent.”

Our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declared in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs that, “At that night (Mî’râj Night), I wished Allahu ta’âlâ to entrust all of my ummat’s accounts to me. Then Haqq ta’âlâ said, “O Muhammad! With this, your purpose is that, nobody should be informed about your ummat’s guilt. And My will is that, your ummat’s guilt and ugly deeds to be unknown not only by other peo- ple but also even by you, as you are a compassionate prophet. O Muhammad! You are guiding them. I am their Rabb. You have newly seen them. I have watched and am watching your ummat since the past till eternity. O Muhammad! If I did not like conversing with your ummat, I wouldn’t call them to account on the Day of Judgment. I wouldn’t ask about any of their grave or small sins.”

Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “O Muhammad! Open your blessed eyes and look under your feet.” I looked at and saw a handful of soil. Then Haqq ta’âlâ decreed, “All beings are the soil of your feet. Have you brought that soil to the presence of the lover? Forgiving your ummat is easier for Me than forgiving the dust smudged on the skirt of a beloved.”

O My beloved, what is that, for who you wished,
For a handful of soil, have you pleaded?
O the honorable, as I love you so much,
Aren’t both worlds granted to you?

Our Beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declared in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs that, “I asked Haqq ta’âlâ many questions and heard their answers. I re- pented of asking these questions. (Some of them are) “O My Rabb! You gave to Jabrâil six hundred thousand wings. In return for that, what is your benefaction for me?” Then Haqq ta’âlâ decreed that, “For Me, your one hair is lovelier than Jabrâil’s six hundred thousand wings. By virtue of only one of your hairs, I set thou- sands of disobedient sinners free on the Day of Judgment. O Muhammad! If Jabrâil opens his wings, they fill the east and the west. In case the disobedient fill the area between the east and west, if you intercede, I forgive all of them for you.” Then I asked, “You made the angels perform sajda (prostrating) towards my father Âdam (’alaihis-salâm). In return for this, what is your gift for me?” Then Haqq ta’âlâ decreed that, “Angel’s prostrating towards Âdam was by reason of your nûr (light) being on his forehead. O Muhammad! I gave you things superior to those I gave to him. I made your name close to Mine and wrote it on the Arsh-al âlâ. Those times, Âdam had not been created yet and there weren’t any reputation or sign of him. I wrote your name on all places in Paradise, on the gate of heavens, on hijâbs, on the gate of Paradises, on the palaces and trees. In Paradise, there was nothing on which “Lâ ilâha illa ’llâh Muhammadun Rasûlullâh” had not been written. This rank is supe- rior to the one Âdam was given.”

I have made your existence a mirror of Mine
I have written down your name together with Mine

“O My Rabb! You gave the ark to Nûh (Noah) (’alaihis-salâm). In return for this, what is your benefaction for me?” He decreed, “I gave you the Burâq so that I made you ascend from ground to the Arsh in a night. You saw Paradise and Hell. And I gave masjids (mosques) to your ummat so that they can get on them, like getting on ships, and will be free from Hell by passing the Sirat Bridge in the blinking of an eye, on the Day of Judgment.”

“O My Rabb! You sent manna and the meat of quail to the sons of Isrâel.” Then Haqq ta’âlâ decreed, “I bestowed upon you and your ummat the blessings of the world and the Hereafter. I converted the shapes of the sons of Isrâel, from human to the appearance of being a bear, monkey and pig. I have done this to none of your ummat. Even though they perform the same actions as those (the sons of Isrâel), I did not deem this curse proper for them. O Muhammad! I gave you such a sûra that there isn’t any similar sûra in the Tawrât (Torah) and in the Injîl (Bible). That sûra is Sûrat- ul Fâtiha. Whoever recites that sûra, his body becomes harâm (prohibited) for Hell. I ease his parents’ torment. O Muhammad! I have created nobody more akram (precious, superior, honorable) than you. I have made fard (obligatory) for you and your ummat, fifty times of namâz (prayer) at nights and in the daytime.

O Muhammad! Paradise will belong to those whoever accept My oneness and does not attribute a partner to Me. I made Hell harâm (prohibited) for such of those of your ummat. My mercy has exceeded My wrath against your ummat.

O Muhammad! You are more akram, more honorable than all people for Me. On the Day of Judgment, I will bestow upon you such blessings that everybody will be aston- ished. O My Habîb! Unless you enter Paradise, it is forbidden for the other prophets and their ummats to enter. Unless your ummat enter, other ummats can not enter. O Muhammad! Would you like to see what I have prepared for you and your ummat?” I said, “Yes, I would like to see, O My Rabb!” Then addressing Isrâfil He decreed, “O Isrâfil! Tell Jabrâil, My slave, trustyworthy messenger, to convey My Habîb to Paradise and show him what I have prepared in Paradise for My Habîb and his ummat. So that his blessed mind be free from worries.”

Our beloved Prophet, Master of the worlds, with Isrâfil ’alaihis-salâm came to Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm. To carry out the command of Allahu ta’âlâ, Jabrâil ’alai- his-salâm took our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to Paradise. Angels were waiting for him. They were holding dishes in their hands. In one of the dishes was a garment of Paradise, in the other there was nûr (radiance). Jabrâil

’alaihis-salâm said, “O Rasûlullah! These angels were created eighty thousand years before Adam ’alaihis-salâm. They are looking forward to showering the contents of the dishes over you and your community. When, on the Day of Resurrection, you and your community step through the entrance of Paradise, in accordance with the com- mand of Allahu ta’âlâ, these angels will shower the jewels in the dishes over you.” Ridwan, the responsible angel in Paradise, met them. He revealed the glad tidings to our Master, the Prophet, that “Haqq ta’âlâ made two parts of Paradise for your com- munity and one part for all the other communities”. He showed him all of Paradise. Our Master Habîb-i akram said, “I saw a river in the middle of Paradise. It flows above the Arsh. Water, milk, hamr (another drink of Paradise) and honey flowed from one part of it. They never mixed. The riverside was from chrysolite (a shiny emerald like precious stone). Inside the river, the stones were jewels, its mud was from amber, and grass was from saffron. There were silver cups, the numbers of which were more than the stars in the sky, around it. There were birds around it; their necks were like camel necks. Whoever eats their meat and drinks from that river, attains the ridâ (consent) of Haqq ta’âlâ. I asked Jabrâil, ‘What is this

river?’ He said, ‘This is Kawthar. Haqq ta’âlâ has given this to you. It flows from this river of Kawthar to the orchards existing in the eight Paradises.’ I saw tents at the bank of that river. All of them were from pearl and ruby. I asked about them to Jabrâil. He replied, ‘They are the abodes of your wives.’ I saw houris (maidens of Paradise) in those tents. Their faces were shining like the sun and all of them were heralding various pleasant melodies. They were saying, ‘We are happy and cheer- ful. Sadness never comes over us. We have been covered and never become naked. We are the youth and never become elderly. We are well-natured and never become angry. We are always so and we never die.’ Spreading to the palaces and trees of bliss, their melodies and sounds covered everywhere. They have such nice voices that if those melodies came to the world, there wouldn’t be death and suffering in the world. Then Jabrâil asked me, ‘Would you like to see their faces?’ I said, “Yes, I would like to see.” He opened the gate of a tent. I looked. I saw such beautiful appearances that if I tell their beauties during my lifetime, I can not conclude. Their faces were whiter than milk; their cheeks were more reddish than ruby and brighter than the sun. Their skins were softer than silk and luminous like the moon; their smells were more beautiful than musk. Their hair was quite black, some of them were braided, some were tied back and some were loose so that when they sat down, their hair would be like tents around them; when they stood up, then their hair would reach to their feet. There was one maiden in waiting that stood in front of each of them. Jabrâil said, “They are for your ummat.”

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “I saw orchards and vineyards and all blessings of the eight Paradises. It came to my mind if only I saw Hell and its layers, too. Holding my hand Jabrâil took me to Mâlik the high- est angel of Hell. Then he said, “O Mâlik! Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), wants to see the places of the enemies in Hell. (Show him Hell.) Mâlik uncovered the layers of Hell. I saw (all of) the seven layers. The seventh layer is called Hâwiyah. Its torment was much more than the other layers. I asked Mâlik, “Which group is tormented in this layer?” Mâlik replied, “Pharaoh, Qârun and munâfiqs (hypocrites) of your ummat are tormented there.” The sixth layer is Lazy. Polytheists (those who are irreligious) are tormented in there. The fifth layer is Hutâmah. Ghebers (worshippers of fire), worshippers of oxen and Buddhists are tormented in there. The fourth layer is Jahîm. In there; those who worship the sun and the stars are tormented. The third layer is Seqar. Christians are tor- mented in there. The second layer is Saîr. Jews are tormented in there. The first layer is Hell (Jahannam). Its torment was less than the torments of other layers. (Despite that) I saw seventy thousand seas of fire there. Each sea was so large that if worlds and heavens are thrown into one of them and if one angel is appointed, it wouldn’t be possible to find them, even if one thousand year passes. The Ze- bânîs (the angels who are in attendance in Hell) were so great that if one of them put the worlds and firmament in one side of his mouth, they would be invisible. When those seas became rough, fearful sounds would be heard. If a little of that sound came to the world, all living things would be destroyed. I asked, “For which group is this layer?” Mâlik didn’t answer. I asked again, he kept silent…

Jabrâil told Mâlik, “He is waiting for an answer from you.” He replied, “Excuse me.” I said, “Whatever it is, answer, so that it will be possible to find a solution.” Mâlik answered, “O Rasûlullah! It is for the disobedient of your community. Advise them, so that they protect themselves from this horrific place and refrain themselves from the things that will lead them to this torment. That day, I will not pity the disobe- dient. I will not show compassion to either the old or the young of them.”

The Master of the worlds, started to weep. Taking his turban from his blessed head, he started for intercession and to entreat (Allahu ta’âlâ), by mentioning the weakness of his ummat and that they would not be able to endure such torment, so much so that, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ and all other angels wept together. Then Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “O My Habîb! Your honor and preciousness are high in my sight; your prayer has been accepted. Be pleased. I have made you attain your desire. I give you such a rank that I forgive a good number of the disobedient by virtue of your intercession. Until you say enough. O My Habîb! Whoever obeys My orders, is freed from torment and punishment, attains My Mercy and has the honor of see- ing Me in Paradise. I have made for you and your ummat fard (obligatory duty), fifty times of namâz (prayer) at nights and in the daytime.

Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, continuing, said, “After that rank, (then) I reached the Arsh. Passing through the heavens I came to the rank where Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) was. He asked me, ‘What did Haqq ta’âlâ make fard for you and your ummat?’ I said, ‘He made fard for me to perform fifty times of namâz (prayer) for every day and night.’ Then he said, ‘Go back to your Rabb, entreat Him to reduce it a little. For your ummat can not accomplish this. I experienced and examined the sons of Isrâel.’ Thereupon, I went back to my Rabb and said, ‘O My Rabb! Please reduce (this order) a little for my ummat!’ Then, He reduced it by only five from the fifty times. I went back to Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) and told (He only reduced it by five times less). He said, ‘Go back to your Rabb! Entreat Him to lighten it a little more. For your ummat can not accomplish this.’ By this way, I went between Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) and My Rabb and at last Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, ‘I reduced this namâz (prayer) to five times. There are ten thawâbs (rewards) for each namâz. In this respect, they make again fifty times at last. For, whoever intends to perform one thawâb but can not perform it, attains one thawâb. But, if he performs it then he exactly attains ten thawâbs in return for one. However, if he intends to commit a sin but doesn’t commit it, nothing is written. But, if he commits, it is recorded only as one sin.’ Then I descended to Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) and explained what had occured to him. Again he said, ‘Return and entreat Him to lighten it even more.’ Thereupon I said to him, ‘Since I have offered too many invocations to My Rabb, I now feel ashamed.”100

Allahu ta’âlâ, thus, consoled the blessed heart of our beloved Prophet, injured by the troubles he suffered. He bestowed upon him, the blessings that He has given to none other of His creatures, nobody can know and be able to understand.

Then the Master of the worlds, in an instant, came back to Jerusalem and thence to Mecca-i mukarrama, to Umm-i Hânî’s house. The place where he had lain down had not become cold yet, nor had the motion of the water in the bowl come to a standstill. Umm-i Hânî, who had been walking about outside, had dozed off, unaware of everything. On his way from Jerusalem to Mecca, our Master, the Prophet (‘alai- his-salâm) met a caravan of the Quraysh. A camel in the caravan was frightened and fell down.

The next morning our Master Rasûlullah went to the Ka’ba and related his mî’râj (ascension). Hearing this, the disbelievers scoffed at him. “Muhammad’s gone com- pletely crazy,” they said. And the ones who had been thinking of becoming Muslims hesitated. Some of them, amused, went to Abû Bakr’s house. They knew he was a clever, experienced and calculating merchant. As soon as he came to the door, they asked him, “O Abâ Bakr! You went to Jerusalem many times. You must know well. How long does it take to go from Mecca to Jerusalem?” Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “I know well that it takes more than a month.”

The disbelievers were pleased with this reply and said, “So will a wise and experi- enced man say.” Laughing, mocking, being happy and hoping that Abû Bakr had the same opinion as they had, they said, “Your master says that he went to and came back from Jerusalem in a night. He is completely mad now” and showed their sympathy, reverence and trust for Abû Bakr.

Upon hearing the blessed name of Rasûlullah, Abû Bakr ‘radiyallâhu anh’ said, “If he says so, it is true. I too believe that he went to and came back in a moment,” and went back in. The disbelievers were all stupefied. They walked away, saying, “How amazing! What a strong sorcerer Muhammad is! He cast a spell over Abû Bakr.” Hadrat Abû Bakr went to Rasûlullah immediately. In a large crowd he said aloud, “O Rasûlallah! I congratulate you, for your blessed mî’râj! Infinite thanks to Allahu ta’âlâ because He has honored us with being the servants of such an exalted prophet as you are. He has blessed us with seeing your shining face, with hearing your sweet words that please hearts and attract souls. O Rasûlallah! Every word you say is true. I believe in you. May my life be sacrificed for your sake!” These words of Abû Bakr’s bewildered the disbeliev- ers. Being at a loss as to what to say, they dispersed. This strengthened the hearts of a few people with weak îmân who had doubted. That day Rasûlullah called Abû Bakr “Siddîq.” Being given this name, he was promoted to a higher grade.101

The disbelievers were furious with this. They could not accept the fact that the believers had a strong faith, they believed each and every word of our Prophet (’alai- his-salâm) immediately, they had a great love and loyalty towards him. To defeat and embarrass our Master Rasûlullah, they started questioning him.

100 Muslim, “Iman”, 74; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 132-133; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 307-309; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 179.
101 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 144.

“O Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)! You claim to have gone to Jerusalem. Tell us now! How many doors and how many windows does the masjid have?” were some of their questions. As our Master Rasûlullah answered each, Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “Right, O Rasûlullah! It is true, O Rasûlullah!” But in actual fact, out of his bashfulness, Rasû- lullah would not even look at a person in the face. Afterwards, he stated, “I had not looked around in Masjid-i aqsâ. I had not seen what they asked about. At that moment Hadrat Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) brought Masjid-i aqsâ before my eyes, I saw, counted, and answered their questions at once.” He said that he had seen travelers riding camels on his way and that he hoped inshâallah, that they would ar- rive on Wednesday. On Wednesday, just before sunset, the caravan arrived in Mecca. They said that something had happened like the blowing of the wind and that a camel had fallen down. This situation strengthened the Believers’ îmân but aggravated the disbelievers’ enmity.102

This miracle, which happened one year before the Hegira, on the 27th of the month of Rajab, at Friday night, is called Mî’râj. Rasûlullah, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, consciously ascended to Mi’râj, with his soul and body. At Mi’râj Night, many divine truths were shown to him and five times of namâz (prayer) were made fard. Also, the last two âyat al-karîmas (verses) of the Sûrat-al Baqara were bestowed. Mî’râj is stated in the Sûrat-ul-Isrâ’ and Najm of Qur’ân al-kerîm and in some of the hadîth-i sherîfs (blessed words of Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).103

After his Mi’râj, while our beloved Prophet, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, was re- lating about Paradise to his Ashâb (the Companions of our Prophet, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), he declared that, “O Abâ Bakr! I saw your palace. It was from red gold. I observed the blessings prepared for you.” Then Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “O Rasûlallah, may that palace and its owner be sacrificed for your sake.” Our Master, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, turned to Hadrat ‘Umar and said, “O ‘Umar! I saw your palace. It was from ruby. There were many houris in that palace. But I could not enter. I thought of your zealousness.” Hadrat Umar cried a lot. He said in tears that, “May my mother, my father and my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Is it possible to be zealous or jealous towards you?” Then he said to Had- rat Uthmân, “O Uthmân! I saw you at all heavens. I saw your palace in Paradise and thought of you.” He said to Hadrat Ali, “O Ali! I saw your appearance at the fourth heaven. I asked Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm). He said, “O Rasûlullah! Angels fell in love with seeing Hadrat Alî. Haqq ta’âlâ created an angel in his aspect. He stands at the fourth heaven. Angels visit him and attain benedictions.” Then I entered your palace. I smelled a fruit of a tree. From the tree a houri came out and covered her face. I asked, ‘Who and for whom are you?’ She replied, ‘I was created for your uncle’s son Alî, O Rasûlullah, sallallâhu ’alaihi wa sallam!”

102 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 215.
103 Bukhârî, “Manâqib-ul-Ansar” , 42; Tirmidhî, “Tafsir-ul-Quran”, 20; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 403; Bayhaqî, as-Su- nan, I, 255; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 208.

After the Mî’râj night, in the morning, Jabrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and conducted the five times of prayers in their times as imâm for our Master Rasûlullah. It is stated in a hadîth-i sherîf that, “Jabrâîl (’alaihis-salâm) (and I performed namâz together, and Jabrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’) conducted the prayer as the imâm for the two of us, by the side of the door of the Ka’ba, for two days running. We two performed the morning prayer as the fajr (morning twilight) dawned; the early afternoon prayer as the Sun departed from the meridian; the late afternoon prayer when the shadow of an object equaled its length; the evening prayer as the Sun set (its upper rim disappeared); and the night prayer when the evening twilight darkened. The second day, we performed the morning prayer when the morning twilight matured; the early afternoon prayer when the shadow of an object increased again by the length of the object; the late af- ternoon prayer immediately thereafter; the evening prayer at the prescribed time of breaking fast; and the night prayer at the end of the first third of the night. Then he said, ‘O Muhammad, these are the times of prayers for you and the prophets before you. Let your ummat perform each of these five prayers between the two times at which we performed each’.”104

After prayer times were declared in this way, a message was sent to Abyssinia com- manding those people to perform five times of prayer a day and make qadâ (perform- ing worships after their prescribed times) of their prayers from the time the prayer became fard to the time they started to perform it.

O the beauty of the light of nobles’ eyes
Give me hand, O the source of Hudâ’s light
Your foot’s sole is the kohl of the saints
Give me hand, O the source of Hudâ’s light

Nobody can reach to Haqq ta’âlâ without you
Being acceptable is possible with favor of you
O Rasûl, you are the mercy for the worlds
Give me hand, O the source of Hudâ’s light

I have committed infinite fault and offence
Became talk friend with the sinners
Intercede for my sins O the gracious
Give me hand, O the source of Hudâ’s light

O great Messenger, the source of generosity
This Selîmî is miserable and acts faultily
At your presence, he appeals mercy
Give me hand, O the source of Hudâ’s light

YAVUZ SULTAN SELİM (SELÎMÎ)

104 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 443-444; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 648-649; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 266; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 403-404; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 213-215.

lineTHE HEGIRA

Our beloved Prophet would invite the tribes, which came to visit the Kâ’ba, to the religion every year. He would try to save them from the fire of Hell and to get them to attain endless bliss. Without caring about the insults, he continued his duty of prophet- hood. He would stand at the public centrum of the tribes, and ask, “Who will shelter and help me until I perform the duty of Allahu ta’âlâ’s prophethood? (Hence) He will be given Paradise.” However no one was found to shelter or help him.

It was the eleventh year of his prophethood. In the bazaar, he met a group of people from Medina, who came to visit the Ka’ba. When he asked them, “Who are you?” they said they were from Medina and of the Hazraj tribe. Lady Salmâ, mother of Abdulmuttalib, Our Prophet’s grandfather, had belonged to the sons of Najrân, a branch of the Hazraj tribe. Our Prophet sat with these six people of Hazraj a while, and recited the 35th – 52nd verses of the sûrat Ibrâhîm and told them about Islam. He invited them to embrace this religion. When Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) invited these individuals, who had heard from their tribal elders and from the Jews who lived in Medina that a Prophet would come soon, they looked at each other. Then, among themselves, they said, “The prophet that the Jews announced is this person!”

In Medina, Aws and Hazraj tribes were foes to Jews and they would attack each other whenever they found an opportunity. They believed that if they became Muslims before the Jews, they would overcome and expel them from Medina. For this reason, they became Muslims in Rasûlullah’s presence by saying the kalimat ash-shahâda. They said, “O Rasûlullah! We had left our people at war against the Jews. It is hoped that Allahu ta’âlâ will honor them by making them Muslims for the sake of you. As soon as we return to our homeland, we will invite them and our people to accept your prophethood. We will tell them what we have accepted in this religion. If Allahu ta’âlâ gathers and unites them in this religion, there will be no one dearer and more honored than you.”

These six people were true believers and believed in and testified what Allahu ta’âlâ revealed to our Prophet. They took permission from our Prophet to return to their homelands. Those six persons were Uqba bin Âmir, As’ad bin Zurâra, Awf bin Hâris, Râfi’ bin Mâlik, Qutba bin Âmir, Jâbir bin Abdullah ‘radiy-Allâhu anhum’.105

105 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 429-431; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 219-220; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 88; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dima- shq, IX, 82.

The first allegiance of Aqaba and the sun from Medina

When the six persons who became Muslim returned to their people in Medina, they started talking about Islam and our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), and they invited people to embrace Islam. They went so far that there was no house left in which our Prophet and Islam were not mentioned. Thus, Islam spread among the Hazraj tribe, and some of the people in Aws tribe too became Muslim.

After this meeting in Aqaba, next year, As’ad bin Zurâra and his twelve friends, who embraced Islam, came to Mecca in the Hajj season. That year, the polytheists were making cruelties towards Muslims more than before. They followed our master Rasûlullah secretly and tortured anyone who spoke to him. The people of Medina, who learned of that, agreed to meet our Prophet in Aqaba at night. They met in the night. They submitted their loyalty, they promised to perform his every command and wish, and did bî’at with him, that is they promised and abode by this promise. They undertook that, “They will not believe in any god other than Allahu ta’âlâ, they will not commit adultery, they will not steal, they will refrain from slandering, they will not kill their children due to the fear of being criticized and not being able to find enough sustenance.”106 Of those twelve persons, two of them belonged to the Aws tribe and the others belonged to the Hazraj tribe. Their leader was As’ad bin Zurâra.

Our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) appointed these twelve persons as represent- atives to their tribes. They would tell their tribes about Islam and they would be guar- antors on behalf of their tribes. As’ad bin Zurâra was charged as the representative for all of them. Those who were present in the first Aqaba bî’at are (from the sons of Mâlik bin Najjâr ) As’ad bin Zurâra, Awf bin Hârith, Mu’az bin Hârith, (from the sons of Zurayk bin Âmir) Râfi’ bin Mâlik, Zakwân bin Abdiqays, (from the sons of Ghanm bin Awf) Ubâba bin Samit, (from the sons of Ghusayna) Yazîd bin Sa’laba, (from the sons of Ajlân bin Zayd) Abbâs bin Ubâda, (from the sons of Harâm bin Ka’b) Uqba bin Âmir, (from the sons of Sawâd bin Ghanm) Qutba bin Âmir, (from the sons of Abdulashal bin Jusham) Abu’l Haytham Mâlik bin Tayyihân, (from the sons of Amr bin Awf) Uwaym bin Sâida. After this agreement, Hadrat As’ad and his friends re- turned to Medina. They told their tribes about Islam day and night. They invited them to the true religion. As a result of this invitation, Islam started spreading in Medina quickly. So much so that the Aws and the Hazraj tribes, which had been foes to each other previously, came together and asked for a teacher from our Master Rasûlullah to better learn Islam. Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam sent Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr to teach them the Qur’ân-al karîm and Islam.

Hadrat Mus’ab stayed in the house of Hadrat As’ad. Together they visited every house and made Islam known to everybody. They wanted the people to promise to protect our beloved Prophet with all their power against his enemies. They prepared them for the bî’at.

The tribal chief of Hadrat As’ad bin Zurâra was Sa’d bin Mu’az. They were relatives. Those times, among Arabs, it was a custom to refrain from insulting relatives.

106   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 220; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 356; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 252-253.

Therefore, Sa’d bin Mu’az, who had not embraced Islam yet, did not go to Hadrat As’ad bin Zurâra’s house and he did not try to stop him. As a tribal chief, he did not want to deal with this by himself. For this purpose, he told Usayd bin Hudayr, one of the notables of his tribe, “Go to our neighborhood. See the person who came. Do, whatever you will do. If As’ad were not my maternal aunt’s son, I would not transfer this job to you.”

Upon this, Usayd bin Hudayr, taking his spear, went to the house of Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr. When he arrived, he began to speak angrily. “Why did you come to us? You are deceiving people. If you do not want to lose your lives, leave here immedi- ately.” Seeing his angry mood, Mus’ab bin Umayr replied gently, “Sit down a while. Listen to our words. Understand our purpose. If you like it, you will accept it. If you do not, you will impede us.” Usayd calmed down, and said, “You have told the truth.” He stuck his spear into the ground and sat down.

He listened to the soft words of Hadrat Mus’ab, which affected his heart, and he listened to the Qur’an al-karîm which Hadrat Mus’ab read aloud. He said, “What a beautiful thing!” Then he asked, “What is necessary to embrace this religion?” They told him and Usayd bin Hudayr became Muslim by saying the kalimat ash shahâda. Joyful, Hadrat Usayd said, “Let me go and send you someone. If he becomes Muslim, there will be no one from his people in Medina who has not believed…” He stood up and left quickly. Directly, he reached Sa’d bin Mu’az. When Sa’d bin Mu’az saw him, he said, “I swear that Usayd is not returning here in the same mood he left”.

Then, he asked, “O Usayd! What did you do?” Hadrat Usayd bin Hudayr wanted Sa’d bin Mu’az to be a Muslim so much, therefore he said, “I talked with that person (Mus’ab bin Umayr), I did not see anything wrong with them. But, we heard that the sons of Banî Hârisa, would kill your maternal aunt’s son As’âd because they were suspicious of his accommodating such a person in his house.”

These words greatly touched Sa’d bin Mu’az. Because, at a war a few years ago, they had defeated the sons of Hârisa and made them refuge to Khaybar. One year later, they had pardoned and permitted them to return to their homelands. Sa’d bin Mu’az became very angry at the thought of their behavior despite all these. In fact, this was not the case. Usayd bin Hudayr, using this trick, wanted to prevent Sa’d bin Mu’az from harming his maternal aunt and her son, As’ad bin Zurâra and Mus’ab bin Umayr. Thus, he prepared the conditions for his taking their side and becoming Muslim at last.

Upon these words of Usayd bin Hudayr, Sa’d bin Mu’âz leaped up and went to Hadrat As’ad bin Zurâra. When he arrived there, he saw that As’ad and Mus’ab bin Umayr was talking in peace. He approached them and said, “O As’ad! If we were not relatives, you could not do these.”

Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr replied, “O Sa’d! For a while, stop, sit and listen to us. If you like our words, very well. If you do not, we will not offer this to you and you will go.” Upon these sweet and soft words, Sa’d bin Mu’âz calmed down and began to listen to them.

Firstly, Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr gave information about Islam to Sa’d bin Mu’âz. He explained the fundamentals of Islam. Then he recited a part of the Qur’ân al-kerîm with his sweet voice. While he was reciting, Sa’d bin Mu’az’s state was changing. Be- fore the unique eloquence of the Qur’ân al-kerîm, his heart softened and he was great- ly affected. He could not stop himself from asking, “What do you do to embrace this religion?” Mus’ab bin Umayr taught him the kalimat ash-shahâda at first. He became Muslim by saying, “Ash’hadu an lâ ilâha illa’llâh wa ash’hadu anna Muhammad- an ’abduhû wa rasûluh.” Sa’d bin Muaz was very happy due to his comfort and joy from becoming Muslim. Immediately, he went to his house, performed a ghusl (ritual bathing) as he had learned. Then he instructed his people to gather. With Usayd bin Hudayr, he went where his people were. Addressing the sons of Abdulashal, he asked, “O the sons of Abdulashal! What do you think of me?” They said in unanimity, “You are our leader and superior. We are obedient to you.” Upon these words, Sa’d bin Muaz said, “Then I inform you. I am honored by becoming a Muslim. I want you to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. If you do not, I will not talk with any of you any more.”

The sons of Abdulashal, when they learned that their leader, Sa’d bin Mu’âz em- braced Islam and invited them to Islam, all of them became Muslims. That day, until the evening, the sky of Medina resounded with the kalimat ash-shahâda and takbîr sounds.107

A short time after this incident, all the people of Medina, the Aws and the Hazraj tribes, embraced Islam. Every house was illuminated by the lights of Islam. Sa’d bin Mu’âz and Usayd bin Hudayr broke all the idols belonging to their tribes. When he was informed of this event, our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) be- came very glad. The Meccan Muslims were in happiness. Due to this, that year (621 A.D.) was named sanat-us-surûr “the year of joy.”

The second allegiance of Aqaba

It had been thirteen years since the duty of prophethood was communicated to our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm). The cruelty made by Meccan polytheists to Mus- lims had reached its apex and became unbearable. In Medina, due to the efforts of As’ad bin Zurâra and Mus’ab bin Umayr, the people of the Aws and the Khazraj tribes were enthusiastic to embrace Muslims and make every sacrifice necessary for their sake. They were looking forward to our Master Rasûlullah’s honoring Medina and, for his sake, they were promising not to withhold their lives and properties. The Hajj season had come. With Mus’ab bin Umayr, 73 Muslim men and 2 Muslim women came to Mecca. After the Hajj, all of them met with our Prophet at Aqaba again. As’ad bin Zurâra and 12 representatives, on behalf of their tribes, offered and requested our Prophet’s migration to Medina. Our Master Rasûlullah recited some âyat-i karîmas (verses) from the Qur’ân al-karîm and demanded a definite promise from them ensuring that they would protect him in the same manner as they protected their own lives and families.

107 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 435; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 88; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 258; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 182.

Paternal uncle of our Master Rasûlullah, Hadrat Abbâs had not become Muslim yet. He was present there. He addressed this group who came for the oath of allegiance as follows; “O the people of Medina! This is my brother’s son. He is the one whom I love the most among all people. If you believe what he brought from Allahu ta’âlâ and if you want to take him with you, you need to give me a satisfactory promise. As you know, Muhammad (’alaihis salâm) is from us. We have protected him from the people who do not believe him. He lives among us with his dignity and honor intact. Despite all of these, he has decided to join with you and go together with you. Undertake this, if you have enough military strength to resist all Arab tribes when they come together and attack you. To avoid future disagreements, discuss and talk about it among your- selves at the beginning. Are you going to keep your promise and protect him from his enemies? How nice it would be if you can do it properly. If you will desert him after you head towards Mecca, give this up, so that he will live protected with his honor in his own land.”

The Medinan Muslims were saddened by the speech of Hadrat Abbâs. It was as if it was meant that when they brought our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal- lam) to their land, they would not be able to protect him from polytheists and that they would abandon him when under duress. Hadrat As’ad bin Zurâra, one of the sahâbîs from Medina, turned towards our Master, the Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! If you permit, I have some words to say. Let me submit them to you.” When our Master, Fakhr-i Kâinât permitted, he said, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Every invitation has a method whether it is soft or hard. Now, you are inviting us to such a thing that is very awkward for people to accept. Because, it is very difficult for people to abandon the idols which they worshipped for so long and to accept Islam. Despite this, we have accepted Islam sincerely. You have ordered us to cut relations with our polytheist relatives, and we accepted it, too. As you know, this is also very difficult to accept. We have accepted you, when even your paternal uncles became enemies to you and when they did not protect you; we regarded it as an obli- gation to protect you. All of us are in agreement with our promises. With our hearts, we are approving what we are saying. We swear that we will protect your blessed existence, until our last breath, as we protect our own children. If we break this prom- ise of ours, may we join those who will go to Hell. O Rasûlullah! We are firm on our word. May Allahu ta’âlâ make us successful!” Then; He continued by saying, “O Rasûlullah! You can take whatever you want as a pledge from us and lay it down as a condition.” Our Master, the Prophet encouraged them to Islam and recited Qur’ân al- karîm. Then he said, “My condition for you, about my Rabb is to worship Allahu ta’âlâ and not to attribute any partner to Him; and my condition for you, about myself and my Ashâb is to accommodate us, to help me and my Ashâb and to protect us from that which you defend yourself against and protect yourself from.”

Barâ bin Ma’rûr said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, Who sent you as Prophet with the right religion and book, that we will protect you in the same manner as we defend and protect our children! Accept our allegiance, O Rasûlullah!”

Abbâs bin Ubâda, one of the Muslims of Medina, in order to strengthen the agree- ment with our Master, the Prophet, said to his friends, “O Hazrajians! Do you know why you have accepted Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm?” They said, “Yes.” Upon this, he said, “You are accepting him and being obedient to him for both times of peace and war. If you will desert him and leave him helpless when your properties are damaged or your relatives are killed, do it now. If you do this, I swear by Allah that you will perish both in this world and in the Hereafter! If you find it reasonable to stay obedi- ent to him, even if your properties are destroyed and your close relatives are killed, keep your promise. I swear by Allah that this is good for your life in this world and in the Hereafter.” His friends replied, “We will not abandon our Prophet, even if our property perishes, our relatives are killed. We will never leave him. We will die but not give up!”

After this, turning towards our beloved Prophet, they asked, “O Rasûlullah! What will we attain if we fulfill this promise of ours?” Then, our beloved Prophet said, “The consent of Allahu ta’âlâ and Paradise!”

Each of them gave their promise as the deputies of their people. Firstly, Hadrat As’ad bin Zurâra made musâfaha (hand shaking in a manner prescribed by Islam), saying, “I make bî’at to perform my promise to Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger, my undertaking to help him with my life and my property.” After him, each of them completed his bî’at this way and expressed their pleasure and submission, saying, “We have accepted the invitation of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger, we have listened to it and bowed to it.” Thus, without hesitation, they put forward their lives and their properties for the sake of Rasûlullah. The Bî’at with women had only been verbally performed (without musâfaha).

Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam secured their promises to, “Not attribute anything to Allahu ta’âlâ, not commit theft, not slander, not commit adultery, not kill their own children, not tell lies, not oppose beneficial deeds…”

While Medinans were making the allegiance with our Master, the Prophet, a voice shouted out from the hill of Aqaba saying, “O you who are lodging in Minâ! The Prophet and Medinan Muslims have reached an agreement to fight against you.” Our Prophet said, regarding that voice, “This is the Satan of Aqaba” and then said to the owner of that voice, “O the enemy of Allahu ta’âlâ! I will overcome you, too!” Then he ordered to the Medinans that made the allegiance, “Turn back immediately to your lodging.” Abbâs bin Ubâda said, “O Rasûlullah! I swear, if you wish, we can march against the disbelievers in Minâ and kill them tomorrow morning.” Our Mas- ter, the Prophet was pleased with the offer; however, he replied, “We have not been commanded to act so. Turn back to your places for now.”

According to the report of Imâm-i Nasâî, from Abdullah bin Abbâs, those Ansârs who were present at the Aqaba bî’at, became muhâjîrs, by being in the presence of Rasûlullah.108

The Hegira

With the last allegiance of Aqaba, Medina had become a place where Muslims would feel at peace and take shelter. The Meccan polytheists, who heard of the sec- ond allegiance of Aqaba, had undertaken very violent and dangerous behaviors. For Muslims, staying in Mecca was unbearable. Submitting their situation to our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), they asked permission for hegira (migra- tion). One day, our Prophet happily came to his Companions and said, “I have been informed of the place to where you will migrate. That place is Yasrib (Madîna). Migrate to that place” and “unite with your Muslim brothers there. Allahu ta’âlâ has made them brothers to you. For you, He has made Yasrib (Madîna) a coun- try where you fill find safety and peace.” According to our Master Rasûlullah’s permission and advice, Muslims started to migrate successively to Medina group by group.109   Our Master, the Prophet strictly advised the immigrants to be extremely cautious. The Muslims, not to draw the attention of the polytheists, set off as small convoys and moved as secretly as possible. The polytheists had severely tormented Abû Salama, the first immigrant to Medina. Long afterwards, the polytheists, who found out about the migration, started to force the Muslims on the roads to return, separating women from their husbands. Whomever they were more powerful than, they would imprison them. They tormented them with various cruelties. They tortured them to force them to abandon their religion. However, because they were afraid of an outbreak of civil war, they could not dare to kill them. The Muslims, despite all these, used every opportunity and went to Medina.

One day, Hadrat ’Umar, too, put on his sword. He took his arrows and spear. In front of everyone, he made tawâf around the Kâba seven times. He told the polytheists that were there, with a loud voice, “Now, I too am migrating on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, to protect my religion. If there is anyone who wants to make his wife widowed, his children orphan, his mother shed tears, let him confront me behind that valley!…”

Thus, Hadrat ’Umar and around twenty Muslims, in broad daylight, fearlessly, set out for Medina. Due to their fear of Hadrat ’Umar, no one could intervene in this con- voy. Then, the migrations went on ceaselessly and the Ashâb-i kirâm reached Medina group by group.

Meanwhile, Hadrat Abû Bakr also requested permission for migration. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam said, “Be patient! I hope that Allahu ta’âlâ will give permission to me too. We shall migrate together.When Hadrat Abû Bakr asked, “May my mother and my father be sacrificed for your sake! So, there is this possibility?” Our Prophet made him happy by saying, “Yes, there is”.

108 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 438; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 221-223; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 261; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 192.
109 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 226; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, VIII, 31; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 394.

Hadrat Abû Bakr bought two camels for eight hundred dirhams and began to wait for that day. At those times, in Mecca, it was our beloved Prophet and Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat Ali, the poor, the ill, the old and some believers who were imprisoned by the polytheists that remained.

On the other hand, Medinans (the Ansâr) welcomed the immigrant Meccans (the Muhâjirs) very well and accommodated them in their homes. A strong unity occured between them.

Meccan polytheists were alarmed that Rasûlullah too might migrate and take the command of Muslims. They gathered at Dâr-un-Nadwa, where they used to discuss important issues. They started talking about what they should do. The Satan came to the polytheists in the disguise of Shaykh-i Najdî, that is, an old Najdian. He listened to their conversations. Some proposals were put forward but none of them were liked. Then, the Satan began to talk and gave his opinion, “None of your opinions can be a solution. The smiling face and the sweet tongue, which he has, will make every measure useless. Think of another solution.”

Abû Jahl, the leader of the Quraysh, said, “Let us choose one strong person from each tribe. With their swords in their hands, they attack Muhammad, they shall stab him and shed his blood. Let it be unknown who has killed him. Thus, they will have to consent with blood money. We will pay his blood money and get rid of this trouble.” Satan, too, liked this idea. He promoted and recommended it intensely. 110 While the polytheists were busy with these preparations, Allahu ta’âlâ ordered His Messenger to immigrate. Hadrat Jabrâil (Archangel Gabriel) came and informed him of the decision of the polytheists and told him not to sleep in his bed that night. Our beloved Prophet told Hadrat Ali to sleep in his bed and to give whatever entrusted goods he had to their owners and said, “This night, sleep in my bed and cover this khirka of mine over you! Don’t be afraid, you will not be harmed in anyway.”

Hadrat Alî lay down as our Master, the Prophet prescribed. Without any fear, he was ready to sacrifice his life in lieu of the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ.

In the night of the Hegira, the disbelievers had circled our Master Rasûlullah’s house of bliss. Our Master, the Prophet went out of his blessed house. He recited first ten verses of the Yâsîn Sûra then took a fistful of earth and threw it on the heads of the disbelievers. It has been said that whomever’s head that earth touched, were killed in the Holy War of Badr. Our Master Rasûlullah passed by them in safety and reached the house of Hadrat Abû Bakr. None of the polytheists could see him.

110 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 124; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 227.

After a while, someone approached the polytheists and asked, “Why are you wait- ing here?” They replied, “For Muhammad to go out.” That person said, “I swear that Muhammad passed by you and went away, he also threw soil on your heads.” The polytheists touched their heads. In deed, they found soil on their heads. At once, they attacked the door and entered the house. When they saw Hadrat Ali in the bed of Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm, they asked where our Master, the Prophet was. Hadrat Ali answered, “I don’t know! Have you appointed me to guard him?” Upon this, they assaulted him. After imprisoning him near the Kâ’ba for a while, they released him. The disbelievers went out to find our Master Rasûlullah and they started to search for him.111

Going first to the house of Hadrat Abû Bakr, they questioned Asmâ, daughter of Hadrat Abû Bakr. When she did not answer, they beat her. They searched everywhere yet could not find them and they became very angry. Abû Jahl, the most ferocious of them, had town-criers shout in and around Mecca, and promised 100 camels to those who would find and bring our beloved Prophet and Hadrat Abû Bakr or tell of their locations. Some people, who heard of this promise of his and being greedy for prop- erty, armed, mounted their horses and began to search.

When our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) honored the house of Hadrat Abû Bakr and said, “I have been permitted to migrate,Hadrat Abû Bakr asked in ex- citement, “Let me wipe my face with your blessed dust of your feet O Rasûlullah!… Am I with you in this migration?” our Master answered, “Yes..”. Hadrat Siddîq wept out of joy. With tears, he said, “May my parents, my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! The camels are ready. Please accept whichever of them you want.” The sultan of the worlds said, “I will not ride a camel which does not belong to me. (However) I will buy it by paying its cost.” Against this definite order, Hadrat Siddîq had to say the price of the camel.

Hadrat Abû Bakr called on a person named Abdullah bin Urayqit, a famous guide, hired him for pathfinding and ordered him to bring the camels to the cave in the moun- tain Sawr after three days. Our Master, the Prophet and Abû Bakr-i Siddîq, taking some food with them, set off on Thursday, the 27th of the month of Safar. While trav- elling, Hadrat Abû Bakr would station himself at various places around Rasûlullah, sometimes on his left side, sometimes on the right and sometimes front and sometimes back. When our Prophet asked why he was acting so, he replied, “In order to prevent any danger which might come. If we face a danger, let it harm me first. May my life be sacrificed for your high personality O Rasûlullah!” Then our master Sarwar-i âlam said, “O Abâ Bakr! Would you desire a disaster which I am to face, befall you?” Hadrat Siddîq replied, “Yes, O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who sent you as the true prophet with the true religion that I want the disaster to befall me, instead of you.” 112

Since the clogs of our beloved Prophet were narrow, they were torn on the road and his blessed feet were wounded. It was very exhaustive for him to walk any more. They went up the mountain with difficulty. When they came to the entrance of the cave, Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “For the sake of Allah, O Rasulullah! Do not enter! Let me go in, if there is anything harmful, I will face it, so that your blessed body will not be hurt,” and he went in. He swept and cleaned the interior. There were many holes, small and big, around the cave. He tore up his overcoat and filled the holes. However, one of them was left open. He closed it with his heel and invited Rasûlullah into the cave.

111 Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 309.
112 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 230; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXX, 78.

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) came in, put his blessed head on Hadrat Abû Bakr’s knees and fell asleep. At that moment, a snake bit Hadrat Abû Bakr’s feet. In order not to awake Rasûlullah, he endured the pain and did not move. But, when his tear dropped on the blessed face of Rasûlullah, he asked, “O Abâ Bakr, what happened?”

Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “A snake from the hole which I covered with my foot bit me.” When Our Master Rasûlullah wiped his blessed saliva on the wound of Abû Bakr, his pain stopped. It became cured.

When our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and Hadrat Abû Bakr-i Siddîq were in the cave, the polytheists came in front of the cave while tracking. They saw that the entrance of the cave had been closed by a spider web and two pigeons had made a nest there. The tracker Qurz bin Alqama said, “Here the tracks are inter- rupted.” The disbelievers said, “If they had entered the cave, the web covering the entrance would have been torn.”

When some of them said, “We have come up to here, let one of you enter the cave and look in,” the disbeliever Umayya bin Halaf said, “Do you have no logic? What will you do in that cave which is covered by many folds of spider web? I swear that this spider netted his web before the birth of Muhammad.” While the polytheists were arguing at the mouth of the cave, Hadrat Abû Bakr became wor- ried and said, “O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allah that I am not worried for myself! However, I fear that you might be harmed. If I am killed, I am only one person, nothing will change. However, if you are harmed, all the community will perish, the religion will be ruined.” Our Master told him, “O Abâ Bakr! Don’t be sorry! Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ is with us.”

When Abû Baqr-i Siddîq said,“O Rasûlullah! May my life be sacrificed for your sake! If one of them bends his head, he would see us!” Our Master said, “O Abâ Bakr! As there are two persons, the third one is Allahu ta’âlâ. Don’t be sorry!.. Verily, Haqq ta’âlâ is with us.” Then the polytheists went back without looking inside. 113

113 Muslim “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 1; Tirmidhî, “Tafsir-il-Qur’an”, 10; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 228; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 471, VIII, 459; Fâqihî, Akhbâru Macca, VI, 199.

Allahu ta’âlâ declares this event in the Qur’ân-i karîm, purported as follows, “If you don’t help him (My Beloved), (remember that) Allahu ta’âlâ helped him (Rasûlull- ah) when he was in the cave (at the top of Savr Mountain) after the disbelievers had expelled him (from Mecca) as the second of the two (with Hadrat Abû Bakr). Then he said to his friend (Abû Bakr-i Siddîq), ‘Don’t be sorry, Allahu ta’âlâ’s help is with us for sure.’ Allahu ta’âlâ had descended contentment on him, strengthened him (His Beloved) with (spiritual) armies which you could not see and abased the word (of disbelieving) of disbelievers. And the word of (tawhîd) Allahu ta’âlâ is supreme. Allahu ta’âlâ is absolute winner. He is solely the Owner of judgment and wisdom.”114

114 Sûrat at-Tawba, 9/40.

Our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) and Hadrat Abû Bakr stayed in that cave for three days and nights. During the nights, Abdullah, son of Hadrat Abû Bakr, came and informed them of what he heard in Mecca. Also, Âmir bin Fuhayra, his emancipated slave and shepherd of his flocks brought milk at nights and wiped away the tracks.

On the fourth day, our Beloved Prophet left the cave Sawr. He mounted his camel named Quswâ. According to a report, he also took Hadrat Abû Bakr on his camel. Hadrat Âmir bin Fuhayra and Abdullah bin Uraykit who knew the paths well, mount- ed the other camel.

The Master of the worlds (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was to leave his homeland Mecca-i muqarrama, the most precious town which was praised by Allahu ta’âlâ. Turning his camel towards Haram-i sharîf, crestfallen, he said, “Wallahi (I swear by Allah)! You are the most blessed place among the places which Allahu ta’âlâ cre- ated, and the most beloved place in the sight of my Rabb! I would not leave you, if I had not been evicted. To me, there is no homeland more beautiful and beloved than you. Had my people not removed me from you, I would not leave you and I would not settle down anywhere.”

At that moment, Hadrat Jabrâil descended and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Have you missed your homeland?” our Master replied, “Yes, I have!” Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm consoled him by reciting the 85th verse of the Qasas Sûra, which gave the glad tidings that he would return to Mecca in the end.

They were traveled uninhibited. Although the polytheists were searching every- where, they were not able to find them. Janâb-i Haqq was protecting His beloved from their harm. When they arrived at a place called Qudayd, our Master Rasûlullah stopped in front of a tent, the owner of which was a woman named Ummu Ma’bed, fa- mous for her generosity, wisdom and chaste. Then they wanted to buy food, date palm and meat. Ummu Ma’bed said, “If I had, I would present you with a feast. Due to the drought and financial difficulty, there is nothing left with us.” When she was asked, “Is there milk?” she replied, “No, the sheep are infertile.” Pointing at a weak sheep standing next to the tent, the sultân of the universe (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “O Ummu Ma’bad! Why is that sheep standing tied there?” She replied, “It fell behind the flock, as it is very ill and weak. Since it has no power, it stayed there.” When our Prophet asked, “Does it have any milk? Will you give me permission to milk that sheep?” she replied, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, it has no milk, but there is no obstacle for you to milk it.” Then our Master Rasûlullah came next to the sheep and recited the name of Allahu ta’âlâ. After he had invoked with abundance, he touched its udder with his blessed hand. At that moment, the udder was filled with milk and started to flow. They immediately brought a bowl and filled it. He first offered the milk to Ummu Ma’bed. After she had drunk, he gave it to Hadrat Abû Bakr and others and made them drink until they were full. He drank after the others. He touched again the udder of the sheep with his blessed hand and milked it, then wanted the largest bowl in the tent. He filled it and delivered it to Ummu Ma’bed.

After they left, the husband of Ummu Ma’bed came and saw the milk. He rejoiced. When he asked, “Where did this milk come from?” Ummu Ma’bed replied, “A bless- ed person came and honored our house. What you see is the results of his benevo- lence.” He asked, “Will you describe him? What does he look like?”

Ummu Ma’bed said, “That blessed person I saw was well shaped and smooth skinned. There was some redness in his eyes and politeness in his voice. His blessed eyelashes were long. The white of his eyes was very white and the black part of his eyes was very black. His eyes were with kohl. His hair was black and his beard was dense. When he kept silent, he had sedateness and dignity. He was smiling when he spoke and his words were de- lightfully flowing from his mouth as if they were stringed pearls. From a distance he was seen as very majestic, but when he approached, he was very affable and attractive. People accompanying him were running, by heart and soul, in order to fulfill his commands.” She continued to enumerate many of his other traits. Amazedly having listened to these things, her husband said, “I swear that that person is the one whom the Quraysh have been searching for. If I had met him, I would have been honored with his service and would not have left him.” According to a report, that sheep had lived for eighteen more years. They were sustained by that sheep all that time by the abundance of our Master Fakhr-i âlam. Ummu Ma’bed’s husband went followed our Master Rasûlullah, caught up with him at Rîm Valley and became Muslim. Ummu Ma’bed became Muslim, too. 115

115 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 230; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 48; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, I, 26.

Surâqa bin Mâlik

The polytheists were constantly searching for Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and Hadrat Abû Bakr. If the polytheists could not find them, a great danger would emerge upon them. Because, they thought, Muslims could establish an Islamic State and de- stroy them in a short while. Therefore, the polytheists started using all the capacity they had at their disposal. They promised one hundred camels and uncountable goods and money for the one who would kill or capture our Master, the Prophet and Hadrat Abû Bakr. This news spread among the sons of Mudlij Tribe too, which Surâqa bin Mâlik belonged to. Surâqa bin Mâlik was a proficient tracker. Therefore, he was keen- ly interested in what was going on.

The sons of Mudlij, one Tuesday, had assembled in the Kudayd region where Surâqa bin Mâlik lived. He attended the meeting. Meanwhile, a man of the Quraysh came and told him, “O Surâqa! I swear by Allah that I have just seen a convoy of three men going towards the coast. Probably, they are Muhammad and his Companions.” Surâqa understood the situation, but the reward was too great and he desired to win it all for himself. Therefore, he did not want any one else to learn of that. He replied, “No, the persons you saw are so-and-so. They had passed by. We also saw them.” He spoke as if there was nothing important.

Surâqa bin Mâlik waited a bit more. Without attracting attention, he came to his house. He told his servant to take his horse and weapons out and wait for him behind the valley. He took his spear and turned it upside down so that its shine would not attract attention. He began to race his horse. He followed the direction mentioned and found the tracks in the end. When he approached, they could see each other well. Even, Surâqa could hear the Qur’an al-karîm which our Master, the Prophet recited. However, Rasûl-i Akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) did not look back. When Hadrat Abû Bakr looked back, he saw Surâqa and became worried. Our Master, the Prophet said, as he said in the cave, “Don’t be sorry! Allahu ta’âlâ is with us.”

According to the report conveyed by Hadrat Bukhârî, when Hadrat Abû Bakr in- formed Rasûl-i akram that a rider was approaching them, our Master, the Prophet invoked, “O my Rabb! Let him fall!” According to another report, Hadrat Abû Bakr started to cry when Surâqa reached them. As our Master Rasûl-i akram asked why he was crying, he said, “I swear by Allah that I am not crying for my sake. I am crying because I fear that you might be harmed.”

Surâqa approached our Master, the Prophet, so that he could attack. He asked, “O Muhammad! Today, who will protect you from me!” Our Master Sarwar-i Âlam re- plied “Allahu ta’âlâ, who is Jabbar (He who does whatever He likes) and Qahhar (the Subduer) will protect me”. At that moment, Surâqa’s horse sank into the ground up to its the knees of it’s front legs. Surâqa became free from this situation and tried to attack again. But, his horse’s legs sunk into the ground again. Surâqa forced his horse even more; however, he could not free it. There was nothing left to do. When he was helpless, he started entreating our Master Rasûlullah. Our Prophet, who gath- ered all the good ethics and moral qualities in himself, accepted his wish. Surâqa was saying, “O Muhammad! I understand that you are under protection. Pray, so that I will be freed. I will never harm you. I will not talk about you to the ones who chase you either.” When the Master of the World prayed, “O my Rabb! If he is sincere on his words, free his horse”, Allahu ta’âlâ accepted his prayer. Surâqa bin Mâliq’s horse had been freed from the ground only after that prayer. At that moment, something like smoke was rising skyward, from where the horse’s legs sunk into the ground. Surâqa was lost in amazement, and due to all that occurred he understood that Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) had always been protected. He had witnessed many things. At last he said, “O Muhammad! I am Surâqa bin Mâliq! Please have no doubt about me. I promise you. I will not do anything which you do not like. Your people pledged to give many rewards to those who will catch you and your friends.” He explained, one by one, what the Quraysh polytheists planned to do. He even offered food and camel for the journey, but our beloved Prophet did not accept and said, “O Surâqa! Unless you embrace Islam, I do not need nor want your camel and cattle. Just conceal the fact that you saw us, that’s enough.”

Ibn-i Sa’d narrates: When Surâqa said, “Command me what you wish,” to our Mas- ter Rasûlullah, he said, “Stay in your homeland. Do not allow anyone to reach us.”

Anything was possible, when Allahu ta’âlâ wished it. When He was trusted sincere- ly and followed on His path, incomprehensible incidents occured. Surâqa bin Mâlik, who had set off with a greed of gaining large booties by killing our Master Rasûlull- ah, then, became like a mild tempered child. The Almighty Allahu ta’âlâ had turned Surâqa’s heart to goodness so that he would not harm His Darling. Of couse, Allahu ta’âlâ would not leave His Darling sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam alone. Because he was His beloved Prophet that He sent as a mercy so that people would attain endless bliss in this and the next worlds. Then, Surâqa back tracked. He never told anyone he met about what he had experienced. 116

Glad Tidings! Glad Tidings! The Master of the world is coming!

Our Master, the Prophet, Hadrat Abû Bakr, Âmir bin Fuhayra and their guide Ab- dullah bin Uraykit arrived in the village “Qubâ” in the first year of Hegira, on the 8th of Rabî’ul awwal month, on Monday (622 A.C., the 20th day of September) mid-morn- ing. That day became the beginning of Muslim’s Hijrî Shamsî (Hegira Solar) Year. They stayed in the house of a Muslim named Kulsum bin Hidm. There they construct- ed the first masjid. He performed the first Friday Prayer and the first khutba (homily, sermon) in the Qubâ Valley. Qubâ Masjid is praised by a verse which purports, “… masjid which was established on taqwa (piety)”117

Meanwhile, Hadrat Ali, who had stayed in Mecca, sat in the place where our Master Rasûlulah would always attend in the Kâba-i sharîf. He made an announcement by saying, “Those who have entrustted goods to Rasûl-i akram (‘alaihis-salâm) for safe- keeping, may they come and receive them!” Everybody came and took their goods by declaring their claims. Thus, the entrusted goods had been delivered to their owners. Ashâb-i guzîn who had stayed in Mecca-i mukarrama, had recourse to Hadrat Ali. As long as Rasûlullah’s home of bliss was in Mecca, Hadrat Ali stayed there, too. Some time later, our Master Rasûl-i akram ordered his household goods to be brought to Madîna-i munawwara. Allah’s lion, Hadrat Ali, went to the place where the Quraysh disbelievers assembled. He said to them, “Inshâallahu ta’âlâ I am going to Madîna-i munawwara tomorrow. Do you have anything to say? Tell me while I am still here.” All of them bowed their heads and said nothing. In the morning, Hadrat Ali collected the belongings of our Master Rasûl-i akram and then took to the journey along with the Ahl-i Bayt of our Master Rasûlullah and his own relatives. He reached our Master Rasûlullah in Qubâ, having had footsores and his feet were bleeding. At the end of this journey, during which he hid in the daytime and walked on foot in the nights, he was so tired that he could not go to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. As soon as our Master Rasûl-i akram was informed of his situation, he himself went to see Hadrat Ali, he felt pity for him, embraced his beloved, devoted cousin, caressed with his blessed hands his brittle and tender feet which had endured thousands of difficulties for the sake of the true path and invoked for his healing. Moreover, it is even related that the âyat-i jalîla which purports, “There are such people that they sacrifice themselves for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ,”118 was revealed upon that devotion of Hadrat Ali.

When the Ashâb-i kirâm, who had formerly migrated to Medina, and Muslims of Medina, heard that the Sultân of the universe had left Mecca for migration, they start- ed passionately and excitedly to wait for his arrival. For this reason, they appoint- ed outlooks at the outer districts of Medina and were eager to welcome our Master when he entered the city. Those who were burning with this love, waited for days by gazing at the horizon, like the fiery desert misses the rain. Finally, a sound was suddenly heard, “They are coming! They are coming!…” Those who heard this, start- ed to observe the middle of the hot desert. “Yes!… Yes!…” They also saw that they were grandiosely approaching towards themselves from the fiery desert despite the burning heat of the sun. They started happily to shout to each other by saying, “Glad tidings!… Glad tidings!… Rasûlullah is coming!… Our Prophet is coming!… Be happy O Medinans. Rejoice! Habîbullah is coming!… Our precious is coming!…” At once, this news spread on the streets of Medina-i munawwara. Everybody, from children to elders to the ill, were awaiting this unprecedented happy news. All Medinans, having worn their most beautiful clothes, ran to welcome the Master of the worlds. Takbirs (saying “Allahu akbar”) were resounding the sky, tears of joy were flowing. There was a plaintive and blissful atmosphere and Medina was enjoying the most beautiful day of its history. On one side, there were people who put a prize for killing Allahu ta’âlâ’s Habîb who was known by everybody as “Emîn;” and on the other side, there were people who would like to protect him and his friends, welcome them with open arms and sacrifice their lives for sake of that way.

Medinans wanted to see the luminous face of our beloved Prophet as soon as possi- ble. Medina had not seen such a joyful, such a blessed moment before. This was a fest which had not been enjoyed so far.

Children and women were reciting the following poems in that feast, which was unique and would remain unique:

“Tala’al badru alaynâ Min saniyyât-il-wadâ’, Wajab-ash-shukru alaynâ, Mâ da’allahu dâi.

Ayyuh-al-mab’ûsu fînâ, Ji’ta bil-amr-il muta!…”119

116 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 489; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, IV, 424; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 346; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, VII, 133; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, I, 107.
117 Sûrat at-Tawba, 9/ 108.
118 Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 2/207.
119 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, V, 351; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 269; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, III, 278.

The wishes of “Welcome O Rasûlullah,” “Please, be welcomed to our home,” was beckoned from every direction. Some of the notables of Medina, by holding the bridle of Quswâ, would request, “O Rasûlullah! Please be welcomed in our home…” Then our Prophet said, “Leave the bridle, my camel will choose. I will be the guest in the home in front of which my camel kneels down!” Everybody became excited and showed great interest. Everybody wondered where Quswâ would kneel down. Quswâ was proceeding towards the center of Medina. As he was passing by the doors of each house, the home owner was saying, “O Rasûlullah! Please honor us, please honor us!” Our Master, the Prophet was saying with a smiling face, “Open the way for the cam- el! It has been ordered as to where to kneel down.” At last Quswâ kneeled down at a place where the door of the masjid-i sharîf of our Master, the Prophet exists now. Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) did not dismount his camel. The camel stood up again and started to walk. Then it kneeled down at the same place and did not stand up again. Thereupon our Master dismounted Quswâ and said, “Inshâallah our home is here,” then asked, “Who is the owner of this place?” They replied, “O Rasûlullah! Suhayl and Sahl, who are the sons of Amr.” Those children were orphans. Our Prophet asked, “Whose house among our relatives is closest to here?” Since the mother of our Master Rasûlullah’s grandfather, Abdulmuttalib, was from the Sons of Najjâr, Hadrat Khâlid bin Zayd Abû Ayyûb al-Ansârî said with a great excitement, “O Rasûlullah! My house is closest. Here is my house and its gate.” Then he unloaded Quswâ and invited our Master Rasûlullah in.120

120 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 346.

The Medinan Muslims and the Muhâjirs rejoiced greatly at the migration of our Master.

Your soul is a point of the nûr of Allahu ta’âlâ, O Rasûlullah
Your beauty enhances pleasure and gives contentment, O Rasûlullah

All Muslims know that, the birth of your body, which is the sign of mercy,
Removed all the darkness of disbelief, O Rasûlullah

Your are a rose bush in the rose garden of Messengership
Yet, you are the last rosebud that Allah had grown, O Rasûlullah

Show mercy, O the keeper, the most honorable sign of Allahu ta’âlâ
Your rays of knowledge are remedy for the affliction of Najîb O Rasûlullah

SULTAN AHMAD III (NAJÎB)

lineTHE MEDINA-I MUNAWWARA PERIOD

The Medina period, which had lasted for ten years, started with the Hegira of our beloved Prophet to Medina in 622 (A.D.), the 12th day of Rabî’ulawwal of the thir- teenth year of bi’that (the year in which Hadrat Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ was informed that he was the Prophet).

When our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) honored the house of Hadrat Khâlid bin Zayd Abû Ayyûb Al-Ansârî, he preferred to stay on the lower floor. Thus, the hon- or of accommodation of the master of the world fell to the lot of this blessed person.

Hadrat Khâlid related as follows, “When Rasûlullah honored my house; he had pre- ferred to stay downstairs. We were staying upstairs and felt very badly about this sit- uation. One day I said to him, “O Rasûlullah, may my mother and father be sacrificed for your sake! I am not comfortable with the situation that you are staying downstairs while I am upstairs. I consider it unpleasant. It offends my feelings. Please allow us to move downstairs and you stay upstairs.” Upon this he said, “O Abâ Ayyûb! Staying in the downstairs of the house is more proper and suitable for us.” He deemed it suitable to stay downstairs for the purpose of meeting the visitors easily. Thus we continued to stay upstairs.

One day, our earthenware water jug had broken. Fearing that the water would drip on Rasûlullah, and it would discomfort him, my wife and I pressed our only velvet blanket, which we would use, on the water at once.”

Abû Ayyûb Al-Ansârî felt deeply embarrassed and at last, he started to stay down- stairs and had our Master the Prophet stay upstairs. Hadrat Abû Ayyûb said, “We used to always prepare dinner and send it to our Master Rasûlullah. Then he would send us the leftovers and I and my wife Ummu Ayyûb would search where Rasûlullah’s hand touched and we would be blessed by eating those parts of the food. Again, one night we prepared food made with onion or garlic but Rasûlullah sent it back to us. When I did not see any of his signs of having eaten, I went up to him crying. I said, “O Rasûlullah! May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! You sent the dinner back but I could not find any sign of yours on it. I and Ummu Ayyûb would search the parts where your hand touched and would be blessed by eating them.” Rasûlullah (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “I smelt something in this food. I did not eat from it. I am a person who speaks with angel.” I asked, “Is this haram (forbidden)? He said, “No, it is not! But I disliked it due to its smell.” When I said, “I dislike what you disliked!” he said, “You may eat it!” Upon that, we ate that food and have never prepared any food from that vegetable for Rasûlullah since then. Once again, I pre- pared food which would suffice for our Master Rasûlullah, and Abû Bakr then brought it to their presence. Rasûlullah said, “O Ebâ Ayyûb! Invite thirty persons from the notables of Ansâr.” I anxiously invited thirty persons from the Ansâr and they came. They ate from that food and were filled. Having understood that it was a miracle; their faith gained strength and took the oath of allegiance once again. Then they departed.

Then he said, “Invite sixty persons.” Since I saw that the meal, as a miracle, and did not decrease, I rejoiced all the more and invited sixty people to the presence of Rasûlullah. They came and ate that meal.

Attesting to the miracle of Rasûlullah, they all dispersed. Then our Prophet said, “Invite ninety persons from Ansâr.” I invited and they came. By order of Rasûlull- ah, they sat down to the meal by tens and ate. They all saw that great miracle and then departed. Thus, one hundred and eighty people ate. The food was still as much as what I had brought there, and it was as if it was untouched.”121

The brotherhood of Ansâr and Muhâjirs

Our Master, the Prophet made the Muhâjirs, who migrated and the Ansâr who ac- commodate them in their homes, brothers with each other in order to establish a tight- er alliance in Medina-i munawwara. When only Hadrat Ali was left, he supposed that he had been forgotten and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Have you forgotten me?” Then the Master of the worlds said, “You are my brother, in this world and the Hereafter.” This brotherhood was based both on material and spiritual support. Thus, the sadness from being far from their homelands, homes and relatives would be lightened a little. As a matter of fact, the Medinan Muslims had welcomed their Muhâjir brothers, who abandoned their homelands in order to live and spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, with open arms, invited them into their homes and heartily worked to help them in any case. With this brotherhood they embraced each other even more sincerely. Our Master Rasûlullah had matched each Muhâjir brother with an Ansâr who had a match- ing personality. This brotherhood was at such a level that they could even share the property they inherited from their fathers.122

Each Medinan divided his field, vineyard, garden, house, and properties… in short, whatever he had was divided into two and thus gladly gave the other half to his Mu- hâjir brother. Abdurrahman bin Awf from Muhâjirs related as follows, “When we mi- grated to Medina-i munawwara, our Master Rasûlullah made me and Sa’d bin Rabî brothers with each other. Upon that, my brother Sa’d said to me, “O my brother Ab- durrahmân! I am the richest among the Medinan Muslims regarding property. I have divided my property into two and half of it is yours.” Then I said, “May Allahu ta’âlâ make your property blessed and beneficial for you. I do not need property. But, just take me to the market place where you trade, that’s enough.”

121 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 289.
122 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 238; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 226-229; Balâzûrî, Ansâb, I, 270-271.

Such generosity was only possible with the brotherhood of Islam. From the time of Adam (’alaihis-salâm) to that time, there had been many migrations. However, there had not been such a meaningful and honorable Hegira and an adaptation full of love and a sincere embrace. Thusly, Allahu ta’âlâ declared in a verse purporting, “Certainly Mu’mins (Muslim believers) are brothers.”123   With this, it is indicated that real love and sincerity can only be attained with faith and belief, not with mate- rial interests. That state of the Companions was attained by attending just one sohbat (being in the presence of our Prophet) of our Master Rasûlullah. Fayz (radiance) and abundance, like the seas, emanating from the blessed heart of our beloved Prophet, was flowing to the hearts of the Companions, and as a result, they loved each other with an extraordinary devotion and preferred their brothers over themselves. In this new center of Islam, the Ansâr and the Muhâjirîn promised to have solidarity, to endure every kind of sacrifice for strengthening the Islamic religion and to attain the degree of martyrdom in the end. In this manner, they gathered around Rasûlullah and set up a new order and a happy life. Thus, with the incident of the Hegira, Islam had taken its first step to establish a “State.The luminous Medina was becoming the center and the cradle of Islamic religion.

In Medina, in addition to the Ashab-i kirâm, there were Christians, Jews and idol-worshipping polytheists. The Jews consisted of three tribes: The Banu Nadir, The Banu Qurayza and The Banu Qaynuqa. These were vehement foes to Islam, especially to our beloved Prophet.

Meanwhile, the Meccan polytheists regarded our Master, the Prophet’s making his Companions brothers in Medina and uniting them in this way, as a great threat to them- selves. If they could not overcome this matter soon, Muslims might strengthen and attack Mecca, they might regain their lands and homes… Threatening letters were coming to Muslims of Medina from the Meccan polytheists who were of this opinion. In one of these letters, it was written, “Certainly, so far, no Arab tribe which we had hostility towards has made us as angry as you have. Because, while you should have delivered a man from our people to us, you have embraced and protected him. This is a great fault for you. Please, do not interfere with our relations with him and leave him to us. If he corrects his course, we will rejoice the most. If not, it will be up to us to correct him!…”

To this letter, Hadrat Ka’b bin Mâlik wrote a very beautiful reply which praised our Prophet.

The Meccan polytheists wrote threatening letters to the polytheists of Medina in the same manner. They threatened them too by saying, “If you do not drive out our man from your city or if you do not kill him, we will march against you, kill you and take your women to our service!”

Upon this, the polytheists of Medina, gathered around Abdullah bin Ubayy, the hypocrite and they decided to harm our Master Rasûlullah whenever they found an opportunity.

123 Surat-ul-Hujurat, 49/ 10.

When Muslims learned of this situation, they did their best to protect our beloved Prophet and united around him. They were unable to go out at nights, unable to sleep at their homes. Ubayy bin Ka’b reported, “When our Master Rasûlullah and his Com- panions honored Medina-i munawwara, Muslims were targeted by polytheist Arab tribes. The Ashâb, armed, stood sentinel all nights.

The Ashâb-i kirâm was united and they ran to help their Muslim brothers under dan- gerous conditions. They were headed by our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). As he was in all his good attributes, in bravery too, he was the first among his Companions. No matter how late in the night, when a cry was heard, our Prophet would reach there on his horse before everyone, he would then communicate to his Ashâb that there was nothing to be concerned with and he would ease them.

The Masjid-i Nabî

When our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) honored Medina, he wished to start building a masjid where his Companions would be educated and per- form prayer. In the meantime, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and said, “O Rasûlullah! Allahu ta’âlâ orders you to build a home (masjid) from stone and adobe for Him.” Habîb-i akram at once wanted to buy the land, on which his camel Quswâ kneeled down when he came to Medina, from its owners. The owners said, “O Rasûlullah! We expect its value only from Janâb-i Haqq. We give that land to you as a present for Allah’s sake.” They wished much to bestow it to him. Nevertheless our Master, the Prophet did not accept their offer and bought it by paying far more than its normal value.124

While the land was being leveled, adobe bricks were being cut and stones were being removed. At last, after all arrangements had been completed, they gathered to lay the base. Our Master Muhammad Mustafâ (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) put the first stone on the base with his blessed hands. Then he said respectively, “Let Abû Bakr put his stone next to my stone! Let ’Umar put his stone next to Abû Bakr’s stone! Let ’Uthman put his stone next to ’Umar’s stone! Let Ali put his stone next to ’Uthman’s stone!” After his order had been fulfilled, he said to his Companions there, “You may put your stones too.” Then they started to put their stones.

All of the Companions, particularly our beloved Prophet, worked without rest to build the masjid. He carried stones and adobe bricks on his blessed back. They height- ened the base to one and a half meters by using stones and covered it with adobe. One day our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was carrying adobe brick. One of his Companions standing in front of him said with a great politeness, “O Rasû- lullah! Would you mind me carrying the adobe brick?” Our Master, Khâtam-ul anbiyâ did not give the adobe brick to him by saying more politely that he was in much more need to earn thawâb (reward, blessing). Then he recommended him to bring stone.

Our Master Rasûlullah was one those who worked the most in construction of the Masjîd-i Nabî. He would carry the most heavy rocks and bring them to the masonry artisans. While he was carrying these stones and adobe bricks, he would encourage his Companions by telling them about the value of the work done and giving glad tidings of the blessings.

Muslims, who saw such effort from our Master, were keenly working. Moreover, Ammâr bin Yâsar would carry two adobe bricks, one of them was for himself and the other one was for our Master, the Prophet, while everyone else was carrying one adobe brick. When our Master Rasûlullah saw this, he went to him. Patting Hadrat Ammâr on the back with his blessed hand our Master, the Prophet said, “O the son of Sumayya! You have two thawâbs while everyone else has one!” The walls of the masjid were completed in a short time and it was covered. Besides, two more rooms from adobe were built adjacent to the masjid for our Master Rasûlullah. They were covered it with date palm trunks and branches too. (With the lapse of time, these rooms were increased up to nine.) After the construction of the masjid had been com- pleted, our Master, the Prophet, moved from the house of Hadrat Khâlid bin Zayd into this house that was built for him. 125

Date palm trunk’s moaning

Our Master, the Prophet would perform khutba (the homily delivered at the pulpit by the imâm at the prayers of Friday and Islamic holidays) by leaning on a trunk of date palm called Hannâna, in the masjid, on Fridays. Afterwards, he had a minbar (pulpit), with three steps, constructed. Again, one Friday, our Master, the Prophet and his Companions gathered in the Masjid-i Nabî. When our Master climbed up the new minbar to perform khutba, the trunk of the dry date palm that our Master formerly leaned on during the khutba, started to cry and moan with a sound which everybody heard, as if a pregnant camel was crying. All the Companions listened to that sound in astonishment. However, the sound would not cease. Upon that, the Master of the worlds, climbed down from the minbar and patted the block with his blessed hands. At that moment the crying and moaning stopped. The Companions, who saw the love of the trunk of the dry date palm for our Prophet, burst into tears.

Regarding this incident, Hadrat Anas bin Mâlik said, “Even, the masjid had been shaken with its sound,” and Ibn-i Abî Wadâ’a said, “The trunk of the date palm burst out and moved. Our Master Rasûlullah came and put his blessed hand on it, and then it quieted down.”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Whose power holds my soul, that if I did not pat it, it would cry like that out of its yearn and sadness for me till the day of judgment.” Then the trunk of the date palm was buried by the order of Rasûlullah.

124 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 239.
125 Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 280.

It was informed in another report as follows: Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm said to the trunk of the dry date palm, “If you want, let me put you in the garden you were in. You may branch out and resume there. Or If you want, let me plant you in Heaven so that the friends of Allahu ta’âlâ may eat from your fruit.” Then our Master Rasûlullah gave ear to it and heard that it said, “Plant me in Heaven so that the friends of Allahu ta’âlâ may eat from my fruit and let me be in a place where I will not per- ish.” Those who were with our Master, the Prophet also heard that speech of the tree. Hereupon our Master Rasûlullah responded, “I will do what you requested.” Then he turned to his Companions and said, “It preferred Dâr-i baqa over dâr-i fana (this world).”

His marriage to Hadrat Âisha

When Sarwar-i âlam sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam and Hadrat Abû Bakr migrat- ed, they had left their children in Mecca. One year after our mother Hadrat Khadîja passed away, he became engaged to Hadrat Âisha in Mecca. In a hadîth-i sherîf quoted by Imâm-i Bukhârî, Hadrat Âisha said, “Our Master Rasûlullah said to me, ‘O Âisha! You were shown to me two times in my dream. Presumably in a piece of green silk cloth, I saw your picture and then I was told that, “The owner of this picture is your wife to be.” After that dream, our Master, the Prophet and our mother Hadrat Âisha became engaged. However, the wedding was not immediately held. Our mother Hadrat Âisha related this circumstance as follows,

“When Rasûlullah migrated to Medina, he had left us and his daughters in Mecca. After he honored Medina, he sent us his emancipated slave Zayd bin Khârisa and Abû Râfî’ with two camels and 500 dirhams to pay for their needs. Also, my father sent Abdullah bin Uraykit along with them, with two or three camels and a letter ordering my brother Abdullah to send my mother, me and my sister Asmâ by the camels. I, my mother Ummu Rûmân and Hadrat Zaynab, one of Rasûlullah’s daughters, all departed together. When we arrived at Qubayd, Zayd bought three more camels, paying 500 dirhams. Talha bin Ubaydullah joined the caravan, too. When we came to Bayd in a district of Minâ, my camel ran away. I was in the litter and my mother was next to me. My mother was in a fluster, shouting, “Alas my daughter, alas my daughter-in-law!” Allahu ta’âlâ calmed the camel and saved us. After all this, we arrived in Medina. I dismounted along with the rest of my father’s household members.” Rasûlullah’s household members dismounted in front of their rooms. Our mother Hadrat Âisha stayed with her father, Hadrat Abû Bakr, in his house for a while. One day Hadrat Abû Bakr asked our Master Sarwar-i âlam, “O Rasûlullah! What detains you from marrying with your wife?” Rasûlullah replied, “It is mahr (The mahr is comprised of things like gold, silver, or any kind of property or any kind of benefit that is given by a man to the woman he is to marry).” Then Hadrat Abû Bakr sent money for mahr to Rasûlullah.

Thereupon our mother Hadrat Âisha’s wedding was held. Those days our Master, the Prophet was fifty-five years old.126 Our mother Hadrat Âisha was so intelligent and talented that she could immediately express the incidents poetically. She would never forget what she learned and memorized. She was very clever, intelligent, erudite, let- tered, chaste and pious. Since she had a retentive memory, Ashâb-i kirâm would ask and learn many things from her. She was exalted by an âyat-i karîma.

Adhân-i Muhammadî

After Masjîd-i Nabî was built, at prayer times, there was no method to declare the coming of prayer time and to invite Muslims to the mosque. Only, “Assalâtu Jâmi’a” would be said.

One day, our Master Rasûlullah, consulting with his Companions, asked how the Muslims should be invited to the mosque at prayer times. Some offered ringing a nâqûs that is bell like Christians to declare the prayer time; some offered blowing a horn like Jews. Some others expressed their opinion by saying, “Let’s light a fire and show it from a high place at prayer times.” Our Master Rasûlullah did not accept any of these.127

Abdullah bin Zayd bin Sa’laba and Hadrat ’Umar saw reciting of the adhân in their dreams. Hadrat Abdullah came to our beloved Prophet and related his dream as fol- lows,

“I saw a man in a green attire, holding a bell. I asked him, “Will you sell the bell in your hand to me?” He asked, “What will you do with it?” When I replied, “I will ring it to announce prayer times.” That person said, “Let me teach you the better way,” and turned towards Qibla and started to recite Adhân with a loud voice, “Allâhu Akbar, Allâhu Akbar…” When he finished this recitation, he said, “When it is time to get up for prayer,” and he repeated the Adhân; and towards the end of it, he added the sen- tence, “Qad Qâmat-is-salâtu.”

Upon this, our Master Rasûlullah said, “The dream is true. Teach those words to Bilâl, let him recite them!” This was named adhân.128

When Hadrat ’Umar heard the voice of adhân, he came the presence of our Master Rasûlullah by running. He said that his dream was exactly the same as what Hadrat Bilâl recited. That night, some of the Companions had seen the same dream. In the meantime, the 9th âyat-i karîma of Jumâ Sûra had been revealed.

Then Hadrat Bilâl, going up to a high roof near Masjid-i sharîf, recited the first adhân with the words he was taught.

126 Bukhârî, “Manâqib-ul-Ansar” , 44; Tirmidhî, “Nikâh”, 18.
127 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 247; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XII, 287; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, IX, 378.
128 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 247.

One day, at the time of morning prayer, Bilâl-i Habashî had called, “As-salâtu hay- run minannawm” two times, before the door of the house of our beloved Prophet (’alahis-salâm). Our Master, the Prophet liked that. He said, “Bilâl, what a beautiful saying this is! Say this too, while you call the adhân of morning prayers.” Thus, it began that this expression was recited in the adhân of morning prayers.

The voice of Bilâl-i Habashî, who was the muezzin until the death of our Prophet, was sonorous, very nice and affective. When he started to recite adhân, everybody would listen to him with a great love and ecstasy and would be overwhelmed. He would make everybody cry when he was reciting adhân. The Companions’ inviting each other to the mosque at prayer times with adhân-i sharîf seemed strange to the Medinan polytheists and Jews. They would ridicule and make fun of it while the adhân was being recited. Upon their mockery, Allahu ta’âlâ declared in the Qur’ân al-karîm purporting, “When you invite to namaz with adhân, they are playing and making fun of it. This is because they are a people who are not able to understand.”129

The educating of the Companions

Our Master Fakhr-i kâinat sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, in order to educate and mature the Ashâb-i kirâm, would make unprecedented sohbats (To speak with one another; keeping company with each other; togetherness) and pour the fayz and bless- ings that Allahu ta’âlâ granted him, into their hearts. Those who had the honor of attending our Master, the Prophet’s sohbats would feel a fundamental change in their hearts even at the first sohbat and attain very high ma’rifats (divine knowledge, gno- sis). With the blessing of these sohbats, all the Ashâb-i kirâm would love, before all others, our beloved Prophet then all their fellow Companions, more than themselves. Allahu ta’âlâ exalted them with âyat-i karîmas. They would politely and attentively stay in the presence of our Master Rasûlullah in such a manner that it was as if birds had landed on their heads and if they would have said a word, the bird would fly away. Thus, the Ashâb-i kirâm became superior and virtuous among the created, ranking only after the prophets and the angels of greater ranks. Allahu ta’âlâ decreed in the Qur’ân al-karîm purporting, “You [Believers] are the best and most beneficent Um- mat selected from among people. You have been created for people’s benefit. You command goodness and prohibit evildoing…”130

“Allahu ta’âlâ is pleased with those who previously became Muslim, those who previously came among Muhâjirîn and Ansâr and those who follow them in goodness. And they, too, are pleased with Allahu ta’âlâ. Allahu ta’âlâ have pre- pared Heavens for them. Rivers are flowing under these Heavens. They will stay in these Heavens forever.” 131 “Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is the Prophet of Allahu ta’âlâ, and all those people who are with him, (that is all the Ashâb-i kirâm) are harsh towards the disbelievers. Yet they are compassionate and tender towards one another. You will see most of them making the rukû’ (bowing with both hands on knees during the performance of prayer called namâz or salât) and making the sajda (prostration

during namâz). They beg Allahu ta’âlâ to give all people all sorts of goodness and superiority in this world and the next. They also wish for Ridwân, that is, for Allahu ta’âlâ to be pleased with them. It will be seen on their faces that they have been making the sajda very much. These facts about their states and honors have been stated in the Torah as well as in the Injîl (the original, genuine Bible revealed to Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’). As is stated in the Injîl, they are like crops. As a flimsy sprout appears from the soil, becomes thicker and taller; likewise, they were few in number and weak, yet they spread far and near in a short time. They filled everywhere with lights of îmân. As others marvel at a sprout’s growing in a short time; likewise, as these people’s beautiful manners and fame spread over the earth, those who saw it were astonished and they admired them, while disbe- lievers became angry.”132

Our Master, the Prophet declared in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, in order to explain the greatness and the highness of the levels of the Ashâb-i kirâm, “Do not talk against any of my Companions. Do not say anything improper for their glory!

I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that, If any one of my Ummat gives alms in gold as big as Uhud Mountain, he will not get so much thawâb as that which is given for my As’hâb’s alms of one mudd 133 of barley.” and “Each and every one of my Ashâb is like the stars in the sky. Adapting yourself to any one of them will guide you to salvation.

The Suffa Companions

Our Master, the Prophet had a shade made with date palm branches on the northern wall of the Masjid-i Nabî. Then he ordered the single Companions who migrated from Mecca, who had no property, to stay there. Those Companions134, the number of which varied between ten and four hundred, would never leave our Master Rasûlullah and never abandon his sohbats. Day and night, they would read the Qur’ân al-karîm and memorize the hadîth-i sherîfs. In most days of the year, they would fast and they would never abandon worshipping and praying.

Those who were educated there, would be sent to the tribes who had newly become Muslim and teach them the Qur’ân al-karîm and hadîth-i sheriffs, that is the religion of Islam. Those blessed Companions who had many excellences were a large army of education. Our Master, the Prophet would deeply love them, sit down with them, make sohbats and eat with them. They were called Ashâb-i suffa (the suffa Companions).

One day, our Master Rasûlullah looked at the Ashâb-i suffa and thought that they were very poor. Even under these conditions they were praying with a clear con- science and brightness. Our Master, the Prophet having pity on them, said, “O the Suffa Companions! Glad tidings to you! If there remains one person among my Ummat who consents to the difficult conditions which you are now in, is for sure one of my friends.”

Habîb-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam used to provide for the needs of these exclusive Companions of his first, then his Ahl-i bayt’s. Abû Hurayra related as fol- lows, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ except Whom there is no god, I sometimes would lean my abdomen against the ground out of hunger and sometimes I would press a stone that I picked from the ground on my abdomen. Once again, I was in such a state. That day, I had sat on the roadside through which Rasûlullah went to the masjid. Just then, the ornament of the two worlds who was sent as a mercy for the worlds came to me with a beaming nûr. Understanding my situation, he smiled and then said, “O Abâ Hurayra!” When I said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, please tell O Rasûlullah!” He said, “Come with me!” I went immediately after him. He entered his home of bliss. There was a cup of milk in the house. He said, “All right, go to the Ahl-i Suffa. Call them here.” When I was going for calling them, I thought to myself, “How will a cup of milk suffice for all the Suffa Companions? Will a drop fall to my share? I wonder…” I called them. Then we came to the home of bliss, asked for permission and entered. After we sat down in suitable places, our Master Rasûlullah said, “O Abâ Hurayra! Take this cup of milk and give it to them!” I took and de- livered the cup to my friends respectively. Each of them was taking the cup, drinking until he was full, then gave it back to me. When I received the cup back from each of them I realized all the time that it did not decrease and was full of milk as it was at the beginning. In this way, I presented it to all my friends who came there. All of them drank and was full. Then Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam took the cup and said to me smilingly, “O Abâ Hurayra! Only me and you remain, who have not drunk milk. You too sit down and drink!” I sat down and drank. He said, “Drink again!” Then I drank. Our Master said to me, “Drink!” a few times. And I drank at each time. At last I said, “My parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! I can not drink anymore. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who sent you with the right religion, I am completely full.” Then he said, “So, give the cup to me.” I gave it to him. After he had praised and eulogized Allahu ta’âlâ, he recited the Basmala and then drank the milk.”

Medinan Companions would have a strong and incomparable liking for those dis- tinguished Ashâb who were studying without missing even one sohbat of our Master Rasûlullah. One evening, one of the Companions among the Suffa, who was exhaust- ed out of hunger, came to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah and submitted his situation. Then our Master, the Prophet asked members of his household of bliss if there was anything to eat. When he received the answer of, “For now, there is nothing except water as food in the house,” he said to his Companions who were present there, “Who will host that hungry person?” One Medinan Companion among the Ashâb-i kirâm, acting before everyone, said, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! I will put him up.”

Then he went home with his guest and said to his wife, “Prepare some food to dine, for the guest of our Master Rasûlullah.” His wife replied, “At the moment, there is nothing to eat except the food for our children.” He said, “Firstly put the children to sleep and then bring the food.” Then he took the food, which would suffice for only one person, and entered the room where the guest was. He put the food in front of him and invited him to eat. After they had started to eat together, the homeowner stood up, pretended to adjust the light and put it out. Then, he again sat down to eat in the dark. He pretended to eat, and waited for the guest to eat his fill. After the guest had eaten his fill, he cleared where they had dined. That night he and his children went to sleep hungry. In the morning, when they went to the presence of our Master, the Prophet, he said, “Allahu ta’âlâ has been pleased with your behavior last night.” Thereupon, Allahu ta’âlâ revealed the 9th âyat-i karîma of Hashr Sûra which purports, “They (Ansâr) value (Muhâjirs) above their own sake even if there is poverty and neediness for themselves.”

Jibrîl hadîth

Our Master Rasûlullah, would explain and teach the commands and prohibitions of our religion in depth and expound on everything about “the Religion of Islam” such as the pillars of belief and Islam, praying, fasting, pilgrimage, all rules of zakât, the in- terpretations of the Qur’ân al-karîm, the forbidden and permitted foods, clothes; oath, making vow, kaffârat (atonement), trading information; the propriety of eating, dress- ing, conversation and speech and greeting; the communications between neighbors, relatives and friends; the rules of marriage, alimony, heredity and inheritance; cases, penalties, agreements and partnerships; health and hygiene knowledge, confronting with the enemy, law of war… to his Companions in such a way that everybody could understand and he would repeat three times the subject that he deemed important.135

He would give the information regarding women through his blessed wives.

The brave imâm of Muslims, one of the superiors of the Ashâb-i kirâm, famous for always telling the truth, our beloved elder, ’Umar bin Khattâb radî-Allâhu ’anh says:

“It was such a day that we, a few of the Companions, were in the presence and at service of Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. That day and that hour were so honorable and precious that it could never be caught. That day, being honored by attending Rasûlullah’s sohbat and being next to him, seeing his beauty, which is nour- ishment for souls and pleasure for spirits, was bestowed upon us. (In order to explain the honor and importance of that day, he said, “It was such a day that…” Is it possible to find such an honorable and precious day on which it was granted to see Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ (Archangel Gabriel) in a human form, to hear his voice, to listen to the information required by all creatures, so beautifully and clearly, from the blessed mouth of Rasûlullah?)

135 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 240.

At that moment, a person, like the moon rising, came near to us. His attire was very white and his hair was so black. There was no sign of travel, such as dust, soil or sweat on him. None of us, the Companions of Rasûlullah, knew that person. That is, he was not a person that we already knew or recognized. He sat down in the presence of Rasû- lullah, sitting knee to knee with him. (That person was Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm.’He was in human form. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’s sitting in such a manner, was to communicate something important. That is, it was to show that there should be no embarrassment in learning something about religion and the master should not have conceit and ar- rogance. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ expressed this to the Ashâb-i kirâm with his behavior, so that everybody should ask freely and without hesitation of the teachers, whatever he or she would like to learn about the religion. Because, it is not appropriate to be embarrassed in learning religion and fulfilling, teaching and learning the rights of Allahu ta’âlâ.)

That noble person put his hands on the blessed knees of our Master Rasûl-i akram and said, “O Rasûlullah! Tell me what Islam is and how to be a Muslim.”

Then Rasûl-i akram said, “The first of the five fundamentals of Islam is to say the Kalima-i shahâdat. (That is, one should say, “Ash’hadu an lâ ilâha illa’llâh wa ash’hadu anna Muhammadan ’abdûhu wa rasûluh.” In other words, a discreet person who has reached the age of puberty and who can talk has to say vocally, “On the earth or in the sky, there is no one but Allâhu ta’âlâ worthy of worship. The real being to be worshipped is Allahu ta’âlâ alone. He is the Wâjib al-wujûd (Indispensable Being). Every kind of superiority exists in Him. No defect exists in Him. His name is Allah,” and to believe in this absolutely with all his heart. And also one should say and believe, “The exalted person who had a rose-pink skin, a white-reddish, bright and lovely face, black eyes and eye brows; who had a blessed wide forehead, with a good temper; who shed no shadow on the ground, was soft-spoken and was called Arab be- cause he was born in Mecca, Arabia is Allahu ta’âlâ’s human slave and messenger.”)

To perform the ritual prayer (namâz, salât) when the time for prayer comes. To give the zakât of one’s property. To fast every day of the month of Ramadân-i sharîf. For the able person to perform the hajj (pilgrimage) once in his life.” That person upon hearing these answers from Rasûlullah, said, “O Rasûlullah! You told the truth!” We who were there as listeners, were astonished at the behavior of this person who asked a question and confirmed that the answer was correct.

That person again said, “O Rasûlullah! Tell me now what îmân (belief) is.” (We should not think of the literal meaning of îmân in this hadîth-i sherîf, for, there was not one ordinary man in Arabia who did not know its literal meaning: ‘confirming and believing’ Certainly the Ashâb-i kirâm knew it, too, but Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ wanted to teach the meaning of îmân to the Ashâb-i kirâm by asking what îmân meant in Islam.) And Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said that îmân was to believe in six certain facts:

“First of all, to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ, in His angels, in the Books revealed by Him, in His Prophets, in the Last Day, in qadar (destiny), that khair (good) and sharr (evil) are from Allahu ta’âlâ.” That person said again, “You told the truth!” and confirmed his answer. Then he asked again, “O Rasûlullah! Tell me now what ihsân is.” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “To worship Allahu ta’âlâ as if one sees Him. He always sees you although you do not see Him.” That person asked again, “O Rasûlullah! Tell me about the Last Day!” Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “About this question, the asked person does not know more than the questioner.” That person said, “So, tell me the indications of the Last Day.” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “The jariyas’ giving birth to their masters; your seeing barefoot, unclothed and poor sheepherders (getting rich and) competing against each other to build high build- ings.” After this, that person returned.

Turning towards me, Rasûlullah asked, “O ’Umar! Do you know that person who asked the questions?” I said, “Allahu ta’âlâ and His Rasûl know better.” Then Rasûlullah said, “He was Jibril (Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’). He came to teach you your religion.”136

Our beloved Prophet would explain things to his Companions according to their level in religion. One day, ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ saw Rasûlullah (sall- Allâhu ta’âlâ ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying something to Hadrat Abû Bakr as he passed by them. He went near them and listened. Others also saw them, yet they hesitated to go and listen. The following day, when they saw Hadrat ’Umar they said to him, “O ’Umar, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) was telling you something yesterday. Tell us, so that we can know.” He (the Prophet) always used to say, “Tell your broth- ers-in-Islam what you hear from me! Let one another know!” Hadrat ’Umar said, “Yesterday Abû Bakr (radî Allahu ’anh) had asked him about the meaning of an âyat which he couldn’t understand, and Rasûlullah was explaining it to him. I listened for an hour, but I couldn’t understand anything.” He was explaining everything accord- ing to the high grade of Abû Bakr. Hadrat ’Umar was so great that Rasûlullah said, “I am the Last Prophet. No Prophet will succeed me. If there were a prophet to succeed me, ’Umar would be that prophet.” Though he was so great and knew his mother-tongue Arabic very well, he was not able to understand even the explana- tion of the Qur’ân that Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm communicated to Hadrat Abû Bakr. Rasûlullah used to explain it according to the degree of the person. The degree of Abû Bakr was much higher than Hadrat ’Umar’s. But he, too, and even Hadrat Jabrâil used to ask Rasûlullah about the meaning, about the mysteries in the Qur’ân. Rasûlullah explicated the interpretation of the whole Qur’ân to the Ashâb-i kirâm. Our beloved Prophet, while teaching the religion to his Companions, he also heard cases, listened to witnesses, and solved the most difficult disagreements.

136 Bukhârî, “Iman”, 32; Muslim, “Iman”, 1; Abû Dâwûd, “Sunnat”, 17; Nasâî, “Iman”, 5; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Mu- snad, I, 27, 51.

Salmân-i Fârisî’s becoming Muslim

Day by day, the spreading of the light of Islam and the blessed name of our Mas- ter Rasûlullah taking place in the hearts wherever it was heard, commenced. Those knowledgeable people, who were yearning for his coming, were rushing to Medina excitedly, in search of becoming Muslim. One of those people was Hadrat Salmân-i Fârisî. He related about how he became Muslim, as follows:

I am from Djay village of Isfehan city in Persia. My father was the wealthiest person in the village and we had much property. I was the only child and the darling of my father. He overprotected me. He did not permit me to go out of the home. He was a fire-worshipper, therefore he taught me fire worshipping completely as he wished. A fire burned in our house constantly and we would worship it, we would make sajda (prostrate) toward it. Since my father had much property, one day, he brought me out of the house and said, “My son! When I die, you will be the owner of all these goods. Therefore, go and know your goods and fields.” I said, “All right” and roamed around our fields.

When I went to see the fields one day, I saw a church. I heard the voices of the Christians. When I went near them I saw that they were worshipping inside of the building. I was astonished, because I had not seen any such thing before. Our worship was only to burn a fire and making sajda toward it. However, they were worshipping an invisible Allah. I told myself, “I swear that their religion is true, ours is false.” Be- ing interested, I watched them until evening. Before going to our fields, the darkness began to fall. When I asked them, “Where is the center of this religion,” they replied, “It is in Damascus.” Then, I asked, “If I go to Damascus, will they accept me too?” they said, “Yes, they will.” When I asked them, “Is there anyone who will go to Da- mascus soon?” they told me that a caravan would go after a while. The people I spoke to were few in number, they had come from Damascus to Isfahan.

While I was busy with these, I was late to go home. When my father saw that I did not return, he started searching for me and sent men to find me. They looked for, but could not find me. While they were in fear, I returned home. My father said, “Where have you been so long? There was nowhere we did not look for you!” I said, “Father! I was walking around the fields. On the road, I met upon a Christian church. I entered the building. They were worshipping an Allah who they did not see. I was amazed by their worships. I watched them until the evening. I understood that their religion was true.” My father, listening to my words, said, “O my son! You are thinking wrong. The religion of your ancestors is more correct than theirs. Their religion is false. Never believe them!” I said, “No, their religion is better than ours and theirs is true, ours is false.” My father became furious at this; he tied my hands and feet and imprisoned me in the house.

While I was in this situation, I was looking for news from the caravan which would go to Damascus. Finally, I learned that the Christian priests prepared the caravan. I untied myself and I went to the church where the caravan was present. I told them that I could not stay here and I joined the caravan and set off for Damascus. In Damascus, I asked who the greatest scholar was in the Christian religion. They described to me a man and I went to him and told him of my state. I told him that I wished to stay with him, I would serve him and I requested him to teach me Christianity and make me know Allahu ta’âlâ. He had accepted this. Then, I started to serve him and work for the church. He was teaching me Christianity.

However, afterwards, I understood that he was a bad person. Because, he kept the gold and the silver, which Christians brought to him for the poor. He did not give them to the needy. He had stocked seven cubes of gold and silver. There was no one who knew this except me. After a while, he passed away. Christians gathered for the funeral. I told them, “Why do you respect this person so much? He does not deserve respect!” They said, “How can you say that?” and they did not believe me. I showed them where the gold and silver had been stocked. They took out seven cubes of gold and silver, and then they said, “This person does not deserve a burial or funeral.” They threw away his body and covered it with stones. Another person was given his post.137

That person was a pious man and a real scholar. He did not give any importance to this world. He was looking forward to the Hereafter. He worked for the Hereafter all the time; he worshipped during the day and night. I liked him so much and I stayed with him for a long time. I served him willingly. We would worship together.

One day, I told him, “O my master! I have been with you for a long time and I have liked you very much. Because you are obeying the orders of Allahu ta’âlâ and abstain- ing from what He forbids. What do you advise me to do? What shall I do when you pass away?” He replied, “O my son! In Damascus, there is no one left to correct the people. Whomever you go to, will spoil you. However, there is one person in Mosul. I recommend you to find him.”

When he died, I went to Mosul and found the person whom he had identified. I told him my life story. He accepted me to his service. As the other person, he was also a very valuable, pious and a strict worshipper. I served him a long time too. But, he became ill one day. While he was about to die, I asked him the same questions. He recommended me to a person in Nusaybin. After his passing away, I went to Nusay- bin immediately. I found the person he mentioned and told him that I wanted to stay with him. He accepted and I stayed at his service for some time. When he became ill, I told him to send me to another person. He described a person who was in Amuriya, a Roman city. After his death, I went to Amuriya and I found the person. I remained in his service for a long time.

Then his passing away approached too. When I requested him to send me to another person he enumerated the signs of him by saying, “I swear that I do not know such a person. But the coming of the Prophet of the Last Age became near. He will come out from among the Arabs, migrate from his homeland and settle into a town where there is abundance of date palms growing much in stony places. He accepts presents but does not accept sadaqa (alms). He has a seal of prophethood in between his two shoulders.” After this person had died, I decided to go to the Arab region according to his sayings.

137 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, V, 441; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 371.

I had worked in Amuriya and I owned several oxen and some sheep. A convoy from the Banî Kalab Tribe would go to Arabia. When I told them, “Take these cattle and sheep, bring me to Arabia,” they accepted my offer. When we came to the place called Wâdiy-ul-Kurâ, they betrayed me and sold me to a Jew, claiming that I was a slave. I saw the palm date gardens where the Jews lived. I thought, “Possibly, here is the place where the Prophet of the Last Age will immigrate.” However, I could not like that place. I served that Jew for some time. Then, he sold me to his paternal uncle’s son. He brought me to Medina. When I reached Medina, I liked there as if I saw it before. Then, I spent my days in Medina. I was working in the garden and farm of the Jew who bought me. I was also waiting for attaining my goal impatiently.

One day, I had climbed a date palm and I was working. My owner was talking to someone under the tree. They mentioned, “May the Aws and the Hazraj tribes be perished. A person from Mecca came to Kuba. He says he is Prophet. These tribes are embracing his religion…” When I heard these words, I was about to faint. I immedi- ately went down and I asked that person, “What are you saying?” My owner slapped my face, saying, “What is it to you? Why are you asking? Care about your business!” That day, when it became evening, I took some dates and arrived in Kuba. I went to our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) and I said, “You are a pious person. You must have poor people with you. I have brought these dates as alms.”

Rasûlullah told the Companions, “Come, eat dates.” They ate. However, he did not eat any of them. I said to myself, “Now, this is one of the signs. He does not accept alms.” After our Master Rasûlullah honored Medina, I took some dates again and I brought them to him. I said, “These are a present!” This time, he and his Compan- ions ate them. I said, “Now, the second sign has come true.” The dates I brought to them were around twenty five units. However, the grains of them were around one thousand. With the miracle of our Master Rasûlullah, the number of the dates had increased. I said to myself, “I have seen another sign.” I had gone to Rasûlullah again. He was conducting a funeral. I approached, because I wished to see the seal of the prophethood. He understood my purpose. When I saw the seal of the prophethood, I kissed it and I wept. At that moment, I said the Kalimat ash shahâda and became Muslim.

Then I explained to him about what I had lived through in detail. He was astonished at my situation. He ordered me to tell about this to the Companions. The Ashâb-i kirâm gathered, I told them about what I had experienced in every detail…”138

When Salmân-i Fârisî became Muslim, he required a translator because he did not know the Arabic language. While he was praising our beloved Prophet, the Jewish translator was giving opposite meanings. At that moment, Hadrat Jabrâil (Archangel Gabriel) came and correctly informed Rasûlullah of what Hadrat Salmân said. When the Jewish translator understood the situation, he became Muslim by reciting the Kali- mat ash-shahâda. After becoming Muslim, Salmân-i Fârisî continued to be a slave for a while. Upon the order of our beloved Prophet, “Free yourself from slavery, O Salmân!”, he went to his owner and said he wanted to be emancipated. The Jew very reluctantly agreed. He accepted it on the condition that Salmân would plant three hundred date palms; he would raise them until they start yielding and he would give forty ruqya (an amount of gold at those times) gold.

138 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, V, 441; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 371.

He informed our Master Rasûlullah of this. Our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) told his Companions, “Help your brother.” They collected three hundred young date-palm trees for him. Our Master Rasûlullah said to him, “Dig their holes and inform me when they are ready.” When he prepared the holes and informed of this, our Master (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) honored the place. He planted date-palms with his own blessed hands. One of the date-palms had been planted by Hadrat ’Umar. With the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ, the palms, except the one planted by Hadrat ’Umar, yielded dates within that year. Our Master Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alai- hi wa sallam’ uprooted that palm and then replanted it with his blessed hands. As soon as he planted it, it yielded dates.

Hadrat Salmân-i Fârisî related, “One day a person was looking for me and asking, ‘Where is Salmân-i Fârisî? Where is the Mukâtab-i faqîr? (a slave who agreed with his master for attaining his freedom against a fixed amount of money)? Then he found me and gave to me the gold he was holding in his hand, which was as big as an egg. Taking it, I went to our Prophet and submitted the situation.

Giving the gold back to me, Rasûlullah said, “Take this gold and pay your debt!” When I said, “O Rasûlullah! This gold doesn’t have enough weight for what that Jew wanted.” Our Master Rasûlullah took the gold and touched it with his blessed tongue. Then he said, “Take this! Allahu ta’âlâ pays your debt with it.” For the sake of Allah, I weighed that gold and I saw that it was as heavy as was required. Then I gave it to him. Thus, I was freed from slavery.”139 After that day, Salmân-i Fârisi joined the Ashâb-i Suffa.

The Angels would come to listen

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would read the Qur’ân al-kerîm so beautifully, so sweetly and effectively that non-Muslims too were overcome in admi- ration. Many people became Muslims by listening to him. Hadrat Barâ bin Âzib told, “After a night prayer, I had listened to our Master Rasûlullah’s reciting Tîn Sûra. He was so beautifully reciting that I never heared any one who had a more perfect voice and recitation.”

Among the Companions, there were many who had very beautiful voices, who wept and made others weep during their reading the Qur’ân al-kerîm out. One of them was

139 Bukhârî, Fadâil-us-Sahaba, 81; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, I, 467.

Usayd bin Khudayr. One night, he tied his horse near him and started reciting the Baqara Sûra. While he was reciting, the horse shied. Hadrat Usayd stopped. The horse calmed down. When he started reciting, the horse shied again. When he stopped, the horse calmed down again. When he re-started reciting, the horse shied once more. Yahya, Usayd bin Hudayr’s son, was lying near the horse. He was worried that the horse could harm the child, therefore, he stopped reciting. When he looked up to the sky, he recognized some shining things like oil lamps in a fog resembling a white cloud. When he stopped reciting, he saw that those shining things ascended to the sky. On the morning, he went to our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and told about what had happened in the night. Our Prophet asked, “Do you know what they were?” Hadrat Usayd answered, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O the Messenger of Allah! I do not know.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “They were angels. They had come near to your voice. If you had continued to recite, they would have listened to you until the morning, and the people would have seen and watched them. They would have not been hidden from people’s eyes.”

One of those who were reading the Qur’ân al-kerîm touchingly was Hadrat Abû Bakr-i Siddiq. When he started to recite it during the ritual prayer, he could not stop himself from shedding tears. Those who saw him would admire his state. One day the polytheists gathered and said, “This person touchingly reads out in tears what the prophet has brought. We are afraid that our children and wives would be captivated by this state of his and become Muslim.”

One of those admired people that became a model Muslim, who loved our beloved Prophet upon seeing his blessed face, became Muslim upon listening to his blessed words and the Qur’ân al-kerîm as he recited it, was Hadrat Abdullah bin Salâm.

Abdullah bin Salâm was a Jewish scholar before embracing Islam. He knew the Torah and the Bible well. He told about how he became Muslim as follows, “I had learned the Torah and its explanations from my father. One day, my father told me the attributes, signs and works of the Prophet that would come in the Last Age. And he said, “If he is one of the sons of Hârûn (Aaron) (’alaihis-salâm), I will be obedient to him; If not, I won’t.” My father died before Rasûlullah’s coming to Medina.

When I heard that Rasûlullah announced his prophethood in Mecca, I already knew his attributes, his name and time that he would come. Because of this, I kept waiting for him. Until I learned that he was staying at the house of the sons of Amr bin Awf in the place called Quba near Medina, I kept my state a secret from the Jews and I did not speak.

While I was collecting fresh dates from a date palm in my garden, a person from the sons of Nâdir shouted, “Today, the man of Arabs came.” I started trembling. Im- mediately I said takbîr “Allahu Akbar.” At that moment, my paternal aunt, Khâlida binti Khâris was sitting under the tree. She was a very old woman. When she heard my takbîr, she said, “May Allah make your hand empty and may He not make you attain what you wish! I swear by Allah that you would not be happier if you heard Mûsâ bin Imrân (Prophet Moses) would come.” I said, “O my aunt! I swear by Allah that he is the brother of Mûsâ bin Imrân and he is a Prophet like him. He is on the same path with him and he has been sent with the same belief of tawhîd (belief in the oneness, unity of Allahu ta’âlâ).”

Upon this, she asked, “O my brother’s son! Is he the prophet of whom we were informed that he would be sent near the Doomsday?” I answered, “Yes.” “So, you are right,” she said.140

When Rasûlullah migrated to Medina, I mingled in the crowd at once in order to see him. As soon as I saw his blessed beauty and luminous face, I said, “His face can not be a liar’s face!” Rasûlullah was explaining Islam and giving advice to the people that had gathered. There, the first hadîth-i sherîf which I heard from Rasûlullah was,

“Spread the selâm (greeting) among you, feed the hungry ones, make sila-i rahm (visit your close relatives), perform ritual prayer when people are asleep. Thus you will enter Paradise in safety.”

Fakhr-i âlam (sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallâm), with his light of prophethood, rec- ognized me and asked, “Are you Ibn-i Salâm, the scholar of Medina?” When I answered, “Yes,” our beloved Prophet said, “Come closer” and asked that question, “O Abdullah! Tell for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ! Have you not read and learned of my attributes in the Torah?” I said, “Would you tell me the attributes of Allahu ta’âlâ?” Against this question, our Master Rasûlullah waited for a while and Jabrail (Archangel Gabriel) (’alaihis-salâm) descended the sûra Ikhlâs. When I heard this sûra which our Master Rasûlullah recited, I immediately became Muslim by saying to our Prophet, “Yes, O Rasûlullah! You are telling the truth, I bear witness that there is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ. You are His born slave and His Messenger!”

Then, I said, “O Rasûlullah! Jews are a cruel people who tell lies, who make base- less claims and make such slanders as to astonish anyone who hears them. If they hear and learn that I have embraced Islam, before your enquiring about my personality and character, they will certainly utter unimaginable slanders about me. First, ask them about me!” I then hid in the house. After me, a group of prominent Jews entered. Our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) asked the Jews, “How is Abdullah bin Salam among you?” The Jews said, “He is our most superior scholar, and son of our most superior scholar! Ibn-i Salam is our best, and son of our best!” Upon this our Prophet asked, “What would you say if he has become Muslim?” The Jews replied, “May Allah protect him from such a thing.”

140 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 400; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 373.

At that time, I appeared from the hiding place and I confirmed what was said by say- ing, “O Jewish community! Fear Allahu ta’âlâ! Accept what has come to you. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, you also know that this person is Allahu ta’âlâ’s Prophet, whose name and attributes you saw in the Torah you have. “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness again, that Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm is His slave and Messenger.” Upon this, the Jews said, “He is our worst and son of our worst!” They then made slanders about me and they accused me of some faults. I said, “This was what I feared. O Rasûlullah! I had told you that they are a cruel, lying, slandering na- tion who do not refrain from evil, had I not? All these have happened.” Rasûlullah told the Jews, “Your first testimony suffices for us, the second one is unnecessary.” Upon this, I immediately returned to my home. I invited my family and my relatives to Islam. Including my paternal aunt, they all became Muslim.141

My embracing Islam made the Jews very angry. They started irritating me. Some Jewish scholars even tried to make me abandon Islam by saying, “No prophet comes from Arabs. Your master is a ruler.” However, they could not succeed.”

Together with Ibn-i Salam, Sa’laba bin Sa’ya, Usayd bin Sa’ya, Asad bin Ubayd and some other Jews became Muslim sincerely. However, some Jewish scholars said, “Only the bad among us believed in Muhammad. If they had been the good among us, they would not have left the religion of their ancestors.” Upon this, Allahu ta’âlâ descended an âyat-i karîma, purporting, “They (the Ahl-i kitâb, that is, People of the Book) are not the same with each other. Among the the Ahl-i kitâb, there is one community who worship and pray, and recite the âyats of Allahu ta’âlâ by making prostration in the nights.”142

141 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 400; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 373.
142 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/113

Other incidents occurred in the first year of the Hegira

In the first year of the Hegira, As’ad bin Zurâra, Barâ bin Ma’rûr, Kulsum bin Hidm from the Ansâr and ’Uthman bin Maz’ûn from the Muhâjîrs passed away. The permission to make war against the disbelievers was granted. In addition, Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî, who could not bear the negative impacts of the weather and water of Medina, contracted malaria. Upon this, Rasûlullah invoked, “O my Rabb! Make us love Medina as you have made us love Mecca and give us benediction and abundance here.” Janâb-i Haqq accepted his invocation and He made the Muhâjirs love Medina too.

The Abwâ and Waddan military expeditions, which our Master, the Prophet sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam himself joined, was made during that year. In the beginning of the second year, Buwât, Safawân, Zulushayra military expeditions followed, and no war occurred during these expeditions.

The first written treaty

The Meccan polytheists did not remain idle. To our Master Rasûlullah, they were trying to do in Medina what they could not do in Mecca. As they sent threatening letters to the polytheists of Medina, they also sent letters and messages full of threats to the Jewish tribes in Medina. These threats caused the Jews to approach our Master Rasûlullah.

Meanwhile, the Jews came to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah and said, “We have come to make peace with you. Let us make a treaty that we do not harm each other.” Our Prophet made a treaty with them, consisting of fifty five articles. Some of the decisions taken are as follows:

1-   This treaty is a written document by Rasûlullah Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), among Muslims of Mecca and Medina, those who obey them and those who join them later and those who fight on their side.

2- Verily, these are a separate community from other people.

3- Each tribe will pay the ransom for their captured members collectively (according to the justice among Muslims).

4- Muslims will oppose those who cause disunity among themselves, even if they are their own sons.

5-   Those Jews who obey Muslims will not be oppressed in any manner and they will be aided.

6-   The Jews will form an alliance with Muslims and everyone will perform the requirements of his own religion.

7- None of the Jews will go for a military expedition without the permission of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm).

8- No one will harm a person he agreed with. The oppressed will be helped in any case.

9- For the parties to this treaty, the valley of Medina is an untouchable, unassaila- ble region.

10- The Meccan polytheists and those who help them will not be protected in any manner.

11- Against the persons who will attack Medina, Muslims and Jews will help each other.

By this treaty, Jews (supposedly) would be friends with Muslims, would not devel- op a grudge against them and would not treat them as an enemy.

O My Darling! Do not be sad!

Abdullah bin Ubayy, who was the leader of the Hazraj Tribe in Medina, would be elected ruler over Medina, before the Hegira of our Master Rasûlullah. Due to the Aqaba bî’ats, then the Hegira, most of the Aws and Hazraj tribes became Muslim; Ab- dullah bin Ubayy’s rule did not come pass. For this reason, Abdullah bin Ubayy had a grudge against our Master, the Prophet and the Muhâjir Ashâb-i Kirâm, then sahâbîs of Madina. However, he could not show his enmity explicitly. He formed a group of hypocrites, along with some other people that were like him. These people, while among Muslims, would say that they had embraced the Islamic religion; however, behind Muslim’s backs, they would make mockery of them. Secretly, they started to cause disharmony. They went so far as to try to change and misrepresent our beloved Prophet’s blessed words.

The Jews who hid their hostility made an agreement with our Master, the Prophet. They visited our Master, the Prophet in groups. They asked questions which they re- garded very difficult. They understood; from the answers they received, that our Mas- ter was the true Prophet. But they did not believe, out of their obstinacy and jealousy. Thereupon our beloved Prophet said, “If ten people from the Jewish scholars had believed me, all the Jews would have believed.” As our Master, the Prophet became so sad, Allahu ta’âlâ consoled him with the below âyat-i karîma which purports, “(O My Darling!) O the glorious Rasûl! Don’t let those who verbally say that they believed while they don’t believe in heart (hypocrites) and Jews who rush about in disbelief sadden you. They spy (on the sons of Kurayzâ) for those who always listen to lies and for another tribe who did not come to your presence (Jews of Khaybar). They change the words after they are put into their places (by Allahu ta’âlâ). They say, ‘If you are given this (fatwa), accept it otherwise do not accept it.’ If Allahu ta’âlâ wishes for some to fall in fitna (mischief), you are unable un- der any condition to prevent Allahu ta’âlâ’s will. Those are such people that Al- lahu ta’âlâ has not wished to clean (their) hearts. For them, there is worthlessness and desolation in this world and a bitter torment in the Hereafter.”143

In consequence of the treaty made, some of the Companions became friends with Jews who were their neighbors. Allahu ta’âlâ prohibited them from this with an âyat-i karîma that purports, “O Believers! Do not be friends with the people (disbelievers and hypocrites) except your religious fellows. They (disbelievers and hypocrites) do not hesitate to harm you and plot mischief and wish you to get into trouble. Their grudge and enmity against you had come out from their mouths. As for the enmity they keep in their hearts, it is even greater. We have explained the verses regarding their enmity, if you take into consideration and understand…”144

The Meccan polytheists ceaselessly continued to provoke and threaten the poly- theists, the hypocrites, the Jews in Medina and the surrounding tribes. They tried to extinguish the light of Islam as soon as possible. They looked for ways to end the blessed existence of our beloved Prophet.

Despite all these actions of the hypocrites and the polytheists, our Master Rasûlull- ah always acted in a peaceful way. Some of the Ashâb-i kirâm believed that it was time to confront the enemy and they invoked, “O my Rabb! For us, there is nothing more valuable than fighting on your path against these polytheists. These Quraysh polytheists denied the prophethood of your darling and forced him to leave Mecca. O my Allah! We hope that you will permit us to fight them!”

As for our Master Rasûlullah, he was waiting for Allahu ta’âlâ’s command and was acting according to what He decreed. It was high time for it. It was decreed in the divine revelation brought by Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’, “Fight for the sake of Allahu

ta’âlâ against those who wage war against you. But do not encroach or exceed the limit. Certainly, Allahu ta’âlâ does not like those who exceed the limit. Kill them (the disbelievers) wherever you find them. You too expel them as they ex- pelled you (from Mecca). Their polytheism mischief is worse than homicide. Do not fight against them in Masjid-i haram unless they fight against you there. But, if they kill you there, you too kill them there. The punishment for disbelievers is so. If they give up denying Allahu ta’âlâ and fighting, (you too give up fighting. Because) Allahu ta’âlâ is Merciful and Compassionate.”145

It was decreed in another âyat-i karîma revealed later, which purports, “Fight against those polytheists until there is nothing left from polytheism mischief and the religion belongs to only Allahu ta’âlâ (only Allahu ta’âlâ is worshipped). (There is no cruelty for them), if they give up (polytheism). After that, the hostility (pun- ishment) is for those that are cruel.”146

The first sariyyas

Our Master, Fakhr-i kâinat sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam organized sariyyas that is small military units to protect the safety of Medina and to check the situation of the enemies. The number of those who joined these sariyyas would change between five people and four hundred people. The wars, which were joined and managed by our Master, the Prophet personally, were called ghazâ. Our beloved Prophet took nec- essary security measures to prevent sudden enemy attacks by systemizing standing guards in Medina.

It was necessary to weaken the polytheists politically and economically and to dis- cipline them. For this reason, they needed to block the trade routes to Syria. Meanwhile, it was heard that a polytheist caravan was passing near Medina. Our beloved Prophet ordered immediate preparation for a military expedition and he appointed Hadrat Hamza commander to thirty horsemen. After he recommended Hadrat Hamza to fear Allahu ta’âlâ and treat those who were under his command well, he told him, “Set off for the holy war, by reciting the name of Allahu ta’âlâ, on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ! Fight those who deny Allahu ta’âlâ…” Giving Hadrat Hamza a white flag, he bid him farewell.

Hadrat Hamza, with the horsemen under his command, moved against the poly- theist caravan, which was protected by three hundred cavalry. When the caravan, on the way from Damascus to Mecca, came to the place called Sîfr-ul-Bahr, they faced with the mujâhids. The glorious companions, organized in battle array, immediately prepared for the combat. At that moment, Majdî bin Amr al-Juhanî, who was also present there, reached them and mediated. Majdî bin Amr al-Juhanî was ally of both sides. When he saw that Muslims were few in number, but the polytheists were many, he thought the Muslims could be defeated. Hoping that the Muslims’ state would re- main forever, he mediated and dissuaded both sides from fighting. After that, Hadrat

143 Sûrat-ul-Mâida, 5/41
144 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/118.
145 Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 2/ 190-192.
146 Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 2/ 193.

Hamza and his friends returned to Medina. When Majdî’s acts were told to our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm), expressed his pleasure and said, “He has done a blessed, good and right thing.”147

After that, there was no ceasing of military expeditions. Hadrat Ubayda bin Hâris, was given sixty or eighty mujâhids and were sent to Rabig. The polytheists, afraid of Muslims, found their salvation in escaping.148

One day, our Master, the Prophet wanted to organize a military expedition to Nahla for watching the Quraysh polytheists. He wanted to make Hadrat Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah the commander of the soldiers who would be sent. Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah, when he received this order, started to weep with the agony of being away from our Prophet. Rasûlullah appointed Hadrat Abdullah bin Jahsh the commander, in place of Hadrat Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah.149

Abdullah bin Jahsh was one of those that lived Islam emotionally. When he became Muslim, although the disbelievers fiercely tortured him, he had resisted them with his power of faith and endured the torments and sufferings without complaining. For this reason, our Master, the Prophet said about him to his Ashâb, “… Among you, he is the most resistant to hunger and thirst.” Abdullah bin Jahsh, hearing the glad tidings by our Master, the Prophet for martyrs, always longed for martyrdom. At wars, he would bravely fight on the front line.

Hadrat Abdullah bin Jahsh says, “That day, Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm, after performing the night prayer, called me and said, “Early in the morning, come to me. Bring your weapons too. I will send you somewhere.”

When it was morning, I went to the masjîd. I had my sword, bow and satchel of ar- rows on. My shield was with me too. Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm, after conducting the morn- ing prayer, returned to his home. I had arrived there before him, so I was waiting for him in front of the door. He found several people from muhâjirs, who would go with me. He said, “I have appointed you the commander over these people.” He gave me a letter and said, “Go! After two night’s trip, open the letter. Act accordingly to what is commanded in the letter.” I asked, “O Rasûlullah! To which direction shall I go?” He replied, “Take the road of Najdiyya. Towards the Rakiyya, to the well.”

When Abdullah bin Jahsh was entrusted with the Nahla expedition, he was given the attribute of Amîr al-Mu’minîn for the first time. In Islam, he was the first com- mander who was called by that name. When they reached at the Malal location with a military unit of eight or twelve soldiers, in the letter which he had opened was written:

“Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm. When you have read this letter, go down to Nahla valley between Mecca and Tâif, with the name and benediction of Allahu ta’âlâ. Do not force any of your friends to come with you! Watch and check the Quray- shîs and the Quraysh caravan in the Nahla valley. Inform us of their affairs.”

147 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 9; al-Kilâ›î, al-Iktifâ, II, 6; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu›l-Hudâ, s, VI, 11.
148   Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 10; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 7; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 3-4.
149   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 601; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 2; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 410; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 9-10

After reading the letter, Amîr al-Mu’minîn Abdullah bin Jahsh said, “We are the slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ and all of us will return to Him. I have heard and obeyed. I will fulfill the order of Allahu ta’âlâ and His beloved Prophet,” and kissed the letter and brought it to his forehead as a sign of respect. Then he turned to his friends and said, “He who is eager to attain martyrdom, let him come with me. Who doesn’t want to come, can go back. I do not force any of you. If you do not come with me, I will go alone and fulfill the order of Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm.” His friends replied, all together, “We have heard the orders of our Master, the Prophet. We are obedient to Allahu ta’âlâ, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and you. Walk with the benediction of Allahu ta’âlâ to wherever you would like.”

This small army, including Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Wakkas, went towards Hejâz and came to Nahla. They hid somewhere and started to watch the Qurayshîs who passed there. Meanwhile, a Quraysh caravan passed. Their camels were loaded. The Mu- jâhids approached the caravan and invited them to Islam. When they did not accept, they began to fight. They killed one of them and captured two. They could not reach another one because he had a horse. All the goods of the disbelievers were left to the mujâhids. Abdullah bin Jahsh separated one-fifth of these war booties for our Master Rasûlullah. This was the first war booty which Muslims won in battle.150

The Masjid-i Qiblatayn

Seventeen months had passed since the Hegira of our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to Medina-i munawwara. Up to then, they would perform the ritual prayers by turning towards the Bayt-i Maqdis in Qudus-i sharîf (Jerusalem). In the meantime, it had reached to the ear of our Master Rasûlullah that the Jews were say- ing, “What a strange thing! His religion is different from ours but his qibla is the same as ours!” Due to these words, our Prophet’s blessed heart was offended. One day, when Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came, our Prophet said to him, “O Jabrâil! I wish that Allahu ta’âlâ turns my face towards the Kâba from the qibla of the Jews.” Then Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “I am only a slave of Allahu ta’âlâ. Supplicate to Allahu ta’âlâ for this!” After that, the 144th âyat-i karîma of the Baqara sûra had descended. It purports, (O My Beloved!) Verily, we see the turning of your face to heaven (for the divine revelation). For this, We shall turn you to a qibla with which you will be pleased. Now, turn your face towards Masjid-i Haram (the Kâ’ba). (O the Muslims!) You too, turn your faces towards there during your prayers wherever you are. For sure, the People of Book know that this qibla turning is true from their Rabb. And Allahu ta’âlâ is not unaware of what they do.”

150 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 601; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 13; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 9-10; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l–Hudâ,s, VI, 16.

When this âyat-i karîma descended, our Master Rasûlullah was conducting the noon prayer. They were in the middle of the ritual prayer. As soon as he received the revela- tion, he changed his direction to the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama. The Ashâb-i kirâm followed our Master, Habîb-i akram, and they turned towards that direction. That masjid was named Masjid-i Qiblatayn, that is, the masjid with two qiblas. Our Master Rasû- lullah went to Quba and, by himself, rebuilt the niche of the first masjid that was built and changed the walls of the masjid.151

THE HOLY BATTLE OF BADR

The fact that the Ashâb-i kirâm were successful, in their military expeditions, start- ed to frighten the disbelievers. From then on, their caravans set off as convoys with soldiers. In the second year of the Hegira, the Meccan polytheists would take charges from each family and sent a caravan of one thousand camels to Damascus. Their chieftain was Abû Sufyân, who had not become Muslim yet.152 Around forty soldiers had been charged to protect the caravan! After selling their goods, they would buy weapons with all the money and these weapons would be used in the war against Muslims.

When Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam learned that the polytheists sent a large caravan to Damascus for trade, he appointed several persons from the Muhâ- jirs to discover their situation. When they reached the place called Zul’ashîra, they learned that the caravan had passed. They returned to Medina. If the weapons and the goods of the disbelievers were taken away from them, they would not be able to harm Muslims and their resistance would be broken. Therefore, our Master Rasûlullah sent Hadrat Talha bin Abdullah and Hadrat Sa’îd bin Zayd as a reconnaissance team to learn about the return of the caravan.153

The opportunity could not be missed. Our Master, the Prophet made preparations immediately and appointed Abdullah ibn Umm Maktûm deputy in Medina for con- ducting the prayers.154 He charged Hadrat ’Uthmân, whose wife was ill, and six other persons with duties and ordered them to stay in Medina. He took three hundred and five sahâbîs with him. He marched towards the Badr location, on the twelfth day of the Holy Ramadan. Their number with those who were on duty and in Medina, was 313 persons.155 Badr was a place where the roads to Mecca, Medina and Syria inter- connected.

Young teenagers, even women begged our Master, the Prophet, to allow them to join this military expedition. Upon Ummu Waraka’s coming to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah and saying, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasû- lullah! If you allow me, I would like to come with you. I will bandage the wounds of the wounded and look after the ill. Perhaps, Allahu ta’âlâ will grant me martyrdom as well!” Habîb-i Akram said, “Stay at your home, read the Qur’ân al-karîm. Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ will grant you martyrdom.”

151   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 549; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 409.
152   Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 27.
153   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 11.
154   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 216, 382.
155 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 248; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VI, 68.

Sa’d bin Abî Wakkâs reported, “When our Master Rasûlullah wanted to send back the children who would like to go to war with us, I saw that my brother, Umayr, was trying to hide and not to be seen. He was sixteen years old then. I asked him, “What has happened to you? Why are you hiding?” He said, “I am afraid that our Master Rasûlullah will regard me too young and send me back! However, I would like to join the war and I wish that Allahu ta’âlâ will grant me martyrdom.” At that time, when they informed our Master Rasûlullah about him, he told my brother, “Go back!” That time, my brother Umayr started weeping. Our Master Habîb-i akram, the sea of mer- cy, could not resist his tears. He gave permission. Whereas, I had gird my brother with his sword, since he was not able to do so.156

The banner of our beloved Prophet, the Master of the worlds, was being carried by Mus’ab bin Umayr, Sa’d bin Mu’âz and Hadrat Ali.157 The Ashâb-i kirâm had only two horses and seventy camels. They rode them alternately. Our Master Rasûlullah, Had- rat Ali, Abû Lubâba and Marsad bin Abî Marsad rode the camel alternately. However, all of them begged him, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Do not come down. We will walk instead of your highness.” They wanted him not to walk. But, the Sultan of the universe, did not regard himself different from them and said, “Neither you are more powerful than me in walking, nor I am more needless than you regarding the rewards.” Our Master, Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam and his high companions were walking in the desert in a burning heat. In ad- dition, they were fasting. The Ashâb-i kirâm, to spread Islam all over, enduring many difficulties, followed our Master, the Prophet ardently. Because, in the end, there was Allahu ta’âlâ’s and His Messenger’s consent. There were the martyrdom and Paradise they longed for. Our beloved Prophet looked at his companions and invoked, “O my Allah! They are on foot, give them animals! O my Allah! They are unveiled and bare. Dress them! O my Allah! They are hungry, feed them! They are poor, make them rich with your fadl-i karam!”

While our beloved Prophet and his blessed army were marching towards Badr in this very hot weather, the caravan of the polytheists from Damascus had come close to Badr. Two sahâbîs, who were sent by our Master, the Prophet, to get news about the caravan, learned that the caravan could come to Badr within a few days and they returned speedily. When the people of the caravan came to the village where the two sahâbîs had learned of the news, they asked the villagers, “Do you know anything about the Muslims spies?” They said, “No, we don’t. However, two persons came and sat down there a while, then stood up and left.”

156   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 150; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III 208.
157   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 612; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 388; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 18.

When Abû Sufyân went to and inspected the depicted place, he crushed the camel waste on the ground and saw the feed in it. He said, “This is feed from Medina. I suppose those two men are spies of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm).” He estimated that the Muslims were too close, so, he was very afraid. He was concerned about the caravan. Therefore, he decided to go to Mecca from the Red Sea Coast, walking day and night. Furthermore, he sent one of his men, named Damdam bin Amr Ghifârî to inform Mecca of the situation.158

When this person came to Mecca, he tore his shirt’s front and back apart. He threw down the saddle of his camel. In an odd manner, he started yelling, “Help! Help! O Quraysh! Come! Muhammad and his companions attacked your caravan and your property which was with Abû Sufyân. If you catch them in time, you can save your caravan!”

Those Meccans who heard this gathered immediately and made preparations. They collected a seven hundred camel cavalry, one hundred horsemen and one hundred fifty infantry. When they told Abû Lahab, “Come! Join us!” Out of his fear, he used his illness as an excuse. He sent As bin Hishâm as his substitute. The polytheist named Umayya bin Halaf was very slow to get ready. He had heard that our Master, the Prophet said, “My Companions will kill Umayya.He was very afraid because he knew that our Prophet always said the truth. Therefore, against insistence of Abû Jahl, he claimed he was old and too fat. However, he had to go when Abû Jahl accused him of cowardliness.

Most of the polytheist army were in armor. There were beautifully voiced wom- en with them. They did not neglect to take along musical instruments and alcohol- ic drinks. They presumed that, with such a powerful army, they would immediately overcome not only three hundred people, even a one thousand strong army. Before leaving Mecca, some people had even determined which persons they would kill and which spoils of war they would take. However, their greatest goal was to demolish Islam. This ferocious polytheist band set off with the tambourines playing and songs of women.

Meanwhile, Abû Sufyân had gone far from Badr and was near Mecca. When he was sure that the threat disappeared, he sent one of his men named Qays bin Imru-ul-Qays to the Quraysh and said, “O Quraysh community! You had left Mecca for protecting your caravan, your men and your properties. We are rescued from the menace. Now, go back!…”Also, he recommended, “Beware of going to Medina to fight the Mus- lims!”

When Qays brought the news to the polytheist army, Abû Jahl said, “I swear that we will arrive at Badr and have a feast for three days and three nights, we will slaughter camels, drink wine. The tribes around will watch and want to be like us. They will see that we are not afraid of anyone. After this, because of our grandeurs, no one will dare to attack us. O the invincible Quraysh army! March!”

Qays saw that Abû Jahl was not in the mood to listen to advice. He returned and informed Abû Sufyân of the situation. Abû Sufyân was a far-sighted and cautious person. He could not help saying, “Alas! What a pity for the Quraysh! This must be the plan of Amr bin Hishâm (Abû Jahl). He must have done this with the love of lead- ership. However, this kind of extremism is always a great deficiency and an evil-sign.

158   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 47.

If the Muslims run across them, what a pity it will be for the Quraysh!” He had the caravan sent to Mecca and caught up with the army.”

Meanwhile, our Master, Sarwar-i-kâinât sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, with his Companions, was approaching Badr. Eventually, he saw that Khubayb bin Yasâf and Qays bin Muharris, of the polytheists of Medina, were among the Islamic army.

He recognized Khubayb by his iron helmet and said to Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz, “Isn’t that person Khubayb?” He said, “Yes, O Rasûlullah!” Khubayb was a brave champion who knew the art of war well. With Qays, they came to the glorious pres- ence of our Master Rasûlullah. Our Master, the Prophet asked them, “You, why are you coming with us?” They said, “You are the son of our sister and you are our neighbor. So, we are coming with our people to collect booty!” When our Master asked Hubayb, “Have you believed in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger?” He an- swered, “No.Rasûl alaihis’-salâm said, “So, go back! Those who are not in our religion can not be with us!”

Khubayb said, “Everyone knows my bravery, heroism and what a champion I am, who inflicts wounds on the enemy’s chest. At your side, for the booty, I will make war against your foe.” Our Master, the Prophet did not accept his help.

After a while, Khubayb repeated his request. However, our Prophet told him that his request could not be accepted unless he became Muslim. When they came to the Rawha location, Khubayb came to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam and said, “O Rasûlullah! I have believed that Allahu ta’âlâ is the Rabb of the worlds and you are His Prophet.” Our Master, the Prophet greatly re- joiced. Qays (radî-Allâhu anh), as well, was honored with Islam after he returned to Medina.

When the Islamic Army came to Safra valley, they heard that the Meccans set up an army and were marching towards Badr to save their caravan. Our Master, the Proph- et gathered his Companions and consulted with them over the situation. Because, Medinan Muslims had given promise to our Master Rasûlullah in Aqaba, saying, “O Rasûlullah! Come to our city. Even if it is at the cost of our lives, we will protect you against your enemy and we will be obedient to you.” However, now, they had gone out of Medina. Against them, there was a large army much superior in number, weap- onry and property. When our Master Rasûlullah asked his Companions about their opinions, Abû Bakr-i Siddiq and ’Umar ul Fâruq separately stood up and said it was necessary to fight the enemy army. Again, from Muhâjîrs, Mikdâd bin Aswad stood up and said, “O Rasûlullah! Fulfill what is Allahu ta’âlâ’s order! March with His com- mand. We are with you at every moment. We will never abandon you. We will not say anything like the sons of Isrâil who told Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ (purporting), “O Mûsâ! As long as this cruel nation is in that region, we shall not go there and we shall not enter that place. Now, you and your Rabb together go and fight them. We shall stay and sit down here …”159.

159   Sûrat-ul-Mâida, 5/24.

We will sacrifice our lives on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. We swear by Allah who sent you as a true prophet that even if you send us overseas, to Abyssinia, we will go. We will not show you any disobedience. We are ready to perform your every wish. May my parents, my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah!” The speech of Mikdâd made our beloved Prophet very glad. He made benevolent prayers for him.160

Now the opinions of the Muslims of Medina were very important. Because, both they were many in number and they had given promise to protect Rasûlullah within Medina. They had not promised to fight outside of Medina. When this thought was understood, Sa’d bin Muâz of Ansâr stood up and said, “O Rasûlullah! If you allow me, I shall speak on behalf of Ansâr.” When he was permitted, he said, “O Rasûlull- ah! We have believed in you, we have testified to your prophethood. Whatever you have brought to us is right, true. We have given a definite promise and made an oath to listen to and obey you. We will never abandon our promise. We are at your service wherever you honor. We regard your orders high and precious. We sacrifice our lives for the sake of you. I swear to Allahu ta’âlâ who has sent you as a true prophet that if you dive into the sea, we will also. None of us will stay back. Whatever you have in your mind, command, we will obey. May our goods be sacrificed with our lives. We shall never run away from the enemy. We are persistent in fighting. Our hope is to make you happy and to attain your pleasure. May the mercy of of Allahu ta’âlâ be upon you…” Those Companions who listened to these words became very enthu- siastic. They all declared that they agreed with these words sincerely. Our Master Rasûlullah became very pleased. He made benevolent prayers for Hadrat Sa’d and his Companions.

Then, all the hesitations had disappeared. The glorious Ashâb, without hesitation, would follow our beloved Prophet until their martyrdom and would attain the consent of Allahu ta’âlâ and His messenger, regardless of the number and power of the en- emy. As long as the Master of the world led them, there was no place that could not be gone to. When our Master, Fakhr-i kâinât saw the loyalty and enthusiasm of his Ashâb, he gave the glad tidings to them by saying, “Now, march! Be happy with the blessing of Allahu ta’âlâ . I swear by Allah, at this moment, as if I am looking at and seeing the places where the Quraysh people will be wounded and fall on the battle field!” Upon this, with enthusiasm, the Ashâb-i kirâm marched after our Master, Rasûlullah.

The help of Angels

When they came close to Badr, it was a Friday night. Our beloved Prophet told his Companions, “I hope that you can obtain some information at the well near that small hill.He sent Allahu ta’âlâ’s lion Hadrat Ali, Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, Zubayr bin Awwâm and some of his Ashâb there.

160   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 14.

Hadrat Ali and his friends went to the well immediately. They saw water and camel keepers of the Quraysh. When they noticed the Muslims, they ran away. However, two of them were caught. One of them was Ashlam, slave of the sons of Hajjâj, the other one was Arîz Abû Yasâr, slave of the sons of As bin Sa’îd. When they were brought before our Master, the Prophet; Rasûlullah asked them, “Where are the Quraysh?” They answered, “They have camped behind that sand dune.” Our Master asked, “How many people are the Quraysh.” They answered, “We don’t know that.” Our Master, the Prophet asked, “How many camels do they slaughter daily?” They answered, “One day nine, the other day ten.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “Their number is less than one thousand, more than nine hundred.” He asked, “From the no- tables of the Quraysh, who are present?” When they replied, “Utba, Shayba, Hâris bin Amr, Abu’l-Buhtarî, Hâkim bin Huzâm, Abû Jahl, Umayya bin Halaf..”, our Mas- ter Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) turned towards his Companions and said, “The people of Mecca have sacrificed their darlings to you.” Then he asked those two persons, “Of the Quraysh, did anybody return while coming here?” They answered, “Yes, Ahnas bin Abî Sharik, from the Banî Zuhra tribe, returned.” Our Master said, “While he was not on the right path, and while he did not know Allahu ta’âlâ and His Book; he has shown the correct way to the members of Banî Zuhra…Has there been anyone who returned apart from them?” He received the answer, “the sons of Adî bin Ka’b returned”.161

Our Master, the Prophet sent Hadrat ’Umar to the Quraysh for a last warning and for making a treaty. ’Umar bin Khattâb told them, “O stubborn people! Rasûl ’alai- his-salâm says, “Let everyone give up this effort and return to their homes in safety. Because, it is more acceptable for me to fight anyone other than you!…”

Against this proposal, Hâkim bin Huzâm, one of the Quraysh polytheists, came forward and said, “O Quraysh community! Muhammad has treated you very fairly. Accept his offer immediately. If you do not do what he said, I swear that he will not pity you anymore!” Abû Jahl was angry at these words of Hâkim and said, “We will never accept this and we will not return unless we get revenge against the Muslims, so that noone will be able to attack our caravans again.” Thus, he blocked the way to peace. Hadrat ’Umar returned.

That night our Master, the Prophet, and his glorious Ashâb arrived at Badr before the polytheists had and they stopped at a place near the wells. Our Master, the Prophet counseled his Ashâb and asked for their opinions about where the headquarters should be set up. Among them, Hadrat Habbâb bin Munzir, who was only thirty-three years old then, stood up and requested the right to talk. When it was granted, he asked, “O Rasûlallah! Is this the place where Allahu ta’âlâ ordered you to set up headquarters, and must be stayed at absolutely? Or, has it been chosen as a result of a personal view and a war measure?” Our Master, the Prophet said, “No! Here was chosen due to a war measure!”

Upon this, Hadrat Khabbâb said, “May my parents, my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah. We are warriors. We know this area well, too. There is sweet and

161 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 117; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 616; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 52; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 15; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 142; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 58.

abundant water in the well where the Quraysh will settle. If you permit us, let us settle there. Let us conceal all the wells around here, then make a pool and fill it with water. While combating the enemy, we can come and drink water whenever we are thirsty. But, the enemy will not be able to find any water and will be ruined.”162

At that moment, Jabrâil alaihis-salâm brought the revelation communicating that this opinion was correct. Our Master, the Prophet said, “O Khabbâb! The true view is what you have shown,” and stood up. Together, they went to the mentioned well. Except the one with sweet water, they closed all the wells and built a big pool. They filled it with water and placed cups nearby for drinking.

In the meantime, Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz, came to the glorious presence of our Mas- ter, the Prophet and offered, “O Rasûlullah! Shall we build an awning from the date branches, which you can sit under? Our Master, Fakhr-i âlam was pleased with this opinion of Sa’d and made benevolent prayers for him. An awning was built at once.

The Sultan of the Prophets, with his honorable Companions, surveyed and exam- ined the battlefield. From time to time, he stopped and showed the places with his blessed hand where the Quraysh polytheists would be killed, saying, “Inshâ-Allah (if Allâhu ta’âlâ wills), that place is where so-and-so will be wounded and fall tomorrow morning! Inshâ-Allah, that place is where so-and-so will be wounded and fall tomorrow morning! It is there! There…”

Afterwards Hadrat ’Umar reported this by saying, “I saw that each of them was wounded and killed exactly at the places where Rasûl-i akram had put his blessed hand. No further, no less.”

The Master of the worlds (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) separated the Ashâb-i kirâm into three groups. He gave the banner of Muhâjirs to Mus’ab bin Umayr, the banner of Awsîs to Sa’d bin Mu’âz and the banner of Hazrajîs to Khabbâb bin Munzir. Each of them gathered under their own banners.163 Our Master, the Prophet had the army take row formation.

While he was having the army make row formation, with a stick that he was holding in his blessed hand, he touched the chest of Sawâd bin Gaziyya, who had broken the ranks, and said, “Get into the row O Sawâd!” Then Sawâd said, “O Rasûlullah! The stick you are holding in your hand, hurt me. For the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ Who sent you with the true religion, the Book and justice, I would like to touch you in the same way too.” All the Companions there were astonished at his word. It was incredible to retaliate against the Master of the worlds. Was it possible to do so? However, our Master Rasûlullah opened the front of his blessed shirt and said, “Come on! Retaliate and take your right!”

162   Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 482.
163   Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 58; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 373

Then Hadrat Sawâd kissed the blessed chest of our Master Habîb-i akram (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) ebulliently and dearly. Since everybody had expected retal- iation, upon that scene, they admired their brother Sawâd and envied him. When our beloved Prophet asked, “Why did you do that,” he replied, “O Rasûlullah, may my parents and I be sacrificed for your sake! Today I can see that the term of my life has expired by the order of Allahu ta’âlâ and I fear of leaving your high personality. That’s why I wanted my lips to touch your blessed body during these last minutes we have. I wanted to encourage your intercession for me, and thus achieve my salvation from the torment on the Day of Judgment.” Upon his endearment, our Master, the Prophet had also been affected and he made benevolent prayers for Hadrat Sawâd.

The right wing of the blessed Islamic army would be commanded by Zubayr bin Awwâm and the left wing would be commanded by Mikdâd bin Aswad.164

Our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) wanted to consult with his glorious Companions about how to start the war. He asked, “How will you fight?” Then Asim bin Thabit stood up and expressed his opinion while he was holding his bow and arrow in his hand as follows, “O Rasûlullah! Let us start shooting arrows when the Quraysh polytheists approach us, from as far away as one hundred meters. Then let us throw stones at them by hand, when they were within throwing distance. And, when they approach close enough for us to use our spears, let’s struggle by using our spears until they are broken. Afterwards let’s unsheathe our swords and fight!” Our Master, the Prophet liked this tactic. Then he gave to his Companions the following command:

“Do not leave your lines. Stay at your places without moving anywhere. Do not start to fight unless I command. Do not waste your arrows until the enemy approaches close enough. When the enemy sheds their shields, shoot your ar- rows. When they are even closer, throw stones with your hands. Use your spears when they come near. And when they are at close quarters, fight by using your swords.”

Then, sentinels were stationed, and the Ashâb-i kirâm was allowed to rest. By a hidden cause of Allahu ta’âlâ, they slept so deeply that they could not lift even their eyelids. When our Master, the Prophet went to the awning, made from date branches, Hadrat Abû Bakr and Sa’d bin Mu’âz drew their swords and kept guard at the gate of the awning. Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam lifted his blessed arms and, in a great sorrow, started to entreat to Allahu ta’âlâ, “O my Lord! If you perish this small community, then, no worship will be done toward you on the earth…” This sorrowful invocation continued until the morning.

The blessed Islamic army had established its headquarters on a sandy land. For this reason, walking was difficult, feet would sunk into the sand. With the benevolence of Allahu ta’âlâ and the benediction of our Master Rasûlullah’s invocation, that night an increasingly heavier rain started. The creeks were flooded. The water cups were filled, the ground became hard, so much so that the feet would not sink into the sand.

164 Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 388.

However, the polytheists were in mud and flood. After fajr, our Master Rasû- lullah awakened his Companions for morning prayer. After he conducted the ritual prayer, he spoke about the virtues of holy war and martyrdom. He encouraged the Ashâb-i kirâm to combat. He said, “Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ orders what is true and real. He does not accept any deeds which were not done for the consent of Allahu ta’âlâ. Strive to fulfill our Rabb’s order, against which He promised His mercy and compassion and, by doing so, pass the test! Because His promise is true, His word is correct and His punishment is vehement. You and I are bound to Allahu ta’âlâ who is Hayy and Qayyûm. We have taken refuge to Him. We have clung to Him. We have depended on Him. Our last return is to Him. May Allahu ta’âlâ forgive me and all Muslims!..

On the seventeenth of Ramadân-i Sherîf, the sun of Friday rose. In a short time, the most ruthless, the most imbalanced, the most important, the greatest war of history would begin… On the one side, there were Fakhr-i âlam sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam and a handful of his glorious companions who did not, in the slightest, hesitate to sacrifice their lives, on the other side, there was a ferocious and excessive group of disbelievers that gathered to demolish Islam completely and kill a prophet who was honored by becoming the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ. Unfortunately, among them, there were relatives of Rasûl-i akram too. They had come to Badr to combat their beloved cousin.

Our Master, the Prophet reviewed his army’s array and repeated his instructions. Meanwhile, the Quraysh polytheists went out of their headquarters and began to flood the Badr valley. Most of them were covered with armor. In a great arrogance, they had attacked the Islamic army. When our Master Rasûlullah saw this state of the polythe- ists, he went in his tent with Hadrat Abû Bakr. He stretched his hands forward and started entreating to Janâb-i Haqq, “O my Rabb, now, the Quraysh polytheists are coming with all their arrogance!… They are challenging You, they are denying Your Prophet. O my Allah! I ask You to fulfill Your promise of help and grant victory to me!…O my Allah! If you wish the perishment of those few Muslims, then, there will be no one worshipping you!..”

In this manner, he repeatedly entreated to Allahu ta’âlâ, asking for help. This ex- tremely touching entreatment of Our Master, the Prophet continued until his ridâ fell from his blessed shoulders. Hadrat Abû Bakr, very touched with this sincere prayer, lifted the ridâ with a great respect and placed it on our Master’s blessed shoulders. He consoled him by saying, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! So much of your entreat will suffice!.. You have persevered on your prayer to your Rabb! Definitely, Allahu ta’âlâ will soon grant you the victory which He promised.” At that moment, the Master of the worlds went out of the tent, reciting âyat-i karîmas, purporting:

“This community (in Badr) will certainly be routed soon, running away, turn- ing their backs (to the battlefield). More precisely, the time of their actual torment will be in the Hereafter. The torment of that time is more terrible and griev- ous.”165

165   Sûrat al-Qamar, 54/ 45-46.

Our beloved Prophet came to lead his army. Then he recited the following âyat-i karîmas, purporting, “O the believers! When you encounter the community of an enemy, be steadfast and mention the name of Allahu ta’âlâ often so that you will be freed… Show patience and firmness. Because Allahu ta’âlâ is with those that are patient.”166 This would be the first war that would be made against the enemy en masse. The war was about to start. Everybody was extremely aroused. Upon the reciting, by our Master Rasûl-i akram, of the âyat-i karîma which purports, “mention the name of Allahu ta’âlâ often…” the Companions started to say in unison, “Alla- hu akbar!… Allahu akbar!…” and to entreat Janâb-i Haqq to grant them victory. From then on, they were waiting for just one signal from our Master, the Prophet.

According to what was customary for those times, before two armies were to en- counter, brave men would rush forward from both sides and they would fight face to face. With this combat, the anger and passion of both sides for fighting would increase and they would be aroused for battle. But Âmir bin Khadramî, without abiding by this rule and violating it, shot an arrow towards the Islamic army. The arrow hit Mihjâ from the Muhâjirs and he attained martyrdom, thus his soul ascended to Paradise. The Master of the prophets gave good news for this first martyr by saying, “Mihjâ is the master of the martyrs.” Ashâb-i kirâm were unable to contain themselves. However, they could not make even a small move without getting the command of our Master, the Prophet. Their hearts were ready to explode like a volcano.

Meanwhile, it was seen that three persons from the polytheist army sprang forward. They were ferocious enemies of Islam, from the sons of Rabîa, Utba, his brother Shayba and his son Walîd. They shouted at the mujâhids, “Is there anyone who can fight us?” When Hadrat Abû Huzayfa started walking towards his father Utba, to combat against him, the sultan of the worlds (’alaihis-salâm) told him, “Stop!” The sons of Lady Afra, Mu’âz, Mu’awwaz and Abdullah bin Rawâha, from the mujâhids of Medina advanced forward. They stood before Utba, Shayba and Walîd. Holding their swords, they were waiting, ready for the fight.

The polytheists, curious as to who they were, asked, “Who are you?” When they replied, “We are Muslims of Medina,” the polytheists said, “We do not have anything to do with you! We require the sons of Abdulmuttalib. We want to combat them,” and they turned towards the Islamic army and shouted, “O Muhammad! Send our equals from our own people against us!”

After saying benevolent prayers for those three brave Companions of his on the battlefield, our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) ordered them to return to their places. Then glancing through his Companions, he said, “O the sons of Hâshim! Stand up! Fight on the right path that, Allahu ta’âlâ has already sent your Prophet for, against those who have come to extinguish the light of Allahu ta’âlâ with their void religions, O Ubayda, stand up! O Hamza, stand up! O Ali, stand up!”

166   Sûrat-ul-Anfal, 8/ 45-46.

Hadrat Hamza, Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Ubayda, the lions of Allahu ta’âlâ, put on their helmets and walked to the field. When they stood in front of them, the poly- theists asked, “Who are you? We will combat you, if you are our equivalents.” They answered, “I am Hamza! I am Ali! I am Ubayda!” The polytheists said, “You are hon- orable persons like us. We have accepted to do combat with you.” Although the heroic mujâhids invited the polytheists to Islam, their offer was not accepted. Upon this, all three of them unsheathed their swords and attacked the polytheists. Hadrat Hamza and Hadrat Ali killed the disbelievers Utba and Walîd. Hadrat Ubayda wounded Shayba. Shayba too, was wounded by Ubayda. Hadrat Hamza and Hadrat Ali came to help Ubayda. They killed Shayba. They embraced Hadrat Ubayda and brought him to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah.167

Blood and marrow was flowing from the blessed ankle of Hadrat Ubayda bin Khâris. Not paying any attention to his circumstance, he asked of our Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! May my life be sacrificed for your sake! If I die under this circumstance, I am a martyr, aren’t I?” Then our Master, the Prophet said, “Yes, you are a martyr,” and gave the good news that he deserved Paradise. (Hadrat Ubayda died while at Sa- fra, on the way back after the war.)

The polytheists, who lost their three important men in this combat, were astonished. Despite that, Abû Jahl was trying to improve the morale of his army, by saying, “Do not be concerned over the deaths of Utba, Shayba and Walîd. They were too hasty in the combat and died needlessly. I swear that we will not return unless we catch and hang the Muslims up with ropes.”

As for the heroic Companions, they were looking forward to punishing this group of polytheists, with their swords, as soon as possible. Our beloved Prophet was constantly repeating this invocation, “O my Allah! Fulfill your promise to me!… O my Allah! If you destroy this tiny community of Muslims, on the earth, there will be no one to worship you!..”

Meanwhile, from the polytheist ranks, one of the bravest and the keenest archers of the Quraysh, Abdurrahmân, walked onto the battle field. He was Hadrat Abû Bakr’s son; however, he had not yet become Muslim. It was seen that a person from the ranks of Mujâhids drew his sword immediately and marched forward. It was Hadrat Abû Bakr, who was honored by becoming the first Muslim and attaining the degree of Siddîq, who was the highest of all people after the prophets. He sprang forward to fight his son. However, the Master of the worlds told him, “O Abâ Bakr! Don’t you know that you are like my seeing eye, hearing ear…” He prohibited him from fighting. Abû Bakr could not stop himself from saying to his son, “O villain! What happened to your relation to me?”

167   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 708; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 17; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 134-135.

Then the sultan of the Prophets, our Master, the Prophet (’alahis-salâm) took a fistful of sand from the ground. He threw this sand towards the enemy and said, “May their faces be black!.. O my Allah! Inject fear to their hearts, shake their feet!” Then he turned towards his Companions and ordered, “Attack!…” The glorious Companions who waited for the signal started acting according to the given instruction. Amidst the shoutings of “Allahu Akbar!…Allahu Akbar!…”, arrows began to buzz and stones hit their targets, spears to struck armor. The lions of Allahu ta’âlâ, Hadrat Hamza was in combat with two swords; Hadrat Ali, Hadrat ’Umar, Zubayr bin Awwâm, Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, Abû Dujâna, Abdullah bin Jahsh were scattering the polytheist ranks and astonishing the dis- believers. As if they were an invincible fortress. The sounds of “Allahu Akbar!…Allahu Akbar!…” filled the skies, the disbelievers were taught the greatness of Allahu ta’âlâ. Our Master, the Prophet were entreating Allahu ta’âlâ saying, “Yâ Hayyu! Yâ Qayyûm!”. Hadrat Ali said, “In the Badr, the bravest of us was Rasûl (’alahis-salâm). He was the clos- est to the polytheist ranks. Whenever we were in difficulty, we were taking refuge to him.”

The polytheists surrounded Abû Jahl, their leader. They dressed a person among them like Abû Jahl and they made him look like Abû Jahl. This unfortunate person’s name was Abdullah bin Munzir. Hadrat Ali attacked Abdullah. He beheaded him in front of Abû Jahl. The polytheists dressed Abû Qays. He was killed by Hadrat Hamza.

Hadrat Ali was fighting a polytheist. The polytheist swung his sword at Hadrat Ali and his sword was stuck in the shield. Hadrat Ali swung his sword, called Zulfikâr, at the polytheist’s armed body. He cut the polytheist from his shoulder to his chest along with his armor. At that moment, he saw a sword shining over his head. He lowered his head quickly. While the man, who’s sword was shining, was saying, “Take it! This is from Hamza bin Abdulmuttalib!” The polytheist’s head, together with his helmet, fell to the ground. When Hadrat Ali returned and looked, he saw his paternal uncle Hadrat Hamza fighting with two swords. When our Prophet saw his Ashâb fighting so bravely, he said, “They are Allahu ta’âlâ’s lions on Earth” and appreciated them.

After a while the sword of Hadrat Uqâsha, who fought next to our Master, the Prophet, was broken. Seeing that, our beloved Prophet, picked up a stick he saw on the ground and gave it to him. He said, “O Uqâsha! Fight with this!…” As soon as Uqâsha received the stick, as a miracle of our Prophet, it became a long, shining and sharp sword, the mid-edge of which was solid. He killed many polytheists with this sword by the end of the battle.

The Master of the worlds Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), while fight- ing, was also declaring the following blessed hadîth-i sherîf which greatly motivat- ed his Companions, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Whose Power holds my soul, that Haqq ta’âlâ will put those, who fight today by hoping for the consent of Janâb-i Haqq and showing patience and perseverance and who are killed while advanc- ing without turning back, in His Paradise for sure.” Hearing those blessed words, Umayr bin Humâm increased his attacks by saying, “How wonderful! How wonder- ful! It means that there is nothing necessary except attaining martyrdom for me to enter Paradise!” On the one hand he was fighting against the enemy, on the other hand he was saying, “One can go to Allahu ta’âlâ not with material provisions but only with the fear of Haqq ta’âlâ, performing the deeds of the Hereafter and showing patience and perseverance for jihad. All the provisions other than these will be over for sure!” Thus, he fought until he attained martyrdom.

The battle deeply intensified. At least three polytheists were assaulting each Com- panion. Nothing could make the glorious Ashâb, who tried to encounter them with their swords, retreat. They obtained strength by saying, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Ak- bar!…” They had not tired from repeated attacking. For a moment, the offence of the polytheists became intensified. The Ashâb-i kirâm were in a difficult situation.

At that point, our Master Rasûlullah, together with Hadrat Abû Bakr, entered his shelter made from date branches. Our Prophet started again to entreat Allahu ta’âlâ. “O my Rabb! Grant me the help that you promised!…” At that moment, a rev- elation descended. It purported, “When you sought for help and victory of your Rabb, He had accepted your praying by saying; I veritably help with a thousand of the angels following one another.168 Then our Master, the Prophet stood up imme- diately and said, “O Abâ Bakr, glad tidings! The help of Allahu ta’âlâ reached to you! That is Jabrâil! Holding the bridle of his horse and armed, he is waiting for command on the dunes.”

As it was stated in the Anfâl Sûra, Janâb-i Haqq decreed to the angels as follows, purporting, “When your Rabb inspired the angels, (saying): I am with you (on the help for Muslims). So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then smite their necks and smite off each of their fingers (all of their joints). That is because they opposed Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. Whosoever opposes Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger, (will suffer His torment). Allahu ta’âlâ is severe in punishment!”169

Upon this order, Jabrâil, Mikâil, Isrâfîl (’alaihimu’s-salâm), each taking one thou- sand angels with them, took their places respectively near, on the right and on the left of our beloved Prophet.170

Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ had put a yellow turban on his head. And other angels had white turbans on their heads. They let the ends of their turbans hang down towards their backs and were riding on white horses. Our Master Sarwar-i âlam said to his Companions, “Angels have signs and marks on them. You too make some form of sign and mark for yourself!” Then Zubayr bin Awwâm wrapped a yellow cloth and Abû Dujâna wrapped a red cloth as turban on their heads. Hadrat Ali took a white plume and Hadrat Hamza attached an ostrich wing on his chest.

With Angels’ participation in the war, the situation changed at once. The Compan- ions, even though they had not yet swung their swords at an enemy yet, their heads were cut off and fell to the ground. It was seen that unknown persons were fighting the polytheists around our Master, the Prophet.

Hadrat Sahl related, “During the Holy War of Badr, we witnessed that when we swung our swords towards the heads of the polytheists, their heads were separated from their bodies and dropped to the ground even before our swords touched their targets!”

168   Sûrat-ul-Anfal, 8/9.
169   Sûrat-ul-Anfal, 8/12-13.
170   Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 57; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 16; Bayhaqî, Dala›il al-Nubuwwa, III, 40; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 72.

Abû Azîz bin Umayr, the flagman of the polytheists, was captured. Their command- er, Abû Jahl, to encourage the Qurayshîs, was reciting poems ceaselessly and he was trying to improve the morale of his soldiers. He was attacking as if he was in his early youth. He was boasting, saying, “My mother gave birth to me for these days!..” He was inciting the youth to fight.

Ubayda bin Sa’îd, a polytheist, was in full armor. Only his eyes were seen. He was turning around on his horse, saying, “I am Abû Zâtulkarish! I am Abû Zâtulkarish!” that is, “I am father of abdomen (I have a big abdomen)”. He was challenging Mus- lims in his peculiar way. Hadrat Zubayr bin Awwâm, a heroic mujâhid, approached him, targeted his eyes and threw his spear saying “Allahu Akbar!” The spear hit its target, made Ubayda bin Sa’îd fall from his horse. When Hadrat Zubayr reached him, Ubayda was dead. Although he put his foot on his cheek and pulled the spear out with all his power, the spear came out with difficulty. It was bent.

The bravery which Hadrat Zubayr showed in the Battle of Badr was so great. There was no place without wounds on his body. His son Urwa informed about this situation as such, “My father had received three serious sword strikes. One of them was on his neck. The wound was so deep that I could put my finger in it.”

Abdurrahman bin Awf too was fiercely fighting the Qurayshîs. He was bringing down whomever he faced, without being interested in his own bleeding wounds. Had- rat Abdurrahman narrated an incidence, which he witnessed:

“For a moment, there was no one left in front of me. When I looked around, I saw two young men from the Ansâr. I wanted to be near to the most powerful of them. One of these two youths scrutinized me, then turned towards me and asked, “O Uncle! Do you know Abû Jahl?” I answered, “Yes, I know him.” When I asked him, “O my brother’s son! Why do you ask me about Abû Jahl?” He replied, “They told me that he blasphemes Rasûlullah. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that, once I see him, I will never leave him until I kill him or I die myself.” Indeed, I was astonished by this definite and resolute word of a young man in his excitement.”

The other youth too scrutinized me and spoke like the previous one. In the mean- time, I had seen Abû Jahl! Among the enemy soldiers, he was constantly moving to and fro. When I said, “O Youngsters! That person who is hurriedly going to and fro is Abû Jahl.” They took their swords and moved towards Abû Jahl. They started to fight. These youths were the brothers Mu’âz and Mu’awwaz, children of Lady Afra.

Meanwhile, Mu’âz bin Amr, one of the champions of the Ashâb-i kirâm, found the opportunity to approach Abû Jahl. He attacked Abû Jahl, who was on a long-tailed horse, and struck Abû Jahl’s leg with his sword vehemently. Abû Jahl’s leg fell to the ground. Then, Ikrima, who had not become Muslim yet, came to help his father and started to fight Hadrat Mu’âz bin Amr.

At that moment, the brothers Mu’âz and Mu’awwaz sprang forward like a falcon. They downed everyone before them and reached Abû Jahl. They struck him with their swords until they thought he was dead.

As for Hadrat Mu’âz bin Amr, he was wounded on his hand and arm while he was fighting against Ikrima. His blessed hand was cut from his wrist and suspended by means of a piece of skin. Mu’âz bin Amr, who was engrossed in fighting, had no time to waste for his hand nor to wrap it for treatment. Even though his hand hung on by only a piece of skin, he was fighting heroically. “Allahu akbar!..” What a strong belief it was!… What a worthseeing scene that was!… After fighting for a while in such a manner, Hadrat Mu’âz realized that his ability to move was decreasing. His wounded hand was the cause. Then he stepped on it, broke it off and threw it away…171

Nawfal bin Huwaylid, a ferocious enemy of Islam, was one of the most popular cham- pions of the Quraysh. He was contstantly shouting and struggling to agitate and provoke the crowd of polytheists. When our Master, the Prophet saw his behavior, he invoked as follows, “O my Allah! Help me against Nawfal bin Huwaylid. Defeat him.” When Hadrat Ali, the lion of Allahu ta’âlâ, saw the polytheist Nawfal, he pounced on him at once. He slashed his sword so strongly that he cut off both of his legs, even though they were covered with armor. Then he slashed his sword across his neck and beheaded him.172

Umayya bin Halaf, who used to make Bilâl-i Habashî lie on the hot sands and put huge rocks on his chest, was one of the most ferocious polytheists. That enemy of Islam who made use of every opportunity to torment our Master Rasûlullah (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), was trying to gather the polytheists in the Badr Valley and was struggling to extinguish the light of Islam. Hadrat Bilâl who saw him in such a manner, approached and stood against him with his sword and attacked him by saying, “O Umayya bin Halaf, the leader of disbelief!… If you survive; I wish, I will not!” In the meantime he said, “O the Ansârî brothers! Help, the leader of disbelief is here!” Then the Ashâb-i kirâm surrounded Umayya and killed him at once.173

There was no leader in the polytheist army anymore. None of them knew what to do; they were randomly trying to run away. The fortress of disbelief had fallen. The glorious Companions continued to chase them. Some of the polytheists were caught and captivated. Our Master, the Prophet’s paternal uncle, Abbâs, was among the cap- tives.174

Believers were victorious…

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) asked of his glorious Com- panions, “Is there anybody who has news about Nawfal bin Huwaylid?” Hadrat Ali rushed forward and said, “O Rasûlullah! I have killed him.” Our beloved Prophet rejoiced so much to hear that news, and he recited takbîr by saying, “Allahu akbar!” and said, “Allahu ta’âlâ accepted my invocation that I made regarding him.”

171 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 8; Muslim, “Jihad and Siyar”, 147; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 634; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 83; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 77.
172 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 92; Bayhaqî, Dala›il al-Nubuwwa, III, 98; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, IV, 94.
173 Bukhârî, “Wakâlat”, 2; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 631; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 477; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al- Nubuwwa, III, 94; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 153.
174 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 715; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 173.

When they told him Umayya bin Khalaf was killed, he greatly rejoiced and said “Alhamdulillâh! Thanks be to Allahu ta’âlâ. My Rabb has affirmed His born slave and He made His religion superior.”

Our Master Rasûl-i Akram, regarding Abû Jahl, asked, “What did Abû Jahl do? What happened to him? Who will go and look for him?” He ordered them to search for him among the dead. They looked for him; however, they could not find him. Our Master, the Prophet said, “Look for him, I made a promise about him. If you cannot recognize him, look for his scar on his knee. One day, he and I were in the fest of Abdullah bin Jud’ân. We were both young. I was a little bigger than he was. When there was no room for me, I pushed him. He fell down on his knees. One of his knees was wounded and the mark of this wound did not disappear from his knee.”

Upon this, Abdullah bin Mas’ûd went to search for Abû Jahl. He recognized him. He was wounded. He asked, “Are you Abû Jahl?” He put his foot on Abû Jahl’s throat. He grabbed Abû Jahl’s beard and pulled it. He said, “O enemy of Allahu ta’âlâ! Has Allahu ta’âlâ finally made you deplorable?” Abû Jahl replied, “Why will He make me deplorable? O shepherder! May Allah make you deplorable. You have come to a place, which is very difficult to climb! Tell me, to which party does the victory belong.” Hadrat Ibn-i Mas’ûd said, “The victory belongs to Allah and His Messenger.” While he was taking off Abû Jahl’s helmet, he said, “O Abû Jahl! I will kill you.” Abû Jahl showed how much infidelity and arrogance he had by saying, “You are not the first of those who killed their nations’ superiors. However, it will be very hard for me that you kill me. At least, cut my throat off near my chest so that my head will appear majestic.”

Since Ibn-i Mas’ûd could not behead Abû Jahl with his own sword, he cut off the head of Abû Jahl with Abû Jahl’s own sword. He brought his weapon, armor, helmet and his head to our Master, the Prophet. He said, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! This is the head of Abû Jahl, who is the enemy of Allahu ta’âlâ.” Our beloved Prophet said, “Allah, there is no god but Him.” Then, he stood up and went to the body of Abû Jahl. He said, “Praise be to Allahu ta’âlâ that He belittled you. O enemy of Allah! You were the pharaoh of this community.” Then he thanked Allahu ta’âlâ, saying, “O my Rabb! You have fulfilled your promise to me.”

Our Master, Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam had the wounds of the wound- ed Companions bandaged. He had those who were martyred found. Fourteen people were martyred, six of them from Muhâjirs and six of them from Ansâr. While all of their blessed souls flew to Paradise, seventy persons were killed from the polytheists, who tried to put out the light of Islam. Another seventy persons were captured too.

Our Master Rasûlullah sent Abdullah bin Rawâha and Zayd bin Hârisa to Medina to give the good news of victory.

Our Master, the Prophet conducted janâza prayers for the martyrs and he had them buried in their graves.

Of the corpses of the polytheists, twenty-four were thrown into a dry well; others were thrown into pits and covered with earth.

The Master of the worlds came to the head of the well with his honorable Compan- ions and said, “O the ones who have been thrown into the well!” and continued by reciting the names of the killed polytheists along with their fathers’ names, “O Utba bin Rebîa! O Umayya bin Halaf! O Abû Jahl bin Hishâm!… What a bad people against your prophet you were. You denied me but others approved and testified. You exiled me from my town, my homeland. But others opened their doors to me and welcomed with open arms. You fought against me but others helped me. Have you attained what my Rabb promised you? I have attained the victory that my Rabb promised.”

Hadrat’ Umar asked to our Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! Are you telling these to the carcasses?” Thereupon our Master Rasûl-i akram replied, “I say for the sake of my Rabb Who sent me as a true prophet that you don’t hear me more than they do. But they can not answer.”

The polytheists, while running away from the battlefield to save their lives, could not take anything they had brought. All of these passed to Muslims. Our Master, the Prophet allotted the booty among all his Ashâb who joined the Badr War and who were on duty.

Meanwhile, Abdullah bin Rawaha and Zayd bin Hârisa, who had been sent as har- binger, approached Medina. When they arrived to the place known as Aqiq, on Sun- day mid-morning, they separated. Abdullah bin Rawaha and Zayd bin Hârisa entered Medina through different ways. They were stopping by each house and informing them of the victory. Abdullah bin Rawaha, the poet of our Master Rasûlullah, was heralding the victory loudly by reciting;

“O Ansar! I give you the glad tidings hereby, The prophet of Allah is in safety and alive.

The polytheists were killed and in captivity, Among war prisoners, the famous are many.

All the sons of Rabîa and Hajjâj, as well, Abû Jahl Amr bin Hishâm was killed at Badr.”

Hadrat Asim bin Adiy asked, “O Ibn-i Rawaha! Is what you said true?” Abdullah bin Rawaha said, “Yes, I swear by Allah it is true! Inshâallah (if Allah wills), Rasûlull- ah will come tomorrow with the captives whose hands are tied!”

That day, Hadrat Ruqayyah, daughter of our beloved Prophet had passed away. Her husband, Hadrat ’Uthmân had conducted her janâza prayer. This victory news, over that grief, had eased them a little.

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), with his Companions, thanked Allahu ta’âlâ who bestowed the Badr victory over them and performed sajda (prostration) of thanking, then, started off towards Medina-i munawwara with the captives.

Earlier, Abdullah bin Rawâha and Zayd bin Harisa had brought the good news about the victory and told about what happened in the Holy War of Badr and who were mar- tyred. Children, women, people on duty in Medina had become very happy regarding the victory. They went out of the city to welcome our Master, the Prophet. Hârisa bin Surâka was among the martyrs. Her mother, Rabî, had learned that her son was martyred by an enemy arrow while he was drinking water from the pool. When our mother Rabî heard that news, she said, “I will not weep for my son until Rasûl (’alai- his-salâm) comes. When he honors Medina, I will ask him. If my son is in Paradise, I will never weep. If he is in Hell, I will shed blood, instead of tears, from my eyes.”

When our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm), with his blessed Ashâb-i kirâm, hon- ored Medina, Rabî came to his presence and said, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! You know how much I love my son, Hârisa. Has he become a martyr and gone to Paradise? If so, I shall be patient. If not, I will shed blood, in- stead of tears, from my eyes.” Our Master Habîb-i akram gave the good news to her, “O Ummu Hârisa! Your son is not in one, he is in several Paradises. His place is Firdaws (One of the paradises).” Upon this, Rabî said, “From now on, I will not weep for my son.” Our Master asked for a cup of water. Due to his compassion, he put his hand in the water and then pulled it out. He had Hadrat Hârisa’s mother and his sister drink that water. Also, he wet their faces and heads with this water. After that day, the faces of Rabî and his daughter were very luminous. Also, they had a very long life span.

Our Master, hâja-i kâinât aleyhi afdalussalawât, distributed the seventy captives brought to Medina among his Companions and ordered that they treat them well. A revelation regarding the end of the captives had not been sent by Allahu ta’âlâ yet. Our Master Rasûlullah, after consulting with his Companions, decided that the cap- tives were to be released for ransom. Ransoms were determined according to each captive’s property. Those who had no property and were literate, would teach ten illiterate people in Medina how to read and write, then they could go to Mecca. Our Master, the Prophet’s paternal uncle Abbâs was among the captives. Our Master said to him, “O Abbâs! Pay for the release of yourself, your brother’s son Uqayl (Aqîl) bin Abî Tâlib and Nawfal bin Hâris. For, you are rich.” Then Hadrat Abbâs said,

“O Rasûlullah! I am Muslim. Qurayshis brought me to Badr by force.” Rasûlullah re- plied, “Allahu ta’âlâ knows if you are Muslim or not. If you tell the truth, Allahu ta’âlâ will give you its rewards for sure. But you are against us in respect of your appearance. That’s why you should pay for your release.” When Abbâs said, “O Rasûlullah! I have no wealth with me except 800 dirhams, which you took as war boo- ty,” our Master, the Prophet said, “O Abbâs! Why don’t you tell about that gold?” Then he asked, “Which gold?” When our beloved Prophet answered, “The gold coins that you gave to Umm-ul-Fadl, the daughter of Haris, on the day you were going out of Mecca! There was nobody else except you. The gold coins, of which you told to Umm-ul-Fadl, ‘I do not know what will happen to me during this expedi- tion. If something happens to me and if I am not able to turn back, this amount of the gold is for you, this amount is for Fadl, this amount is for Abdullah, this amount is for Ubaydullah and this amount is for Qusam.’” Hadrat Abbâs was as- tonished and said, “I swear that there was nobody else while I was giving those gold coins to my wife. How do you know this?” Our Master, the Prophet replied, “Allahu ta’âlâ informed me.” Then Hadrat Abbâs said, “I bear witness that you are Allahu ta’âlâ’s Messenger and you tell the truth,” and recited the Kalima-i shahâda.175 When Hadrat Abbâs became Muslim, our Master, the Prophet put him in charge of Mecca. He ordered him to protect the Muslims there and send the news about the enemies of Islam.

The Quraysh, who were defeated heavily in the Holy War of Badr, were notified that they could get the captives back by paying ransom. However, Nadr bin Hârith, who tormented the Master of the Prophets much before the Hegira, was beheaded. Also, Uqba bin Abî Mu’ayt, who had put a camel’s stomach on our beloved Prophet while he was performing ritual prayer in the Kâ’ba, was killed. When this ferocious enemy of Islam was decapitated, our Master Rasûlullah praised Allahu ta’âlâ. He went to his corpse and said, “I swear by Allah that I do not know anybody as bad as you, who denies Allahu ta’âlâ, His Messenger and the Qur’ân al-karîm and who torment- ed His Messenger so much.”

The captives had stayed with the Companions until they were taken by their pro- tectors against ransom. All the Companions treated the captives very well and shared their food with them. Mus’ab bin Umayr’s brother, Abû Aziz, was among the captives. He related, “I was also captive in the house of a Medinan Muslim. They were treating me very well, giving the breads that they would eat in the morning and at night to me, thus they were obliged to eat only dates. Whenever one of them gathered a piece of bread, he would give it to me directly. Since I was ashamed, I would give the bread back to the person who brought it. But again he would return it to me.

Again, one of the captives named Yazid from Quraysh related as follows, “While the Muslims were going back from Badr to Medina, they made us, the captives, mount the animals and they went on foot.”

175 Tabarî, Târikh, II, 523,524.

The fact that the polytheists were routed at the Badr and they fled from the bat- tlefield in a deplorable state, caused a great surprise in Mecca. A totally unexpected result had come about. Abû Lahab and other polytheists did not believe the words of the first herald. When Abû Sufyân, who ran away from the battlefield, came to Mecca, they called him immediately. Abû Lahab asked him, “O my brother’s son! Tell us, how did it happen?” Abû Sufyân sat down there. Many people, standing, were listen- ing to him. Abû Sufyân told them:

“Don’t ask! When we met with Muslims, it was as if our hands were tied, they acted as they wished. They killed some of us, captured some others. I swear that I do not condemn or criticize any of our people. Because, at that time, we met with some who were on white horses between the earth and the sky. Nothing could resist them; none could oppose them!”

The slave of Abbâs, Hadrat Abû Râfi’, who had become Muslim in the early times of Islam, however, fearing the torments of the polytheists, had not disclosed his faith, was there. Listening to them silently, Abû Râfi’, out of his joy, forgot everything and suddenly said, “I swear by Allah, they are angels.” Abû Lahab slapped him violent- ly, grabbed him and hit him to the ground. He severely beat him. Upon this, Ummu Fadl, wife of Hadrat Abbâs, could not stand that. Because she herself had become Muslim too. Ummu Fadl, taking one of the sticks in the room, saying, “You saw him powerless, since he has no helper, didn’t you?” She hit Abû Lahab vehemently. Abû Lahab’s head was wounded. Contemptible and despicable, he went back in blood. Seven days later, Allahu ta’âlâ gave him a disease called black red fever. He died of this disease. His sons left his body unburied for two or three nights. In the end, he began to stink. Everyone was avoiding where he was and loathed the disease which Abû Lahab contracted, as if it was a plague. Upon this, one of the Qurayshîs said to the sons of Abû Lahab, “Shame on you! Do you not feel shame? You left your father at home until he stunk. At least, bring him somewhere and bury him!” His sons said to that man, “We are afraid of the disease in him.” This time, the man said to them, “You go, I am coming and I will help you.” Then, the three of them gathered. They shouldered him and carried him off and left him at an out-of-the-way place. They threw stones on him until it was not possible to see him. Thus, Abû Lahab entered his land, the dark Hell pit where he will forever stay in torment and fire.

Walîd bin Walîd was among the Quraysh captives at the Holy War of Badr. Abdul- lah bin Jahsh had captured him. His brothers, Hishâm and Khâlid bin Walîd, who had not embraced Islam yet, came to Medina. Abdullah bin Jahsh would not emancipate him unless his ransom was given. Although Khâlid consented, Hishâm, his half broth- er, did not accept. Their mothers were different women. Our Master Rasûlullah sug- gested the delivery of their father’s weaponry and equipment. To this offer, Hishâm consented but Khâlid did not accept. Finally, they agreed on their father’s sword (it had a value of 100 dinâr), his armor and his helmet. They saved Walîd from captivity and set off for Mecca. However, Walîd left them at the location of Zu’l Hulayfa, which was four miles from Medina, came to our Master, the Prophet and embraced Islam.

He became one of the Companions. After a while, he went to Mecca, to his brothers. When Khâlid bin Walîd asked him, “Since you would become Muslim, why did you not become Muslim before we paid your ransom? You caused us to dispose of a mem- ory from our father. Why did you do that?” He replied, “I was afraid that the Quraysh people would say, “He could not endure captivity and for that reason he became obe- dient to Muhammad (’alahis-salâm).”

Becoming very angry at that response, his brothers imprisoned him with some Muslims from the sons of Manzum, along with Iyâsh bin Abî Rebîa and Salama bin Hishâm. Walîd bin Walîd had been in prison for years, from the time he had become a believer. He was oppressed and put into agony by his uncle Hishâm, a ferocious enemy of Islam and his polytheist relatives. Our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu’alaihi wa sallam) invoked blessings on Iyâsh bin Abî Rebîa, Salama bin Hishâm and Walîd, having been oppressed by the polytheists, as follows, “O my Rabb! Save Walîd bin Walîd, Salama bin Hishâm, Iyâsh bin Rebîa and other Muslims who appear as weak (and helpless) (from the infidels’ captivity), O my Rabb, crush Mu- dar (Quraysh) vehemently (in the worse way). Liken these years (for them) to the years of Yûsuf (Joseph).” With the blessing of our Master Rasûlullah’s prayer, Walîd found an opportunity and escaped from where he was captured. He came to Medina-i munawwara and reached our beloved Prophet. When our Master Habîbullah asked about the situation of Iyâsh bin Rebîa and Salama bin Hishâm, he mentioned that they were bound by their feet to each other and suffering from bitter torment and tortures.

The Sultan of the universe was very sad about their condition; he looked for reme- dies for their rescue. When he asked who could rescue them, Walîd, although he had undergone torture for years, answered with a great bravery and enthusiasm, “O Rasû- lullah! I will rescue them; I will bring them to you.” He came to Mecca again and learned about the whereabouts of the tortured Muslims by following a woman who brought food to them. Both of them were jailed in a roofless building. At night, risking his life, Walîd, with great courage, came down from the wall and reached his friends. The two innocent men, whose only guilt was to believe, were bound by the polytheists to a stone and tortured by the sweltering heat of Arabia. Walîd rescued these blessed brothers of his and had them mount his camel. He started off for Medina-i Munaw- wara on foot, with bare feet, to reach Rasûlullah as soon as possible. The thing, which was burning him, was not the vehement desert heat, but the love of meeting the Master of the worlds.

He came to Medina in three days, barefoot, without food and water. His toes were all injured from the harshness of stones. Walîd bin Walîd reached to Habîbullah, whom he loved so much.

(If anybody, falling in love with you, burns; becomes nûr. And, the heart destroyed by the trouble of love, prospers.)

Badr victory caused a great exultation among Muslims. The polytheists sunk into sorrow and disappointment. Negus, ruler of Abyssina, gave the good news to the Ashâb-i kirâm, when he heard that our Master Rasûlullah was victorious, by saying, “Praise be to Allahu ta’âlâ, He made His Messenger victorious at Badr and granted him victory.”

The marriage of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima

It was the second year of the Hegira. Our Master, the Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) daughter Hadrat Fâtima became fifteen years of age.

One day, Hadrat Fâtima went to the presence of our Master Rasûl-i akram for per- forming a service. Our Master Rasûlullah saw that his daughter had reached marrying age. After that day, many persons asked for our mother Fâtima-tuz-Zahrâ in marriage. Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm paid no attention and said, “Her marriage depends on Haqq ta’âlâ’s decree.”

One day, Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar and Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz said, “Every- body, except Hadrat Ali, asked for Hadrat Fâtima in marriage. But none were accept- ed,” while they were sitting in the masjid. Hadrat Siddiq said, “I suppose that this marriage will be granted to Ali. Let’s go to visit him and discuss this subject. If he puts forward poverty as an excuse, let’s help him.” Then Hadrat Sa’d said, “O Ebâ Bakr! You are always charitable. Stand up. Let us accompany you.” Those three left the masjid and went to Hadrat Ali’s house. Hadrat Ali had left on his camel and was watering a date garden that belonged to a person from Ansâr. When he saw them, he greeted and welcomed them. Hadrat Abû Bakr asked, “O Ali! For every benevolent deed, you always come to the fore and you have such a grade in the sight of Rasûl-i akram that nobody else has had ever. Everybody asked for Hadrat Fâtima in marriage. But nobody was accepted. We suppose that you will be accepted. Why don’t you make an attempt at this?”

When Hadrat Ali heard these words, his blessed eyes filled with tears and said, “O Ebâ Bakr! You grieve me much. There is nobody else, except me, who demands her. However, my poverty is an obstacle for this.” Then Hadrat Abû Bakr said, “Don’t speak like that. Wealth is nothing in the sight of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. Poverty can not be an obstacle for that. Go and ask for her in marriage.”

Hadrat Ali related, “In shyness and diffidence, I came into the presence of Rasû- lullah. Rasûlullah was grand and staid as usual. I sat down before him but could not speak. Our Master Rasûlullah asked, “Why did you come, do you need anything?” I kept my silence. When he said, “Perhaps, you came to ask for Fâtima in mar- riage,” I was able only to say, “Yes.” (Our Master, the Prophet made Fâtima hear that Hadrat Ali asked for her in marriage. She kept her silence, too.) Our Master, the Prophet asked, “What do you have as mihr to give to Fâtima?” I said, “O Rasûlull- ah! I have nothing with me to give to her.” Then he asked, “Where is your Khutamî armored shirt that I gave to you, what happened to it?” When I answered, “It is with me,” he said, “Sell it and bring me its money. It is enough as mihr.”176 Ac- cording to another report; when our Master Rasûlullah asked Hadrat Ali, “What do you have with you?”, he replied, “I have my horse and my armored shirt with me.” Then our Master Rasûlullah said, “You will need your horse but sell your armor.” According to another report our Master, the Prophet said, “O Ali! Go and rent a house for yourself.”

Until he became married, Hadrat Alî used to stay with our Master, the Prophet. Upon the order of our Master, the Prophet, he rented the house of Hâritha bin Nu’mân, near the Masjid-i Nabawî, across the room of Hadrat Aîsha. He sold his armor against 480 dirhams to Hadrat ’Uthmân. Hadrat ’Uthmân, after buying the armor, gave it back as a gift.

When Hadrat Ali came next to our Prophet with his armor and dirhams, our Master, the Prophet invoked many blessings on Hadrat ’Uthman and said, “’Uthman is my companion in Paradise.” Then he called Bilâl-i Habashî and giving some amount of the money, he ordered him by saying, “Take this money and go shopping! Buy a little rose water and honey, with the rest of the money, then mix them into water in a clean cup in the corner of the masjid. Prepare honey sherbet, that we shall drink after the marriage ceremony is performed. Invite my Companions who are available among the Ansâr and Muhâjirs and declare to the people that Fâtima and Ali will get married.”

Then Bilâl-i Habashî went out and declared to the people that Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima would get married. Ashâb-i kirâm came to the Masjid-i Nabawî and packed the inside and outside of the masjid. Then our Master, the Prophet stood up and recited the following sermon, “All of the praises and glorifications pertain to the Rabb Who is the Owner of everything. He is the One Who is praised for the bless- ings He granted, Who is worshipped because of His eternal Force and Power, of Whose torment and account everyone is afraid, Whose command and decree rules over the earth and the skies. He is the One Who creates the creatures with His force, distinguishes them with His fair rules, honors people with His religion (of Islam) and His Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)

Allahu ta’âlâ commanded me to make my daughter Fâtima get married to Ali bin Abî Tâlib. Now I make you witness that (with the command of Allahu ta’âlâ) I have made Fâtima get married to Ali bin Ebî Tâlib against a mihr of 400 mith- qals of silver. May my Rabb bring them together and let this be blessed for them. May He make their descendants pure, the key for benediction, mine of wisdom and trustworthy for the community of Muhammad. What I would like to say consists of these words. I beg for mercy from my Rabb for myself and you.”

176 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 173; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 544.

Then Hadrat Ali stood up and recited the following discourse, “…I say salât and salâm (benedictions and salutations) to Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm before whom we are present, he had me marry His blessed daughter Fâtima with a mihr of 400 mith- qâls of silver. O my religious cohorts! Certainly you have heard and witnessed what our Master, the Prophet said. I witness and consent to this too. I exactly accept it. Allahu ta’âlâ witnesses for all of our words and He is helper for all of us.” 177

After the marriage ceremony was over, our Master, the Prophet had fresh dates brought and said, “Now, take from these dates and eat.” Everyone took and ate them. Then, Hadrat Bilal distributed honey sherbet, they drank that too and all the companions invoked, “Bârakallahu fî kumâ wa alaykumâ wa jama’a shamlakumâ.” (May Allahu ta’âlâ cause you both to be mubarak, may He cause everything coming to you to be mubarak and may He join you with each other!)

Hadrat Fâtima was weeping after the nikâh (marriage contract prescribed by Islam). Our Master, the Prophet came and said, “O Fâtima! What happened to you, why are you weeping? I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that I had you marry the best one in knowledge, gentleness and wisdom, among those who asked for you in marriage.” Hadrat Fâtima replied, “O my dear father! The mihr for every girl who gets married is valued and determined according to gold and silver. If my mihr was also valued in the same way, what would be the difference between you and others? On the Day of Judgment, for how many of the Muslims, among whom will be sinners, you will intercede; I, too, would like to intercede for their wives. This is my wish.”

When Allahu ta’âlâ communicated that Hadrat Fatima’s wish was accepted, our Master Rasûlullah said, “O Fâtima! You have made it clear that you are a proph- et’s child!”

Hadrat Ali said, “One month had passed from the time of this businesses. Nothing was mentioned about this subject. Out of my diffidence, that is, since I was shy, I could not even open my mouth to say a word. But our Master Rasûlullah, from time to time, would say to me, when he would see me in a solitude place, “What a good lady is your wife! Glad tidings to you, that, she is superior to all women in the world.” One month later, when Hadrat Ali’s brother Hadrat Uqayl said, “O Ali! We have been pleased with this marriage, but my wish is that these two happy persons be close to each other.” Hadrat Ali said, “I have the same wish, too, but I feel ashamed.” Hadrat Uqayl, holding Hadrat Ali’s hand, took him to the house of our Master, the Prophet. When they arrived there, they met Rasûlullah’s jâriya, Ummu Ayman. They explained the situation to her. Then Ummu Ayman said, “You don’t need to come for this. We will agree with the wives of Rasûlullah on this issue, then we will let you know. Because, for this kind of subject, women’s advice is taken into consideration.” Ummu Ayman spoke about this subject with Rasûlullah’s wives. Then they went to Hadrat Aîsha’s house. Referring to Hadrat Khadîja, they said, “If she were alive, we would not be worried.” Our Master Rasûlullah wept and said, “Is there a wife such as Khadîja? While the people were contradicting me, she approved me and spent all of her properties for my sake. She greatly helped the religion of Islam. When she was alive, Haqq ta’âlâ commanded me to give the glad tidings to Khadîja: A palace made of emerald has been built for her in Paradise.”

177 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 24; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LII, 445.

The wives of our Master Rasûlullah informed him of the wish of Hadrat Ali. Upon this, our Master Rasûlullah ordered Ummu Ayman to invite Hadrat Ali. When Ali came, our Prophet’s wives left. Hadrat Ali, bowed his head and sat down. Rasûlullah asked, “Do you want your wife, O Ali?”

Then Ali radiyallâhu anh answered, “Yes, O Rasûlullah! May my parents be sacri- ficed for your sake!” Our Master Rasûl-i akram said to Asma binti Umays, “Go and prepare Fâtima’s house.” Then Asma went to the house to which Hadrat Fâtima will enter as a bride. She prepared one cushion from new leather, one cushion from patched leather and one cushion from rush mat and padded them with date fibers. After the night prayer, our Master Rasûlullah came to Fâtima’s house and checked the preparations.

Our Prophet ordered some things such as food, ornament and scenting to be bought with two thirds of the money and clothing to be bought with one third of the money, which Hadrat Ali brought, and completed the needs for the household goods. The following was included in Hadrat Fâtima’s trousseau and household goods: Three cushions which were prepared by Asma binti Umays, a fringed carpet, a pillow filled with date fibers, two hand mills, a water skin, a water pot, a drinking cup made from leather, a towel, a skirt, a tanned ram skin, a threadbare multicolored carpet from Yem- en, a sofa knitted with date leaves, two colored garments from Yemen and a velvet blanket. Beyond these, our Master Rasûlullah gave some money to Hadrat Ali and told him to buy dates and oil. Hadrat Ali reported the event as follows,

“I bought dates with five dirhams and oil with four dirhams. Then I brought them to the presence of Rasûlullah. He requested a board made from leather for serving food. He mixed the date, flour, oil and yogurt and prepared a kind of food then told me, “O Ali! Go and bring whoever you can find.” I went out and saw many people. I invited all of them and entered the house, then I said, “O Rasûlullah, there are many people.”

The Master of the worlds, our Master Fakhr-i kâinat commanded, “Bring them ten by ten, so that they will eat.” I did it accordingly. They calculated that seven hundred people, men and women, had eaten and become full.

After the wedding meal of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima was eaten; according to a report by Ummu Ayman, our Master, the Prophet said to Hadrat Ali, “O Ali, my daughter Fâtima has gone to your home as a bride. And I will come after the evening prayer and invoke prayers there. Wait for me.” When Hadrat Ali came home, he sat in a corner. Hadrat Fâtima also sat in the other corner of the house. Afterwards our Master Rasûlullah knocked on the door. Ummu Ayman opened the door. Rasûlullah asked, “Is my brother here?” Then Ummu Ayman asked, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Who is your brother?” When our Master Rasûlullah said, “He is Ali bin Ebi Tâlib.” Ummu Ayman asked, “Have you made your daughter marry your brother?” Then our Master Rasûlullah said, “Yes.” When Rasûlullah asked if his brother was there, Ummu Ayman supposed that the mar- riage would not be allowed. But, when our Master Rasûlullah said, “Yes,” he wanted to indicate that the obstacle to marriage is from being born from the same mother. (Note: Hadrat Ali is the son of our Prophet’s uncle.)

Then our Master Rasûlullah asked Ummu Ayman, “Is Asmâ binti Umays here too?” When she gave the answer, “Yes”, he said, “So, she has come to serve the daughter of Rasûlullah.” When Ummu Ayman said, “Yes” he invoked, “May she attain blessings.”

After these, they had a cup and water brought. He washed his blessed hands. He also poured some musk into the water. Then he called Hadrat Fâtima. Out of her modesty, Hadrat Fâtima was looking at her clothing. Taking a little from the water, our Master Rasûlullah sprinkled it on her chest, head and back and invoked by saying, “Allahumma innî a’îzuhâ bika wa zurriyatihâ min-ash-shaytân-ir rajîm (O my Rabb, I take refuge in You for the protection of her and her descendants from the Satan who has been stoned.)Then he made the same to Hadrat Ali and invoked by saying, “Allahumma bâriq fîhimâ wa bâriq alayhimâ wa bâriq lahumâ fî naslihimâ.” Reciting the Sûras of Ihlâs and Mu’awwizatayn, he said to him, “Go next to your wife with the name and benediction of Allahu ta’âlâ.” Then he held the both sides of the doorway with his blessed hands and invoked with benediction and left there.178

178 Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, V, 485.

Hadrat Ali said, “Four days after our wedding, our Master Rasûlullah honored our house. He advised us with his words, which please the hearts, and full of wisdom and he commanded, “O Ali! Bring water!” Then I stood up and brought water. He recited an âyat-i karîma and said, “Drink a little from this water and leave some.” I did so. He sprinkled the remaining water on my head and chest. Then he said again, “Bring water.” I brought water again. He made the same to Fâtima. Afterwards he sent me out.”

After he went out, our Prophet asked to his daughter about Hadrat Ali. Fâtima said, “O my father, he owns all attributes of perfection. But some Quraysh women say to me, “Your husband is poor.” Then our Master Rasûlullah said, “O my daughter! Your father and your husband are not poor. All the ground and sky offered me their treasures and troves. But I did not accept them. I accepted what is favorite in the sight of Allahu ta’âlâ. O my daughter! If you knew what I know, this world would be despicable in the eye of you. For the right of Allahu ta’âlâ, your husband is among the first Companions. He has a high grade in Islam and has a deep knowledge. O my daughter! Allahu ta’âlâ has chosen two individuals from the Ahl-i bayt. One of them is your father and the other one is your husband. In no way, don’t disobey him and don’t oppose his orders.”

After giving advice to his daughter, our Master, Fakhr-i kâinat alaihi afdalus-salawât, invited Hadrat Ali inside. He entrusted Hadrat Fâtima to him, too. Then he said, “O Ali! Care about her feelings. She is a part from me. Treat her well. If you sadden her, you will have saddened me.” Then he entrusted both of them to Allahu ta’âlâ. He stood up and as he was to go out, Hadrat Fâtima said, “O Rasûlullah! I will see the services of housework and Ali will see to the services regarding out of the house. If you grant me a jâriya (a female slave), she will help me for some of the housework. Thus, you will make me happy.” Then our Master Rasûlullah said, “O Fâtima! Shall I grant you something better than a maidservant or shall I grant you a maidservant?”

Our mother Hadrat Fâtima replied as follows, “Grant something better than a maid- servant.” Thereupon our Master Rasûlullah said, “When you go to bed everyday, say Subhânallah (which means there is no defect in Allah) thirty-three times, Al- hamdulillah (which means hamd, thanks done to anybody will have been done to Him, for He is the only One who sends every favor) thirty-three times, Allahu akbar (which means Allah’s greatness cannot be comprehended through the mind, through knowledge or through thoughts) thirty-three times and Lâ ilâha illallahu wahdahû lâ sherika leh. Lehul mulku wa lehul hamdu wa huwa alâ kulli shay’in qadîr once. All of them make 100 words. You will find one thousand hasana (good, ben- efaction) on the Day of Judgment. Your good deeds will outweigh on the Mîzân.” Then our Master, the Prophet left his daughter’s house and went to his home of bliss.

The marriage of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima was performed five months after the Hegira and their wedding was made after the Holy War of Badr. 179

The killing of Ka’b bin Ashraf

With the Badr victory, the hearts of Jews and idol-worshipper polytheists in Medi- na were filled with fear. Some Jews acted reasonably and became Muslim, saying, “Certainly, this is the person of whom attributes we read of in our books. It will not be possible to resist him. Because, he will always be triumphant.” Some others said, “Muhammad fought the Quraysh who do not have knowledge of war. Due to that, he was victorious. If he had made war against us, we would have shown him how to fight and how to win.”

A Jew, named Ka’b bin Ashraf, hearing of the victory of the Islamic army at Badr, out of his enmity against Muslims, went to Mecca. He gathered the polytheist there, recited poems to make them attack Medina; he provoked them. He made an agreement with them in combating our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm. He even plotted an assassination attempt against our beloved Prophet. Allahu ta’âlâ informed our Master, Rasûlullah of this situation and declared, purporting, “They are people who Allahu ta’âlâ cursed (those who Allahu ta’âlâ kept away from His mercy)…”180

Upon this, our Master Rasûl-i Akram asked his honorable Ashâb, “Who will kill Ka’b bin Ashraf? Because, he offended Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger.” Mu- hammad bin Maslama asked, “O Rasûlullah! Would you like me to kill him?” Our Master, Rasûlullah said, “Yes, I would.” Muhammad bin Maslama thought over this and made plans for several days. He went to Abû Nâila, Abbâs bin Bishr, Hâris bin Aws, Abû Abs ibn Jabr, who were some of his friends, and disclosed this subject to them. All of them deemed it suitable and said, “We will kill him together.” Together, they went to our Master, the Prophet. They said, “O Rasûlullah! If you give permis- sion, may we say some words, which Ka’b will like, about you while we talk with him?” Our Master, the Prophet permitted them to say whatever they wanted.

179 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 230-231; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, V, 485; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 172; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XX, 407.
180 Sûrat-un-Nisâ, 4/52.

Upon this, Muhammad bin Maslama, with his friends, went to Ka’b bin Ashraf. He said, “That Muhammad demanded alms from us. He levied heavy taxes on us. So, I have come to borrow from you.” Ka’b, rejoicing, thought that Muhammad bin Masla- ma agreed with him and said, “He will bare down on you even more.” Muhammad bin Maslama said, “Anyway, we have obeyed him once. We will go on obeying him. Let us see what will be in the end. Now, loan us some dates.” Ka’b said, “Yes, I will. However, you should give me something as security!” Muhammad bin Maslama and those with him asked, “What do you want?” Ka’b answered, “I want your women as security.” They did not consent. Ka’b said, “Then, give your sons as security.” They said, “We can not pawn them either. If we do, they will be referred to as a pawn given against one or two camel-load of dates, and that will be an unforgettable shame for us. But, we can give you our weapons and armor as pawn.” Ka’b accepted this offer. He asked them when it would come.181

One night, Muhammad bin Maslama came near to Ka’b. Abû Nâila was with him too. Ka’b called them to the fortress. He went down to welcome them. The wife of Ka’b asked him, “Where are you going at this time of the night?” Ka’b said, “Those who have come are Muhammad bin Maslama and my brother Abû Nâila.” His wife said, “That voice I heard does not sound good to me. As if blood is dripping from it.” Ka’b replied, “No, they are Muhammad bin Maslama and my foster brother Abû Nâila. He is a good young man. He comes without hesitation, even if he is invited to a sword fight at night. He is such a person.” Muhammad bin Maslama brought two persons – according to another report, three persons- with him into the fortress. These were Abû Abs bin Jabr, Kharis bin Aws, Abbâd bin Bishr. 182 Hadrat Muhammad bin Maslama told his friends, “When Ka’b comes, I will tell him that I will smell his hair, I will hold his head and smell. When you see I have held Ka’b’s head tightly, strike him with your swords.” Ka’b bin Ashraf came near them. He was well dressed and smelled nice. Ibn-i Maslama, saying, “I have never smelled such a nice smell till now,” came near to him. Ka’b boasted, “The most fragrant women of Arabs are with me.” Muhammad bin Maslama said, “Will you permit me to smell your head?” Ka’b said he would permit it. Maslama smelled it. He got his friends to smell it too. Then, he said that he wanted to smell it again. This time, Muhammad bin Maslama held Ka’b’s head and signaled to his friends to strike him with their swords. When the first sword was struck, Ka’b uttered a loud cry; but, he did not die. Upon this, Muhammad bin Masla- ma killed him with his dagger. The mujâhids, who killed Ka’b, left there immediately and reached to Medina. When they gave the good news to our Master Rasûlullah, our Prophet thanked Allahu ta’âlâ and invoked blessings on the mujâhids.

The killing of the disbeliever Ka’b bin al-Ashraf frightened the Jews greatly. Be- cause, after the killing of a prominent leader like Ka’b, it was only a question of time for their own killing. On the morning, they gathered and came to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. They complained about the event. Our Master, Rasûl-i Akram said, “He used to irritate us and recite poems against us. If, any of you, does the same, he should know that his punishment is the sword.” Upon this threat, out of fear, the Jews made a treaty again with our Master, Rasûlullah…183

The Jews of Banî Kaynûka

One day, the Jews of Banî Kaynukâ, had wanted to make mockery of a Muslim lady. Having seen this, a sahâbi drew his sword at once and had killed that Jew. The Jews gathered and martyred that blessed sahâbî. Our Master, the Prophet was notified of this incident. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram gathered them at the market place of Kay- nukâ and said, “O the Jewish community! Fear that you will be caught by a tor- ment like the one which Allahu ta’âlâ befell over the Quraysh. Become Muslims. You know well that I am a prophet, who has been sent by Allahu ta’âlâ. You have already read this and Allahu ta’âlâ’s promise to you is in your book”

In spite of this compassion, the Jews who broke the treaty they made, challenged the Sultân of the worlds, by saying, “O Muhammad! Do not be deluded by the fact that you routed a people who do not know how to make war! We swear that we are warriors. You will understand how great fighters we are, only when you begin to combat against us!”

Thus, they disclosed their challenge by violating the previous agreement. Upon that, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ brought a revelation which purports, (O My Habîb!) If you worry about treachery from a people who had made a treaty (with you) (which they violated), inform them rightly and justly that you have reject their treaty (before declaring war against them). For Allahu ta’âlâ does not love the treacher- ous.”184

It is purported in another âyat-i karîma, “O My Rasûl! Say to those disbeliever Jews: you will be vanquished for sure and together you will be driven to Hell, which is an evil resting place.”185

At once, our Master, Habîb-i akram set up an army and marched to the fortress where the Kaynûka Jews inhabited. The white banner was carried by Hadrat Hamza. Abû Lubâba was left in Medina as the deputy.186   The blessed army besieged the Kaynûka fortress. The Jews, who said, “We are what warriors call heroes,” could not even dare to shoot arrows from their fortress, let alone resist. Our Master, Rasûlullah controlled who went in and out of the fortress. No one could exit. This state continued for fifteen days.187 The Jews became frightened and they surrendered.

181 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 33-34.
182 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 32.
183 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 15; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 182; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 31; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LV, 271.
184 Sûrat-ul-Anfal, 8/58.
185 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/12.
186 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 29.
187 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 29.

Although each of them ought to have been killed, our beloved Prophet, who was sent as a mercy for the worlds, pitied them and he let the Jews of Kaynûka go to Damascus. Thereby, they were expelled from the lands of Medina.188

Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam struggled against both the Jews, and the hypocrites like Abdullah bin Ubayy who pretended to be Muslim, as well as the polytheists. In addition, he invited polytheist tribes around Medina to Islam and worked for their becoming honored by embracing Islam. The holy wars like Sawîk, Ghatafân, Karda, Bahran… were all made after the Holy War of Badr.

Meanwhile, zakât [an annual duty of giving (which is mandatory) a certain amount of certain kinds of property given to certain kinds of people, whereby the remaining property becomes purified and blessed, and the Muslim who gives it protects himself against being (called) a miser.] was made obligatory, in addition, fitr alms, eid prayers and sacrificing animals were ordered. Our Master Rasûlullah gave his daughter Ummu Ghulthum in marriage to Hadrat’ Uthmân. Our Master, the Prophet became married to Zaynab binti Jahsh and Hafsa, the daughter of Hadrat ’Umar. Hadrat Hasan, the son of Hadrat Ali, came into the world.

lineTHE HOLY BATTLE OF UHUD

The Meccan polytheists did not learn their lesson from their overwhelming defeat in the Holy War of Badr, nor could they forget their grief. In this war, the Quraysh had lost many prominent figures of theirs. Furthermore, the fact that the trade route of Damascus had went under control of Muslims, maddened them.

A trade caravan, under the command of Abû Sufyân, had returned to Mecca with one hundred percent profit. Since most of the participants in the capital had died in the Holy War of Badr, the profit of the caravan was kept in the building, which was called Dâr-un-Nadwa, where the polytheists gathered to make decisions.

Some people who lost their fathers, brothers, husbands, sons in the Badr, like Saffân bin Umayya, Ikrima bin Âbî Jahl, Abdullah bin Rabîa, applied to Abû Sufyân, saying, “Muslims have killed our elders. They made us miserable. Now, it is the time of re- venge. Let us prepare an army with the profit of the caravan. Let us raid Medina, let us take our revenge.”

Since the vehement disbelievers such as Abû Jahl, Utba, Shayba had been killed before, Abû Sufyân, who had not become a Muslim yet, was in the leadership of the polytheists. In the Damascus trade, one hundred thousand gold coins had been earned. Half of it was capital and half of it was profit. The capital was distributed to the own- ers immediately and the profit was divided into two. The first half of the profit was used in getting arms and the second half in collecting soldiers. In addition, money was given to the poets and orators. The orators and the poets were provocating the people, they were reciting poems to encourage people to war; women were joining them by playing tambourines. The polytheists, whose aim was to expel Muslims from Medina, to kill our beloved Prophet and to destroy Islam, visited neighboring tribes and col- lected soldiers from them too.

Finally, a three thousand strong army was prepared in Mecca. 700 of them were armored, 200 of them were horsemen and they had 3000 camels. This huge army, which was accompanied by musicians and women too, were commanded by Abû Sufyân. His wife, Hind, was the head of women and she was extremely promoting the war. Because, she had lost her father and her two brothers in the Holy War of Badr. She could not forget her pain, she was silencing people who opposed the participation of women in the war, saying, “Remember the Badr war! You ran away from Badr to rejoin your women and your children!.. From now on, those who want to escape, will find us against them!…” Thus, she provoked the Quraysh to war with all her power.189

189 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, IV, 182.

Jubayr bin Mut’im, one of the polytheists, had a slave named Wahshî, who was a real expert in throwing spears. He was a sharp shooter. Hind and Jubayr were demand- ing revenge from Hadrat Hamza, since he had killed Hind’s father Utba and Jubayr’s uncle Tuayma in the Badr. Jubayr told his slave Wahshî, “If you kill Hamza, I will set you free.” Hind told Wahshî, “If you kill him, I will give you many gold coins and jewelry!”190

Having completed all the preparations, the Quraysh army unfurled its flags and they gave one flag to Talha bin Abî Talha, one flag to someone from Ahabish, and one flag to Sufyan, son of Uwayf.

The preparations in Mecca were completed. Hadrat Abbâs sent a letter to Medina via a person whom he trusted, stating that the polytheists constructed an army of three thousand, seven hundred of them in armor, two hundred of them horsemen, they had three thousand camels and innumerous weapons. He mentioned that the army was about to leave and asked for measures against them.

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) gave duty to some of his friends to in- spect the situation. These companions went towards Mecca. On the road, they heard that the army of polytheists was coming. In a short while, they completed their task and returned to Medina. The information, which they obtained, was in accordance with the letter.

The Master of the worlds started preparation immediately. In addition, he took measures by placing watchguards around Medina, to prevent a sudden raid by the enemy. The Ashâb al-kirâm completed their preparations in short time. After bidding farewell to their households, they gathered around our Master.

That day was Friday. Our Master, the Prophet conducted the Friday Prayer. In the khutba (sermon), he emphasized the importance of making jihâd to spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ and combat on the path of Allah. He gave the glad tidings of martyr- dom and going to Paradise for the ones who would die for this sake. He communicat- ed that Allahu ta’âlâ would help those who persevere against the foes and endure the difficulties.

Our Master Rasûl-i akram told his Ashâb-i kirâm that he would like to make consul- tation about where the war should be made. He also told them a dream, which he had seen that night. He said, “In my dream, I saw myself in strong armor. I saw that an opening appeared on the edge of my sword Zulfikâr. I saw a butchered cow and then I saw a ram was brought.” His companions asked, “O Rasûlullah! What is your interpretation of this dream?” He answered, “Wearing strong armor is the sign of Medina, staying in Medina. Stay there… Seeing that an opening appeared on the edge of my sword is the sign of harm, which I will suffer. The butchered cow is a sign that some of my companions will be martyred. Regarding a ram being brought, this is a sign of a military unit which, inshaallah, Janâb-i-Haqq will kill.”

190 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 23; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 69; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 253.

According to another narration, “I struck my sword on the ground, its edge broke. This indicates that some of my companions will become martyrs on the day of Uhud. I struck my sword to the ground again, it returned to it’s previous solid state. This indicates that a conquest will come from Allahu ta’âlâ, believers will be united.”

Rasûlullah, when he was not informed about issues by wahy, would consult with his Companions and act accordingly. Regarding where they should confront the enemy, some of the Companions said, “Let us stay in Medina and make a war of defense.” This offer was suitable with the wishes of our Master, the Prophet, too. The superiors of the Ashâb, such as Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar, Sa’d bin Mu’âz (radiyallâhu anhum) had the same opinion with our Master, the Prophet.

However, young and heroic companions, who did not join in the Holy War of Badr, were very sad that they could not be present in that war, when they heard from our Master, the Prophet, of the rewards of the companions who participated, and the high degrees which they attained. For that reason, they wanted to confront the enemy out- side of Medina and fight them face to face. Hadrat Hamza, Nu’mân bin Mâlik and Sa’d bin Ubâda, who attended the Holy War of Badr, were also among the compan- ions who wanted to confront the enemy outside of Medina and fight them face to face. Hadrat Haysama took permission and said, “O Rasûlullah, the Quraysh polytheists collected soldiers from various Arabian tribes. They mounted their camels, horses and they entered our lands. They will siege us in our homes and forts, and then they will go back. They will frequently speak behind us. This will cause them to have courage and they will organize new raids. If we do not confront them now, other Arabian tribes will have an eye on us. I hope that Allahu ta’âlâ will give us victory over the polytheists.

If the second of these happen, then it is martyrdom; Badr deprived me of it. However, I had greatly longed for it. My son, when he heard I wanted to join the Badr War, had drawn lots with me. He was luckier than I was, so that he attained the honor of martyrdom.

O Rasûlullah! I missed martyrdom so much. I saw my son in a dream last night. He was wandering around gardens and rivers of Paradise and telling me, ‘Join the people of Paradise! I attained the truth which Allahu ta’âlâ promised!’

O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allah that, in the morning, I started to wish to be a com- panion to my son in Paradise. Now, I am old also. I do not wish anything other than to meet my Rabb.”

He entreated, “May my life be sacrificed for you O Rasûlullah! Pray to Allahu ta’âlâ for my martyrdom and my being honored with friendship to my son in Paradise!” Our Master, the Prophet did not reject his wish and prayed for his attaining martyrdom.

Having seen that the majority was of this opinion, our beloved Prophet decided to encounter the enemy outside of Medina. Then, he said, (O my Companions!) If you have perseverance and patience, Janâb-i-Haqq will grant you His help again. Our duty is to be determined and to endeavor.”

Having conducted the afternoon prayer, our Master, the Prophet reached his blessed home. After him, Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Umar took permission and entered the house. They helped our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam ) wear his turban and armor. Our Master girded his sword and placed his shield on his back.

Meanwhile, the Ashâb-i kirâm had come together outside and waited for our Master, the Prophet. Those who wanted to stay in Medina and conduct a defensive war told the others, “Rasûlullah did not want to go out of Medina. He accepted this upon your words. However, Rasûlullah takes orders from Allahu ta’âlâ. Leave this issue to him. Do as he commands.” Others became sorry. Saying, “Let us not be in disagreement with Rasûlullah,” they gave up their opinion. When our beloved Prophet went out of his house of bliss, they apologized, saying, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O the Messenger of Allah! Do as you wish. If you want to stay in Medina, let us stay. We wish protection of Janâb-i-Haqq from opposing your order.” Our Master Habîb-i akram replied, “A prophet does not take off his armor he wore, without making war, until Allahu ta’âlâ verdicts between him and his foes. My advice to you is that if you do my commands and be patient and have perseverance by reciting Allahu ta’âlâ’s name, Allahu ta’âlâ will help you.”

Meanwhile, Hadrat Amr bin Jamûh was saying to his four sons at home, “My sons! Bring me to this holy war.” His sons were trying to persuade their father by say- ing, “Father! Because of the illness in your foot, Allahu ta’âlâ accepted your excuse. Rasûlullah did not allow you to go to war. You are not obliged to go to Jihâd. We are going instead of you!” However, Hadrat Amr, said, “Shame on sons like you. You had impeded me to earn Paradise in the Holy War of Badr by saying the same things. Will you deprive me of it again?” Then, he went before our beloved Prophet and said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O the Messenger of Allah!” My sons want to make me deprived of this war, by stating some excuses. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that I would like to go to war with you and be honored to enter Paradise. O Rasûlull- ah! Will you not see appropriate for me to fight for the sake of Allah and be martyred and walk in Paradise with those lame feet of mine?” Our Master answered, “Yes, I see it appropriate.” Hadrat Amr bin Jamûh greatly rejoiced, made preparations and participated in the army.191

Abdullah bin Ummi Maktûm was left in Medina to conduct prayers. 192

The Sultan of the messengers tied three banners. He gave one of the banners to Khabbâb bin Munzir, another one to Usayd bin Khudayr and the other one to Mus’ab bin Umayr. The army was around one thousand soldiers; two of them were horsemen and one hundred of them were in armor.193

191 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 90; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 265; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 265; sün II, 387; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 265; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 276.
192 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, IV, 209.
193 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 215, 240; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LV, 267.

On a Friday afternoon, with the sounds of takbîr “Allahu Akbar!” our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) set out to Uhud. In front of the army, there were Hadrat Sa’d bin Ubâda and Sa’d bin Muaz in their armor. The Muhâjirs were on the right and the Ansâr on the left.

On the road, they met a military unit of six hundred Jews. These were the allies of the leader of hypocrites, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salûl. They wanted to join the Islam- ic army. Our Master, the Prophet asked, “Have they become Muslim?” They replied, “No, O Rasûlullah.” Our Master, this time, said, “Go and say to them to return. Because, against polytheists, we do not want help of disbelievers.”

Our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) came to the place called Shaykhayn, which was between Madina and Uhud. There he stopped for the night. The sun did not set yet. In the army, there were some children Companions who wished to fight the ene- my and become a martyr. When our beloved Prophet controlled the army, he saw that there were seventeen children. One of them, Râfi bin Hadîj, was trying to be seen tall- er by rising over the tips of his feet. Upon the words of Hadrat Zuhayr, “O Rasûlullah! Râfi shoots arrows well,” they conscripted him. Samûra bin Jundub saw that and said, “I can defeat Râfi in wrestling, so I wish to be present in the Holy War too.” Our Mas- ter, the Prophet smiled and made them wrestle. When Hadrat Samura defeated Râfi in the wrestling, he was taken into the mujâhid ranks. Other children were sent back to Medina to protect people there. 194

The adhans of evening and night prayers were recited by Bilâl-i Habashî. Our be- loved Prophet (‘alaihis-salâm) conducted the prayer. Then he appointed Muhammed bin Maslama as the commander of fifty troops and ordered him to keep watch until morning. The Companions started to rest. The honor of nightwatch near Rasûlullah was allotted to Hadrat Zakvân.

Meanwhile, the enemy army learned that the Islamic Army rested at Shaykhayn. They charged cavalry troops under the command of Ikrima for patrolling. Ikrima, who did not become Muslim yet, approached the Islamic Army upto the Harra location. Then, he retreated, fearing the patrols of mujâhids.

After Fajr, the Master of worlds awakened his Ashâb. They came to the mount of Uhud. The two armies could see each other there. Bilâl-i Habashî recited the adhan of morning prayer with his sweet voice which touched the hearts. The mujâhids, in armor, performed their ritual prayer in the congregation of our beloved Prophet. They made their duâs (supplications, invocations). Our Master put on his helmet and his second armor.

Meanwhile, Abdullah bin Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites, saying, “Have we come here to be killed? Why could we not understand this at the beginning,” returned to Medina with about 300 hypocrites.

The number of those who believed, united, risked their lives and showed no hesita- tion, longing for attaining the grade of martyrdom, was around seven hundred. All of them promised that they would protect our beloved Prophet to the last.

194 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 66; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 215; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 191; Suhaylî, Rawzul-unuf, III, 246; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 30.

The Master of the prophets (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) put the mujahids (Mus- lim warriors) in array.

He positioned the army so that the army’s back was towards the mount of Uhud and its front was towards Medina. He appointed Ukâsha bin Mihsan as commander to the right wing and Abu Salama bin Abdulasad to the left wing. Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs and Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah were in the front, as heads of the archers. Zubayr bin Awwâm was the head of the armory forces and Hadrat Hamza was the head of the forces with- out armor in the front. Mikdad bin Amr was appointed to the forces at the back.

On the left side of the Islamic Army, there was Aynayn Hill. There was a narrow passage on this hill. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram (’alaihis-salâm) placed fifty archers under the command of Abdullah bin Jubayr. The archers took their positions at the passage. Our beloved Prophet went to them and gave this definite order, “Protect us from our back. Stay at your positions and never leave here. Do not leave your place unless we inform you, unless we send you a man, even if you see that we have defeated the enemy. Do not come and help us even if you see that the enemy will kill or have killed us. Do not try to protect us from them. Shoot arrows at enemy horsemen, whenever they try to reach you. Because, horsemen can not advance against the arrows shot. O my Allah! You are my witness that I have notified them of these!”

Our beloved Prophet repeated his order several times. He said, “Even if you see birds are sharing our corpses, never leave your position unless I send you a man.195 Again, never leave your place, unless I send you an order, even if you see that we slaughter the disbelievers and step on their bodies.” He then left there and took the command of the army.

He gave the banner to Mus’ab bin Umayr. Hadrat Umayr, holding the banner, took his position in front of our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). 196

Meanwhile, Hadrat Hanzala, who was newly married, quickly came to Uhud, from Medina, and joined the ranks of Mujâhids.

The polytheist army, which had come to Uhud three days before, was commanded by Abû Sufyân. They took their position so that their backs were towards Medina. The horsemen at the right wing would be commanded by Khâlid bin Walîd, the horsemen at the left wing would be commanded by Ikrima. It is reported that also Safwân bin Umayya had a post in charge of the horsemen. The polytheists’ banner was carried by Talha bin Abî Talha.

There was a large difference in the balance of power between the two armies. The Quraysh army was more than four times larger than the Islamic army regarding num- ber, weapons and equipment.

195 Bukhârî, “Jihad”, 164; “Maghâzî”, 10, 20; Abû Dâwûd “Jihad”, 116; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 293; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 65; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 160, 220, 224; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, II, 47, III, 476; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 192.
196 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 73; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 199; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 258.

In the Quraysh army, there was unceasing clamor and commotion, women who were obsessed with their wish of vengeance, were playing tambourines, singing and encouraging the soldiers to fight, they were begging for help from the idols they worshipped.

As for the mujâhids’ side, they were saying prayers and takbirs, “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!…” They were begging for Allahu ta’âlâ’s help, for the religion of Islam to be protected and spread. Our beloved Prophet was encouraging his Companions for jihad and fight for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ and telling them the rewards that they would attain for that sake, saying, “O my Ashâb! Those who are less in number, find it difficult to fight the enemy. If they show perseverance and effort, Allahu ta’âlâ makes them attain ease. For, Allahu ta’âlâ is with those who obey Him… Ask for the reward that Allahu ta’âlâ promised you…” Regarding the Holy War of Uhud, it was purported in the âyat-i karîmas as follows, (O the Muslim believers!) Obey Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger (what they ordered), so that you will be shown mercy. Run to ask for forgiveness from your Rabb and for entering Par- adise. Struggle for this! The extensiveness of Paradise is as wide as the heavens and the earth. Paradise has been prepared for those who fear Allahu ta’âlâ. They spend their properties no matter whether they are few or many, for the sake of Allah. They restrain their angers and forgive everybody. Allahu ta’âlâ likes those who bestow favor.”197

“And their reward is a forgiveness from their Rabb and Paradises under the trees of which rivers flow. They will stay there forever. How beautiful is the re- ward of those who act so, who obey Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger!”198

The Ashâb-i kirâm’s hearts were full of belief. Their eyes were emitting bravery. They were overwhelmed with a desire of martyrdom. They were eager to attack the enemy right away. Like in the Badr War, Hadrat Ali put on his white, Zubayr bin Awwâm his yellow and Abû Dujâna his red, turban. Hadrat Hamza wore his plume, made of ostrich wing.

The two armies approached each other. Now, the excitement was at its apex. In a short time, a large pitched battle would start. On the one side, there were Islamic mujâhids who did not hesitate to fight, to spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, against their closest relatives and on the other side there were enemies of Islam who insisted on their false paths.

When they came closer, an arrow’s shot away from each other, an armored poly- theist on his camel advanced. He demanded someone to combat, from the Mujâhids. He presumed that everyone was afraid of him, so he repeated his demand three times. Upon this, it was seen that a yellow turbaned, tall heroic mujâhid walked onto the battlefield. He was Zubayr bin Awwâm, son of the paternal aunt of our Master, the Prophet. “Allahu akbar!…” exclamations rose from the Islamic army, they prayed for victory of Hadrat Zubayr. It was seen that Zubayr bin Awwâm jumped over the polytheist’s camel when he came near. A deadly struggle began on the camel. Meanwhile, it was heard that our beloved Prophet commanded, “Make him fall down to the ground!” As soon as Hadrat Zubayr took this order, he pushed his rival down. Then, he also jumped down and cut the head of the polytheist off from his armored body. Our Master invoked blessings on Hadrat Zubayr.

197 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/ 132-134.
198 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/ 136.

Then, the flagman of the polytheists, Talha bin Abî Talha jumped onto the battle- field. He shouted, “Is there, among you, anyone who will confront me?” He was faced with Hadrat Ali, lion of Allâhu ta’âlâ. With one strike, he broke the head of the polytheist flagman, who was in full armor, down to his chin. Seeing that, our belov- ed Prophet said takbîr, “Allahu Akbar!… Allahu Akbar!” When the Ashâb-i kirâm joined, everywhere resounded with the sounds of takbîr.199

Talha bin Abî Talha’s brother, ’Uthmân bin Abî Talha, who saw that the polytheists’ banner fell, ran to the battleground. He lifted up their banner and demanded a warrior to fight. Hadrat Hamza confronted him. He struck his sword at ’Uthmân’s shoulder so vehemently, saying “Ya Allah!”, that the polytheist’s arm which held the banner detached. He fell to the ground and died.200

That time, a polytheist, Abû Sa’d bin Abî Talha came on foot to the battlefield. He too was in full armor from head to toe. He picked up the banner of unbelief from the ground, turned towards the army of Islam and started yelling, “I am the father of Qusam. Who can challenge me?” Our Master, the Prophet sent Hadrat Ali again. Hadrat Ali killed that polytheist too. After making their banner fall down on the ground, he took his place in the ranks of mujâhîds.

After this, many polytheists came forward. They lifted their banners, which fell to the ground, and demanded soldiers from the mujâhids to fight against them. However, the brave sahâbîs constantly became victorious with the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ. On the death of each flagman, takbîr sounds rose from Islamic soldiers, a great grief and despair overwhelmed the polytheists. Even the noisy polytheist women were in- sulting their own soldiers by saying “Shame on you!” At the same time, they were urging them to fight by asking, “What are you waiting for?”

During that time, our beloved Prophet showed the sword on which this couplet was written: “There is shame in cowardice, honor in advancing. One cannot be free of the destiny by fearing.” He asked, “Who will take this sword from me?” Once they heard this, many companions outstretched their hands to take it. Our Prophet again said, “Who will take this to give its due?” The Companions became silent and stayed back. Zubayr bin Awwâm, who heatedly wanted the sword, said, “I’ll take it O Rasûlullah.” He did not give the sword to Hadrat Zubayr. Hadrat Abû Bakr’s, ’Umar’s and Ali’s demands also were not accepted by our Prophet.

Abû Dujâna asked, “O Rasûlullah! What is the due of that sword?” Our beloved Prophet answered, “Its duty is to strike the enemy until it becomes bended. Its duty is your not killing Muslims, your not fleeing away before the disbelievers. Its duty is to fight on the way of Allah until Allah grants you victory or mar- tyrdom.” Abû Dujâna said, “O Rasûlullah, I am taking it to perform its duty.” Our Prophet delivered the sword in his hand to him.201 Although he was very brave and heroic, Abû Dujâna would behave very cautiously in battlefields and he would act in full accordance with the hadith, “War is trickery.202 When he took the sword, he began to walk towards the battlefield, in an arrogant manner, by reciting couplets. On him, there was a traditional long shirt and a red turban.

The Companions did not deem that Abû Dujâna’s walking in this manner very ap- propriate. Upon this, our beloved Prophet said, “This is such a walking that, except these places (battlefields), it causes Allahu ta’âlâ’s wrath.” Thus, he announced that only against the enemy, it is permissible to walk in an arrogant manner.

From the polytheist ranks, Khâlid bin Walîd, who could not wait any longer, started an offensive with troops under his command. Our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) ordered the excited Companions to attack too. In a minute, the sounds of “Allahu Akbar” had filled the battlefield. In the foremost, Hadrat Hamza, in the command of non-armed troops, started swinging his swords at each disbeliever whom he came across. The forces of Khâlid bin Walîd, coming in a great zeal, were repelled imme- diately. This time, Khâlid bin Walîd, to pass through the notch and strike back, arced and reached the Aynayn Hill. However, Hadrat Abdullah bin Jubayr and fifty heroes under his command drove them back with vehement shooting of arrows.

Now, the war was intense. Both sides were fighting will all their power. Each Com- panion was trying to moving forward by struggling against at least four polytheists. Hadrat Hamzâ was both shouting, “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!” and he was advanc- ing while killing the enemies. Safwân bin Umayya was asking people around, “Where is Hamza? Show him to me.” He was searching the battlefield. At one point, he saw a person who was fighting with two swords. He asked, “Who is this combatant?” Peo- ple around him replied, “He is the person you are looking for! He is Hamza!” Sawfan said, “So far, I have not seen anyone, with such a zeal and bravery, who attacks to kill his own people.”

At the time, the war was completely escalated, Zubayr bin Awwâm from muhâjirs, out of his sadness due to the sword not having been given to him, said to himself, “I wanted the sword from Rasûlullah, but he gave it to Abû Dujâna. However, I am his paternal aunt Safiyya’s son. Furthermore, I am from Quraysh. Also, I wanted it first. I shall go and see what Abû Dujâna will achieve more than me?” Then he started to follow Abû Dujâna. Abû Dujâna was saying takbir, “Allahu akbar!” and was killing the polytheists, whomever he encountered. One of the most ferocious polytheists, who was big-bodied and in full armor except for his eyes, confronted Abû Dujâna. First, he attacked Hadrat Abû Dujâna. Abû Dujâna protected himself by his shield. The sword of that polytheist, stuck in Abû Dujâna’s shield. He pulled his sword but could not take it out. Now, it was Abû Dujâna’s turn. He killed his enemy by a single sword blow.

After this, Abû Dujâna, by striking down each disbeliever confronting him, came to the place on the slope of the mountain where the women were encouraging the polytheists with their tambourines. He lifted his sword, but he changed his mind and did not kill Hind, wife of Abû Sufyân. Seeing this, Zubayr bin Awwâm told himself; “Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger know better than me, to whom the sword will be given.” He said, “I swear by Allah I have not seen any warrior better in combat than he.”

199 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 151; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 224, 308; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 40; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 239; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 318.
200 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 74; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 227; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 41; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 258.
201 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 123; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 66; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 259; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 562, VIII, 491; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XIX, 9.
202 Bukhârî, “Jihad”, 157; Muslim, “Jihad”, 29; Abû Dâwûd, “Jihad”, 101; Tirmidhî, “Jihad”, 5; Ibn Maja, “Jihad”, 28.

At the time, when the war had completely escalated, Zubayr bin Awwâm from mu- hâjirs, out of his sadness due to the sword not having been given to him, said to him- self, “I wanted the sword from Rasûlullah, but he gave it to Abû Dujâna. However, I am his paternal aunt Safiyya’s son. Furthermore, I am from Quraysh. Also, I wanted it first. I shall go and see what Abû Dujâna will achieve more than me?” Then he started to follow Abû Dujâna. Abû Dujâna was saying takbir, “Allahu akbar!” and was killing the polytheists, whomever he encountered. One of the most ferocious polytheists, who was big-bodied and in full armor except for his eyes, confronted Abû Dujâna. First, he attacked Hadrat Abû Dujâna. Abû Dujâna protected himself by his shield. The sword of that polytheist, stuck in Abû Dujâna’s shield. He pulled his sword but could not take it out. Now, it was Abû Dujâna’s turn. He killed his enemy by a single sword blow.

After this, Abû Dujâna, by striking down each disbeliever confronting him, came to the place on the slope of the mountain where the women were encouraging the polytheists with their tambourines. He lifted his sword, but he changed his mind and did not kill Hind, wife of Abû Sufyân.203 Seeing this, Zubayr bin Awwâm told himself; “Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger know better than me, to whom the sword will be given.” He said, “I swear by Allah I have not seen any warrior better in combat than he.”

Mikdâd bin Aswad, Zubayr bin Awwâm, Hadrat Ali, Hadrat ’Umar, Talha bin Ubay- dullah, Mus’ab bin Umayr were all like impassable forts. The Companions, seeing our Master, the Prophet fighting the enemies very close and attacking them repeat- edly, were not able to contain themselves. They were gathering around our Master, the Prophet and giving no respite to the enemy in armor, lest he would be harmed. Meanwhile, it was seen that Hadrat Abdullah bin Amr became martyr. He was the first martyr of Uhud. His friends, who saw his martyrdom, being as strong as lions, dived into the center of the enemy.

203 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 68; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 247; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 33.

At a point when the war became very intensified, Hadrat Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was a symbol of heroism, and Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, who was the master of archers, met each other. They were wounded. Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs narrated, “It was a severe moment of the war in Uhud. Suddenly, Abdullah bin Jahsh came to me, held my hand and took me to the base of a rock. He told me, “Now, say a prayer here and I will say âmîn (amen). Then, I will say a prayer and you will say âmîn!” I agreed. I invoked, “O my Allah! Send me very strong and robust foes! Let me fight them fiercely. Let me kill all of them and return to my home as a ghâzi (holy war veteran).” With all his heart and soul, he said “âmîn” for my supplication.

Then he started to supplicate Allahu ta’âlâ, “O my Allah! Send powerful enemies to me and let me fight them fiercely. Let me give the Holy War its due. Let me kill all of them. In the end, let one of them martyr me. Then, let him cut my lips, my nose, my ears. Let me, in blood, come before you. When you ask me, “Abdullah! What did you do to your lips, your nose, your ears?” Let me answer, “O my Allah! I have committed many mistakes with them. I could not use them properly. I felt shame at bringing them to you. I have been dusted with earth at a war in which your beloved Prophet (’alai- his-salâm) participated and in this manner I have come.” I did not wish to say âmîn for such a supplication. However, since he wanted and I had promised previously, I said âmîn unwillingly.

Then, we drew our swords and continued to fight. We were killing whomever we confronted. He was attacking very bravely and crushing the enemy ranks. He was striking the enemy repeatedly; he had a great wish to become a martyr. While fighting, reciting “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!”, his sword became broken. At that time, our beloved Prophet gave him a date branch and commanded him to continue the war. As a miracle, this branch became a sword and he went on fighting. He killed many foes. Towards the end of the war, he attained martyrdom, which he wished for so much, with the arrows shot by a polytheist named Abu’l Hakam. When he was martyred, disbelievers attacked his body and cut his nose, his lips and his ears. His entire body was bloody.

Kuzman, among the ranks of mujâhids, broke the sheath of his sword and attacked the polytheists by saying, “to die is much better than to escape,” and behaved very bravely. He himself killed seven or eight disbelievers. In the end, he received wounds and fell down. When the companions were astonished at his heroism, they notified Our Master. He said, “He is deserving of Hell.Hadrat Qatâda bin Nu’mân went to Kuzman and said, “O Kuzman! May martyrdom be blessed for you!” Kuzman replied, “I did not fight for the sake of religion. I fought so that the Qurayshîs should not come to Medina and destroy my date palm garden!” Then he committed suicide by cutting his wrist veins with an arrow. Thus, it was understood why our Master said, “He is deserving of Hell”.

Since the beginning of the war, with our beloved Master Rasûlullah, all the Com- panions struggled very hard. With vehement attacks, they made the polytheist army retreat. Against these heroic actions of mujâhids, the polytheists, who were worship- ping the idols, named Lât, Uzzâ, Hubal, which they made from stone and wood, start- ed running away. The women, who came to encourage them to fight, were trying to catch them while shrieking.

When the Quraysh polytheists started running away towards Mecca, leaving their goods behind, Muslim soldiers became happy and thanked Allahu ta’âlâ for having attained the victory which He promised. Although they had much superiority in num- ber and power, polytheists were wretched before the Muslims. While they were flee- ing, the glorious Companions were chasing them and killing them when they caught them. Meanwhile, Hadrat Hanzala bin Abû Amîr reached Abû Sufyân, the command- er in chief of the polytheist army. Abû Sufyân was trying to escape on his horse. He wounded the legs of Abû Sufyân’s horse. He made the horse fall down. Abû Sufyân, who was on the ground, started shouting, “O Qurayshîs! Help! I am Abû Sufyân! Hanzala wants to slice me with his sword!” Even though the polytheists saw this, they were running away for their lives and were not interested in their commanders.

However, at that moment, the polytheist Shaddâd bin Aswad was behind Hadrat Hanzala. He thrust his spear into Hanzala’s back. Although Hadrat Hanzala wanted to attack by saying, “Allahu Akbar!”, he fell and attained martyrdom. His blessed soul ascended to heaven. Our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “I saw Angels were washing Hanzala in a silver tray with rainwater between the sky and the earth.” Abû Usaydî said, “When I heard this saying of Rasûlullah, I reached Hanzala’s body. Rainwater was dripping from his head. I returned and noti- fied Rasûl-i akram of that.” Hadrat Hanzala was called Gasîl-ul-malâika 204. 205

Seeing that the polytheists fled, some of the archers at Aynayn passage left their po- sitions. They supposed that the war was over. Their commander, Abdullah bin Jubair and twelve people remained there.

The heroism of Hadrat Ali

At this point, the commander of the Quraysh archery Khâlid bin Walîd, on alert and trying to use every opportunity, moved the horsemen under his command, when he saw that the number of mujâhids in the passage decreased. In a minute, with Ikrima bin Abî Jahl, they came to the Aynayn passage. Hadrat Abdullah bin Jubayr and his loyal, faithful friends formed an array. They sprayed arrows at the enemy until their arrow bags became empty. Exclaiming, “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!” they showed much heroism, firstly with their spears, then with their swords in the face-to-face combat. There was a huge asymmetry between the two forces. They were one to twenty-five. Until the last drop of their blood, the glorious Ashâb-i kirâm fought to carry out the command of their Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). One by one, they were hon- ored with martyrdom, their blessed bodies fell to the ground and their souls flew to Paradise (radiyallâhu anhum).

The polytheist, out of their grudge, undressed Hadrat Abdullah and speared his blessed body. They cut his abdomen and pulled out his internal organs.

When Khâlid bin Walîd and Ikrima martyred the Mujâhids in the passage, they quickly attacked the back lines of the Islamic army. The Ashâb-i kirâm could not find an opportunity to reorganize, when they saw the enemy appeared behind in an instant.

204 The person that was washed by the Angels.
205 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 74; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 273-274; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 203; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 258.

Because, many of them had already left their weapons. Everything changed suddenly. The Quraysh polytheists, who were fleeing away in the front, saw that Khâlid bin Walîd launched an attack from behind. They returned. The Mujâhids were caught between two fires. The enemy attacked from the front and behind the army. The Com- panions lost contact with each other. They had to disperse.206

Hadrat Ali related as follows, “I dived into the center of a polytheists’ military unit, which, also Ikrima bin Abî Jahl was in. They surrounded me. I sabered most of them. I dived into another brigade and eliminated most of them, too. As the term of my life did not expire, nothing happened to me. For a moment, I could not see Rasûlullah. I told myself, “I swear he is not such a person who abandons the battlefield. Probably, Allahu ta’âlâ took and ascended him from among us, because of our inconvenient deeds! Now, there is no other way left for me, but to die by fighting the enemy.” I broke the scabbard of my sword. When I attacked the polytheists and dispersed them, I saw Rasûlullah was caught among them. Then I understood that, Allahu ta’âlâ was protecting His Messenger with His Angels.

The enemy soldiers had approached our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). The situation was very dangerous. Our beloved Prophet did not leave his position; he persevered as if a military unit. While he was fighting the enemy, he was also trying to collect his dispersed Companions, saying, “O so-and-so, come towards me! O so-and-so, come towards me! I am the Messenger of Allah. Paradise is for the one who returns to me!” Hadrat Abû Bakr, Abdurrahman bin Awf, Talha bin Ubaydullah, Ali bin Abî Tâlib, Zubayr bin Awwâm, Abû Dujâna, Abû Ubayda bin Jarrâh, Sa’d bin Mu’âz, Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, Habbâb bin Munzir, Usayd bin Hudayr, Sahl bin Hanîf, Asim bin Thâbit, Khâris bin Simma, suddenly ringed around our be- loved Prophet and established a living fortress wall to protect him.

Meanwhile, it was heard that Hadrat Abbâs bin Ubâda, in order to re-unite the dis- persed Ashâb-i kirâm, he was shouting, “O my brothers! This catastrophe we faced is the result of our not carrying out the command of our Prophet. Do not disperse! Gather around our Prophet! If we do not join the protectors and if we cause Rasûlullah to be harmed, there will be no excuse for us before our Rabb (Allah)!” Hadrat Abbâs bin Ubâda, together with Khârija bin Zayd and Aws bin Arkam, dived into the enemy ranks with interjections of “Allahu Akbar!” They fought heroically for the sake of Rasûlullah, to protect him. Khârija bin Zayd had received nineteen wounds. The others’ were not less than his. Thus, all three of them attained the grade of martyrdom, which they longed so much for.

206 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 232, 301.

The Ashâb-i kirâm, in that very dangerous moment, one by one, started to gather around our Master, the Prophet. The Polytheists surrounded our beloved Prophet and his glorious Companions who shielded him with their own bodies. Advancing in unity from every direction, they were closing the circle. The Master of the worlds, seeing that a group of Qurayshîs sprang forward, asked his Companions, which surrounded him, “Who will face this military unit?” It was seen that Hadrat Wahb bin Kâbus said, “May my life be sacrificed for the sake of you, O Rasûlullah! I will,” and sprang forward. With a drawn sword, this hero, who recited the sacred name of Allahu ta’âlâ constantly, dived into the polytheists. Our Master, the Prophet said, “I give you glad tidings of Paradise.” When he saw his perseverance and struggle against the enemy, he said, “O my Allah! Have mercy on him! Pity him!”

Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, who saw that the polytheists encircled Hadrat Wahb and mar- tyred him with spears, sprang forward to help him and showed much heroism as he was surrounded by the enemy. He killed many disbelievers and fought off others. He came to his beloved Prophet. Our Master, the Prophet said about Hadrat Wahb, “I am pleased with you. May Allahu ta’âlâ be pleased with you too.”

When our Master, Habîb-i akram, saw that an enemy military unit broke the cir- cle of the mujâhids and were advancing towards him, he told Hadrat Ali, “Attack them!” Hadrat Ali attacked, he killed Amr bin Abdullah and forced the others to run away. When his sword was broken, our Master, the Prophet gave the sword, which is called Zulfikâr to him. While another enemy group was coming, our Master, the Prophet said, “O Alî! Send the evilness of these people away from me.” Allahu ta’âlâ’s lion, who was ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of Rasûlullah, attacked immediately. He killed Shayba bin Mâlik and rebuffed the others. At that moment, Jabrail alaihis-salâm came and told our Master, the Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! This is an extraordinary heroism of Ali,our Master Rasûlullah replied, “He is from me, I am from him.” Jabrâil alaihis-salâm said, “I am from both of you.” At that moment, a voice was heard, “There is no hero like Ali, there is no sword like Zulfikâr.”

When the polytheists understood that they could not approach our beloved Prophet, they began to shoot arrows. Their arrows were either passing over him, or falling down before, behind, right or left of him. As soon as the Ashâb-i kirâm, who fought with a great effort to repel the enemy, saw the situation, gathered around the Master of the worlds and started making their own blessed bodies a shield against the coming arrows. When our Master, the Prophet ordered his Companions to reciprocate with arrows, the sahâbîs started shooting arrows at the enemy too. Our beloved Prophet ordered Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Wakkas to sit before him. Hadrat Sa’d, who was a very accurate sharp shooter, began to quickly send the arrows one by one. At each of his drawings of an arrow from his arrow bag, he was saying, “O my Rabb! This is your arrow! Shoot your enemy with it!” Our beloved Prophet was saying, “O my Allah! Accept the invocation of Sa’d! O my Allah! Make Sa’d’s arrow straight!.. Con- tinue Sa’d! Continue! May my parents be sacrificed for the sake of you!” At each arrow’s shooting, our Master, the Prophet repeated the same invocations in this manner.

When Hadrat Sa’d’s arrows finished, our beloved Prophet gave him his own arrows and made him shoot them at the enemy. Each arrow of Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Wakkas hit either an enemy or his animal.

During the flare of arrow shots by the polytheists, Hadrat Abû Talha was standing before our Master, the Prophet alaihis-salâm, thus he was shielding with his own body and his shield against all arrows. From time to time, he was uttering loud cries that astonished the enemy. Our Master, the Prophet said, “Among the soldiers, the voice of Abû Talha is better than one hundred people.” Abû Talha, whenever he found an opportunity, did not refrain from shooting arrows at the polytheists, he was shooting very quickly and with great strength. He did not miss the targets. Whenever our Master Rasûl-i akram wanted to know the result of the arrows and raised his head, Abû Talha, fearing that an arrow would strike him, would say, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Do not raise your blessed head so that no ar- row of the enemy can strike and harm you! My body is a shield and a sacrifice to your existence! Unless they slaughter me, they cannot reach you! Nothing will happen to you unless I die!..” He preferred our beloved Prophet, in lieu of his own life.

All around the field of Uhud, a terrific fight went on vehemently. They continued the struggle between faith and disbelief, some as horsemen and some as infantry. The Ashâb-i kirâm could not yet pull themselves together. There were about thirty companions around our Master, the Prophet. They made their bodies a shield to the coming arrows, spears and swords. Their only wish was to fulfill the order of our Master, the Prophet and fend off any harm, which might occur to him. Hadrat Hamza, the leader of the brave, in that chaos, drew away from our Master, the Prophet. He fought with a sword in each of his two hands. He spread fear into the hearts of the enemy with the interjections of “Allahu Akbar!…” Up to that moment, he killed more than thirty-one polytheists and deprived many of them of their arms or legs. While he dispersed a polytheist group surrounding him, Sibâ bin Ummu Anmâr challenged Hadrat Hamza by saying, “Is there a champion who can face me?” Hadrat Hamza said, “Come near me, O son of a circumciser woman! So, you challenge Allahu ta’âlâ and his Messenger?” In a moment, he held him by his legs and knocked him down.207

He beheaded him. Then, he saw that Wahshî targeted him with a spear in his hand, behind the rock across from him. At once, he walked towards him. When he came to the pit, which was dug by the floods, he slipped and fell on his back. At that moment, his armor on his abdomen was opened. Wahshî took this opportunity and shot his spear! The spear was flung and flew into Hadrat Hamza’s blessed body. The great one of the heroes fell there, saying, “O my Allah!” He attained martyrdom and reached the degree he longed for. He ‘radiyallâhu anh’ sacrificed his life on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, for his beloved Prophet.

Meanwhile, a person in the rows of the enemy was encouraging the polytheists to attack the Master of the world sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam by saying, “O Quraysh community! Do not cease to combat against Muhammad, who does not observe the rights of kinship and who has divided your nation. If Muhammad survives, may I not survive.” This voice belonged to Âsim bin Abî Awf. Hadrat Abû Dujâna had heard that voice. Fighting, he found Âsim bin Abî Awf and killed him immediately.

207 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 23; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 501; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 164; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 516.

However, the polytheist Ma’bad, behind Âsim bin Abî Awf, brandished his sword, with all his power. As a bestowal of Allahu ta’âlâ, Abû Dujâna suddenly and quickly crouched down, avoiding the fatal blow. At once, he stood up, struck his sword and killed Ma’bad.

The target of the Quraysh polytheists was the Master of the worlds (Hadrat Muham- mad). They spent all their power to approach him. However, they could not pass the honorable, glorious Ashâb, who did not hesitate to sacrifice their lives lest he would be harmed. These thirty heroes said, “O Rasûlullah! Our face is a shield in front of your blessed face; our body is sacrificed for your blessed body. We only wish your safety.” The polytheists attacked in groups. When our Master Fakhr-i âlam pointed out a group of enemy soldiers and asked his heroic Companions who were present with him and who made their bodies a shield to him, “Who will sacrifice himself to pro- tect us on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ?” Five Medinan companions sprang forward. In front of the blessed eyes of our Master, Rasûlullah, they fought furiously by saying takbîrs. In the end, four of them were martyred. When the fifth had received fourteen wounds and fell to the ground, the Master of the worlds said, “Bring him near me.” All his body was in blood. Our beloved Prophet sat down, stretched his blessed feet to be a pillow for that companion’s head. This happy sahâbî, who attained the happiness of martyrdom in that condition, was Hadrat Umâra bin Yazîd.

The heroism of Talha bin Ubaydullah

While the polytheists insistently approached, our Prophet asked, “Who will con- front these, who will stop these?” Hadrat Talha bin Ubaydullah answered, “I will! O Rasûlullah!” He wanted to rush forward. Our Master, the Prophet said, “Who else, like you, is available?” A sahâbî from Medina requested permission by saying, “O Rasûlullah! I am!” When our beloved Prophet replied, “Then, you confront them,he sprang forward and attacked the polytheists. He showed many unprecedented her- oisms. Having killed several disbelievers, he was honored with martyrdom.208

Our Master Rasûl-i akram asked again, “Who will confront them?” Before every- one, again Hadrat Talha came forth. When our Master, the Prophet asked, “Who else, like you, is available?” A blessed person from the Ansâr said, “I will confront them, O Rasûlullah.” Our Prophet said, “Then, do confront them.” He too attained martyr- dom by fighting the polytheists. In the same manner, all the Companions, whomso- ever were present near our Master, the Prophet, at that moment, attained martyrdom by fighting the enemy. At last, there was nobody left near the Master of the universe, except Hadrat Talha bin Ubaydullah. Hadrat Talha was anxious about Rasûlullah thinking that he might be harmed. He was rushing everywhere and keenly fighting the disbelievers. His swinging of his sword was so quick; he repelled the attacks of the enemies all around Rasûlullah in an instant; his shielding with his body, against ar- rows, spears and smites of swords, was such a unique event. Hadrat Talha was whirling around and disregarding the swords slashing his body. His wish was to protect the Master of the universe and attain martyrdom for that sake, the same as his other brothers. There was nowhere on his body which was not wounded. There was nothing seen on his clothing except blood. Even though he was in such a circumstance, he was covering all sides. At that moment, Hadrat Abû Bakr and Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs reached our Master Rasûl-i akram.

208 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, IV, 203.

The master of the heroes, Hadrat Talha fainted and fell to the ground, due to blood loss. He was wounded from sword, spear and arrow strikes. He had sixty-six major and innumerable smaller wounds. Our beloved Prophet ordered Hadrat Abû Bakr to help Hadrat Talha immediately. Abû Bakr-i Siddîq sprinkled water upon his face to awaken him. When Hadrat Talha bin Ubaydullah awakened, he asked, “O Abû Bakr! How is Rasûlullah?” He showed his affection and loyalty to him. That was the final degree of loving Rasûl-i akram, sacrificing one’s life for his sake. When Hadrat Abû Bakr answered, “He is well. He has sent me.” Talha felt relief and said, “Countless thanks to Allahu ta’âlâ. As long as he is alive, all the troubles are nothing.” Mean- while, some other Companions had reached them too.

The Master of the worlds, Muhammad Mustafâ (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) hon- ored the presence of Hadrat Talha. The wounded mujâhid wept out of his joy when he saw Rasûlullah alive. Our Master, the Prophet rubbed his body, then opened his hands and invoked, “O my Allah! Give cure to him, grant him power.” As a miracle of our Master Rasûl-i akram, Hadrat Talha stood up in sound health and began to fight the enemy again. Our beloved Prophet said about him, “On the day of Uhud, on the earth, I saw nobody that was nearer to me, except Jabrâil on my right and Talha bin Ubaydullah on my left.”209 “He who wants to look at a man of paradise walk- ing, on the earth, should look at Talha bin Ubaydullah.”

The war was intensely continuing along the entire front. Around our Master, the Prophet, there were companions like Abû Dujâna, the flagman Mus’ab bin Umayr, Talha bin Ubaydullah, also Lady Nasîba and some others who came from the rear lines to protect our Prophet (‘alaihis-salâm). Together with Rasûlullah, they were fighting against the polytheists. A ferocious polytheist, Abdullah bin Hunayd, fully armed and in full armor, saw our beloved Prophet. He was shouting, “I am the son of Zuhayr. Show me Muhammad. Either I will kill him, or I will die near him.” He was on his horse. He was coming towards our Master, the Prophet. Hadrat Abû Du- jâna stood in front of him and said, “So, come! I am shielding the blessed existence of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm with my own body. You cannot reach him unless you crush me!” He struck a sword against the legs of the horse of Abdullah bin Hunayd. He made him fall. He lifted up his sword and struck him, saying, “Take this, from the son of Harasha!” Watching the incident, the Master of the worlds invoked, “O my Al- lah! Be pleased with the son of Harasha (Abû Dujâna), as I am pleased with him!”

209 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 426; Haythamî, Majmâ›uz-Zawâid, IX, 52.

Mâlik bin Zuhayr, from the polytheists, who was an accurate sharpshooter archer, consistently successful with each of his shots, was looking for our Master, the Prophet and planning to kill him by shooting an arrow at the earliest opportunity. He reached close to our Master Rasûlullah, drew his bow and targeted the blessed head of our beloved Prophet, and shot his arrow. There was not even enough time to blink an eye. Hadrat Talha made himself as a target, by immediately opening his hand. The arrow hit Hadrat Talha’s hand and tore it to pieces. All the nerves of his fingers were cut and the bones of his hand were broken. Also, our Master Fakhr-i âlam ‘sall-Allâhu alaih wa sallam’ saw what happened and said, “If you had said Bismillah (when you ex- tended your hand to the arrow in order to protect me), angels would have ascended you to the heavens, while people were looking at you.” 210

Four polytheists of Mecca, named Abdullah bin Kamîa, Ubayy bin Halaf, Utba bin Abî Waqqâs and Abdullah bin Shihâb-i Zuhrî had swore to an oath to kill our Master Rasûl-i akram. During this difficult time, our Master Rasûlullah, together with some of his Companions, were fiercely fighting against the enemy. Ahead of our Master, the Prophet, there was the flagman, Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr. Because of the armor he had worn, Hadrat Mus’ab was similar to our beloved Prophet. Holding the banner of the Islamic army in his right hand, he had been fighting intensely against the polythe- ists. At that moment, Ibn-i Kamîa, in armor and on his horse, approached. He yelled, “Show me Muhammad! May I not be saved, if he is saved!” He rode his horse towards our Master, the Prophet. Hadrat Mus’ab and Lady Nasîba confronted him and began to combat him by making their bodies as a shield to our Master, the Prophet. They hit him with many sword strikes; however, he was not affected because of his armor. Ibn-i Kamîa struck Lady Nasîba with his sword and tore her shoulder. Then, he cut the right hand of Hadrat Mus’ab. Mus’ab bin Umayr, whose right hand was slashed, held the blessed banner of Islam with his left hand, without allowing it to fall. At that moment, he was reciting the âyat-i karîma, purporting, “Muhammad is a Messenger. There have been Messengers before him too.”211. This time, Ibn-i Kamîa swung his sword at the left hand of Hadrat Mus’ab. The glorious flagman, whose left hand was now also slashed, did not allow the banner of Islam to fall. The heroic sahâbî held the banner with his arms and pressed it against his body, to be sure that it continued to wave. Ibn-i Kamîa struck his spear into the body of this glorious sahâbî. He went to the Hereafter as a martyr, like his other friends.

While Hadrat Mus’ab was falling, the glorious banner of Islam was not allowed to fall to the ground, an angel, in the guise of Mus’ab, had caught it. When our beloved Prophet commanded, “Forward, O Mus’ab! Forward!” the angel who held the ban- ner replied, “I am not Mus’ab.” Then, our Master, the sultân of the worlds, understood that he was an angel and gave the banner to Hadrat Ali.212

Ibn-i Kamîa thought Hadrat Mus’ab was our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). In haste, he reached the polytheists. He started shouting, “I have killed Muhammad!” The polytheists, who heard this, with the pleasure of attaining their goal, became even more excessive. The Ashâb-i kirâm, who did not know the reality of the incident, fell into grief. There was a great sorrow. Even Hadrat ’Umar was desperate, he could not move from where he sat down with his friends. When Anas bin Nadr saw them in this state he asked, “Why are you sitting?”

They answered, “Rasûlullah has been martyred!..” Hadrad Anas said, “Even if Rasûlullah was martyrized, his Rabb (Allahu ta’âlâ) is everlasting. What will we do by surviving after Rasûlullah? Now, stand up! Let us too sacrifice our life for the same thing that our Master, the Prophet sacrificed his blessed life for.” He broke his sword’s sheath213 and attacked the enemy with his sword drawn, shouting, “Allahu Akbar.” He killed many of the disbelievers and he became martyr. His face alone had more than seventy wounds. Since he had innumerable wounds on his body, no one could recog- nize him except his sister.

Many of the Ashâb-i kirâm had been dispersed, some of them had attained mar- tyrdom. The polytheists gained advantage of their situation and gathered around our Master Rasûl-i akram. With stones and swords, they were trying to martyr him. Since he had two folds of armor on, the strikes did not affect him. The stones, thrown by Utba bin Abî Waqqâs, struck our beloved Prophet’s face and his lower lip became wounded. His fourth tooth on his lower right jaw was broken. At that moment, the polytheist Ibn-i Kamîa came too, and swung his sword at the head of the Master of the world. Our beloved Prophet’s helmet had become crushed. Its two rings sank into his blessed temples. Again, from another sword strike by Ibn-i Kamîa, he became wounded on his shoulder and fell on his side into the deep pit, dug by Abû Âmir. Our beloved Prophet, regarding Ibn- i Kamîa, invoked, “May Allahu ta’âlâ make you servile and desolate!” Ibn-i Kamîa rejoiced extremely. Shouting, “I have killed Muhammad! I have killed Muhammad!..” he went to Abû Sufyân. The polytheists had achieved their goal! They were not interested in our Prophet anymore. They had retreated from around the pit where our Master, the Prophet was. They were fighting the Companions.214

When our Master, Rasûl-i akram (’alahis-salâm) fell into the pit, his blessed cheeks were bleeding. When he wiped his face with his hands, he saw that his hands and his beard were covered in blood. Before even a drop of blood could fall to the ground, Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm (Archangel Gabriel) came and caught that blessed blood and said, “O the Darling of Allah! For the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ, if this blood fell, there would be no green plant on the earth until Doomsday.” Our Master was praying for the guidance of people who tried to kill him, who hit him with swords, who broke his teeth and bloodied his face, saying, “If a drop of blood falls from me onto the earth, calamity will befall from the skies. O my Rabb! Forgive my people! For, they do not know.”

At that moment, Hadrat Ka’b bin Mâlik shouted, “O Muslims! Good news! Rasû- lullah is here!” The glorious Ashâb, who heard this voice, ran there as if they were given a new life. Hadrat Alî and Talha bin Ubaydullah came immediately and took him out of the pit. Hadrat Abû Ubayd bin Jarrâh, with his teeth, pulled out the rings of the helmet, which stuck into our beloved Prophet’s blessed temples. While he pulled out these iron pieces, his two front teeth also became displaced. Hadrat Mâlik bin Sinân, one of the Ashâb-i kirâm, licked the blood from the blessed face of our Master Rasûlullah. Upon this, our Master, the Prophet said, “The fire of Hell will not touch the one whose blood is mixed with my blood.”

210 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 254; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 217; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 220; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 416.
211 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/144.
212 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 73; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 300; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 42; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, III, 255; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 258; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 39.
213 Breaking the sheath of one’s sword in Arabia in those days was a gesture, a sign, which was made in battles, to show that he would never cease to fight, he would not retreat, and he would fight until he attains his goal or he dies.
214 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 79; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 263; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 45.

The polytheists launched an offensive again. The Ashâb-i kirâm, with the joy of re-uniting with our Master, the Prophet, formed a ring around him in an instant and they did not allow any polytheist to break into the circle. The polytheists, understand- ing that they could not do anything to our Master, the Prophet, began to go up the mountain. The sultan of the two worlds told Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs, “Make them return.Hadrat Sa’d asked, “O Rasûlullah! I have only one arrow left. How can I make them return with it?” Our Master Rasûlullah repeated the same command. Upon this, the master of the archers, Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs drew one arrow from his sachal and shot it. The arrow hit its target and made a polytheist fall. When he stretched his hand to his sachal again, he saw that there was another arrow. He paid attention to it; this was the previous arrow. Another polytheist died. This was repeated several times. As a miracle of our beloved Prophet, Hadrat Sa’d had found the same arrow in his arrow sachal each time. The Qurayshîs, seeing that their men were killed one by one, gave up climbing the mountain. They went down and retreated.

Among them, Ubayy bin Halaf rode his horse towards our Master, the Prophet and started shouting, “Where is that person who claims to be a prophet? Let him con- front me and fight!” Although the Ashâb-i kirâm wanted to confront him, our beloved Prophet did not allow them to. He took the spear of Hadrat Haris bin Simma and ad- vanced. The despicable Ubayy spurred his horse and approached, saying, “O Muham- mad! May I not survive, if you survive!” He was fully armed, from head to toe. The Master of the worlds threw the spear in his hand at the throat of Ubayy. The spear flew and stuck into his throat between his helmet and the collar of his armor. Ubayy fell crying like a beast. His ribs were broken. The polytheists lifted and took him away. He died on the road, shouting, “Muhammad has killed me!..”

Our Master Rasûlullah, with his Companions near him, started to ascend toward the Uhud rocks. When he reached the rocks, he wanted to climb up. Since he was so tired, and he wore two-fold armor and had received more than seventy sword strikes, he could not. Upon this, Hadrat Talha took our Master, the Prophet on his back up the rocks. Our beloved Prophet said, “When Talha helped Rasûlullah, Paradise became necessary for him.” Since he had no power, he could only perform the noon prayer while sitting.

On the mountain slopes, the companions, as if they were lions, were attacking the polytheists. They had made life unbearable for those who hit our Prophet. Meanwhile, Hâtib bin Baltaa came to our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) and asked, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Who did this to you?” Our Master answered, “Utba bin Abî Waqqâs threw a stone at me, hit my face and broke the fourth tooth of mine.” Upon this Hadrat Hâtib asked again, “O Rasûlullah! Where has he gone?” Our Master, the Prophet directed him toward where he had gone. Had- rat Hâtib ran towards that direction. After searching, he found Utba. He made him fall from his horse and decapitated him with one strike. He brought the head to Rasûlullah and gave the good news. Our Master, the Prophet invoked blessings on him, “May Allahu ta’âlâ be pleased with you. May Allahu ta’âlâ be pleased with you.”

The polytheists could not make a stand against the Ashâb-i kirâm, who fought back and attacked again. Suffering seventy more dead, they left the battlefield and set off for Mecca. The falsified news of the martyrdom of our Master, the Prophet had reached Medina. The ladies like Hadrat Fâtima, Hadrat Âisha, Ummu Sulaym, Ummu Ayman, Hamna binti Jahsh and Quayba ran to Uhud. When Hadrat Fâtima saw her father, our beloved Prophet, had been wounded, she wept. Our Master Rasûlullah consoled her. Hadrat Ali brought water in his shield. With that water, our mother Fâtima cleansed the blessed face of our Master, the Prophet and tried to stop the flow of blood. However, the flow of the blood from his wound on his face did not stop. When Hadrat Fâtima burnt a piece of straw and pressed its ashes on the wound, the flow stopped. 215

Then he went down to the battlefield. First the wounded were identified then their wounds were dressed. The polytheists had made some martyrs unrecognizable. They had cut their ears, noses and other limbs off and disemboweled them. Hadrat Abdullah bin Jahsh was among them. Our beloved Prophet and his Companions who had seen this became very sad. The most distinguished of his Companions had attained martyrdom, having poured their blood on the earth of Uhud, and had ascended to Paradise. However, the improper treatment against martyrs was unbearable. In addition to our Master, the Prophet, all the Companions dolefully grieved. In the face of that scene, the Master of the worlds wept. While he was shedding tears, he said, “I will bear witness, on the Day of Judgment, that these martyrs have sacrificed their lives for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ. Bury them with their blood. I swear by Allah that they will come to the mahshar (the Last Judgment) on the Day of Judgment while their wounds are bleeding. The color of their blood will be as the color of blood and the smell of their blood will be as musk.”

Then our beloved Prophet said, “I cannot see Hamza. What happened to him?” Hadrat Ali searched and found him. When our Prophet came and faced with an elusive scene, he could not endure it. Hadrat Hamza’s ears, nose and other limbs had been cut off; his face had been made unrecognizable; he had been disemboweled and his lungs had been taken out. While our Master, the Prophet was shedding tears from his blessed eyes, addressing Hadrat Hamza, he said, “O Hamza! In no case, nobody had suffered and will suffer as much as you had suffered. O the paternal uncle of Rasûlullah! O Hamza, the lion of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger! O Hamza, doer of good deeds! O Hamza, the protector of Rasûlullah! May Allahu ta’âlâ rest your soul!…”

215 Ibn Maja “Tibb”, 15; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 250; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 80; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, VI, 144.

Meanwhile, a woman, hurriedly coming, was seen. She was our beloved Prophet’s paternal aunt, our mother Hadrat Safiyya. Like other ladies, she had run to Uhud, when she heard the falsified news of the martyrdom of our Master Rasûlullah. When our Master Rasûl-i akram saw his paternal aunt, in contemplation of the fact that she could not endure the state of the martyrs, he told Zubayr bin Awwâm, her son, “Turn your mother back, and do not let her see her brother’s corpse.” Then Hadrat Zubayr ran and reached his mother. The blessed woman excitedly asked her son, “O my son! Give me news about Rasûlullah!…” Hadrat Ali had come next them. When Hadrat Ali said, “Rasûlullah is safe and sound.” He could not stop her from asking, “Let me see him.” Then Hadrat Ali pointed out the Master of the worlds. When our mother Hadrat Safiyya saw that our Master, the Prophet was safe and sound, she became very happy and praised Allahu ta’âlâ. This time, she wanted to proceed in order to see the situation of her brother Hadrat Hamza. When her son Zubayr said, “O my mother! Rasûlullah orders you to go back,” she said, “If my going back is for not showing me what happened to him, I have already learnt that my brother’s body had been cut and torn apart. He had suffered that situation on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ. We are prepared for worse situations than this. We will wait for its reward only from Allahu ta’âlâ. Inshâallah, we will be patient and endure it. When Hadrat Zubayr bin Awwâm came and informed of these, our Master, the Prophet said, “Then, let her see him.”

Hadrat Safiyya sat near Hadrat Hamza’s body and wept silently.

When Hadrat Safiyya came, she had brought two cardigans with her. Taking them, she said, “I brought them for my brother Hamza, please wrap him with them.” Sayy- id-ush-Shuhadâ, that is, the master of the martyrs, Hadrat Hamza was shrouded with one of those cardigans.216

Our Master Habîbullah came next to the banner-bearer Mus’ab bin Umayr. Hadrat Mus’ab’s hands had been cut off and he had received wounds on many parts of his body. The area surrounding him was like a blood bath. Our Master, the Prophet be- came deeply aggrieved again and addressing those glorious martyrs, he recited the

23rd âyat-i karîma of the Ahzâb Sûra. It purports, “There are such brave among Muslim believers that they showed loyalty toward their promises, which they gave to Allahu ta’âlâ. Some of them kept their word about fighting until attain- ing martyrdom (and they became martyrs). And some of them are awaiting to attain martyrdom. They have never changed their words.” After that, our Master, the Prophet said, “And the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ is witness that you will be resurrected as martyrs in the presence of Allahu ta’âlâ, on the Judgment Day.”

Then, he turned to the people around him and said, “Visit these people. Greet them. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that whoever greets them in this world, these blessed martyrs will greet them in return on the Judgment Day.”

216 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 493; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, III, 427; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 14.

They could not find anything to make a shroud with for Hadrat Mus’ab bin Umayr. His own kaftan did not cover his entire body. If they covered the head, his feet would be open. If they covered his feet, his head would be open. Our Master, Habîb-i akram ’alaihis-salâm said, “Cover his head with the kaftan, his feet with izhir plant 217.” This happy Companion, who spent his life in serving Islam and who at- tained the degree of martyrdom, left the world with half a shroud.218

The other martyrs, after their janâza prayer was performed, were buried with their bloodied clothes, and put into graves as groups of two-three. At the Holy War of Uhud, seventy people became martyrs. Sixty-four of them were from Ansâr, six of them from Muhâjirs.

Most of the relatives of the Ashâb-i kirâm had attained martyrdom. Due to this, they were sick at heart. For the purpose of consoling the survivors, our Master, Habîb-i akram said, “I swear by Allah, how much I wish I would attain martyrdom with my Companions and spend the night in the heart of Uhud. When your brothers became martyr, Allahu ta’âlâ put their souls in the craw of green birds. They go to the rivers of Paradise and drink from its water. They eat the fruits there. They see all over Paradise. They fly in its rose gardens. Then they enter the golden candles hanging under the ’Arsh-i âlâ (the end of matter bordering the seven skies and the Kursî which is outside the seventh sky and inside the ’Arsh.) and spend the evening there. When they see the delightfulness and beauteousness of those foods and drinks, they say, “If only our brothers would know what Allahu ta’âlâ has be- stowed upon us and thus they would not refrain from jihad, not be afraid of fighting and not turn away from the enemy.” Allahu ta’âlâ declared, “I will inform them of your situation.” (And He decreed by descending an âyat-i karîma, which purports,) “Do not assume those who attained martyrdom on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, are dead! Verily, they are alive in the presence of their Rabb. So much so that, exult- ing because of the rank of martyrdom that Allahu ta’âlâ bestowed upon them, they all are presented by the blessings of Paradise. And they would like to give glad tidings to those who are following and have not joined them by attaining martyrdom yet, that; there is no fear for them and they will never be grieved. They rejoice due to a blessing, or even more blessings, which come from Allahu ta’âlâ and the glad tidings in which Allahu ta’âlâ decrees that He will not make His reward for Muslim believers wasted.”219… Allahu ta’âlâ, being seen to them, decrees, “O My slaves! Say whatever you long for and I shall offer it abundantly to you.” Then they say, “O our Rabb! There is no blessing, superior to those, which you bestowed upon us, that we long for. We are eating whatever we would like in Paradise all the time. However, what we long for is our souls being returned to our body and being sent back to the world and being killed again for Your sake.”

There was nothing left to do there. They recollected themselves. A unique holy war in history was made at Uhud, where they had come to spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ. Many unimaginable events of heroism of the Ashâb-i kirâm had been wit- nessed, and another lesson had been taught to the disbelievers.

217 A kind of plant that grows in the region.
218 Bukhârî “Janâiz”, 27; Abû Dâwûd “Wasâyâ”, 11; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, III, 147; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 121; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XXXIV, 451.
219rat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân 3/ 169-171.

The Master of the worlds ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ departed toward radiant Medina with his blessed Companions. When they arrived at the location called Harre, he made his Companions form a row formation and, by outstretching his blessed hands, he began supplicating Allahu ta’âlâ and prayed as follows, “O my Allah! Praise and glorification is mostly for You. O my Allah! There is no one, who can show the true path to the one who You left in aberration and there is no one who can deviate the one to whom You granted the attainment of the true path… O my Allah! Make us love the belief. Embellish our hearts with belief. Make us hate disbelief, inordinateness and excessiveness. Make us one of those who know what is harmful for our religious and worldly affairs. Make us one of those who have found the true path. O my Allah! Let us live as Muslim and die as Muslim. In- clude among those that are pious and good. For they neither lose their honor nor dignity nor apostatize. O my Allah! Smite those disbelievers who contradicted Your Messenger, who turned away from your path and who fought against Your Messenger! Descend over them Your torment, which is true and real!…Âmîn!” The Ashâb-i kirâm also participated in that invocation by saying, “Âmîn! Âmîn!”

Our beloved Prophet had come near to Medina with his Ashâb. Women and chil- dren, who remained in Medina, poured onto the roads, with curiosity and sadness; they were trying to see the Master of the worlds in the coming army. When they saw his luminous face which enlightened the world, they thanked Allahu ta’âlâ. Then, looking at the army; they searched for fathers, husbands, sons and uncles. If they could not see them, they were not able to hold their tears. Our Master Rasûl-i akram, who saw this state of his Companions, was very sorry and his blessed eyes shed tears.

For a moment, it was seen that Lady Kabsha, Sa’d bin Mu’âz’s mother, approached our Master, the Prophet. His son Amr had attained martyrdom in Uhud. When she came closer to the presence of our Prophet, she said, “O Rasûlullah, may my parents be sacrificed for your sake! Alhamdulillah, I saw that you are safe and sound. As you are in safety, nothing else can affect me!” She did not ask about her darling son. After our beloved Prophet con- doled her, over the loss of her son Amr, he said, “O the mother of Sa’d! Glad tidings to you and his household, that, all the ones who attained martyrdom from them, came together in Paradise and became friends to each other. They will intercede for their households too.” Then Lady Kabsha said, “O Rasûlullah, we assent to everything that comes from Allahu ta’âlâ! Who weeps for them after these glad tidings? Please invoke blessings on the survivors.” Upon this, the Master of the worlds prayed as follows, “O my Allah! Remove the sorrows in their hearts! And make the survivors of those, the most benevolent ones of the survivors!”

Our Master, the Prophet told his Ashâb, referring to the struggle against the desires of the body, (O my Ashâb! Now) We have returned from the small jihâd, we will begin the great jihad.”220 Then he recommended everyone to rest in their homes and the wounded to get treatment. He was wounded too. He went directly to his home of bliss.

220 Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XV, 139, XXXIV, 106.

The expedition to Hamra-ul Asad

When Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaih wa sallam’, returned to Medina, he took meas- ures against the possibility of a sudden polytheist raid into Medina. The day after, although he was wounded, to make it known that the Muslims were not weakened and to irritate the enemy so that they should not attack Medina, he told Bilâl-i Habashî, “Tell them Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) is ordering you to chase the enemy! Those who did not fight together with us yesterday shall not come. Only those who par- ticipated in the combat shall come!” When he informed the Ashâb of this command, although many of them were wounded, they made preparations immediately. Even the heavily wounded brothers named Abdullah and Râfi, hearing this invitation of our beloved Prophet, despite all their aches, ran to the ranks of mujâhids, saying, “Will we miss the opportunity to go to a Holy War with Rasûlullah?”

Our beloved Prophet, with his glorious Companions, started chasing the polytheists. They learned that the polytheists gathered at the location called Rawha and decided to raid Medina and kill Muslims. It was understood that the measure taken by our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) was one of his miracles.

When the polytheists heard that our Master, the Prophet was marching towards them, they feared and left their positions. They returned to Mecca.

Our Master, the Prophet chased them until the place called Hamrâ-ul Asad. Two of the polytheists were caught. They stayed there three days, and then returned to Medina.

Allahu ta’âlâ exalted those of the glorious Ashâb, who went to Hamrâ-ul Asad, in His âyat-i karîma, which purports, “There will be a great reward for those who run to the invitation of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger again, after having been wounded, and especially for those who perform good deeds and avoid evil, among them.”221

Ibn-i Kamîa, one of those who had made an oath to kill our beloved Prophet (’alai- his-salâm) in Uhud, had returned to Mecca. One day, he went up a mountain to check on his sheep. He found them at the peak. One ram started running and rammed Ibn-i Kamîa. He killed Ibn-i Kamîa by crushing him.

A snake with white spots bit Abdullah Shihâb-i Zuhrî, while he was going to Mecca. All the persons who tried to kill our Master, the Prophet were punished and they died within one year.

221 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân 3/ 172.

The Raji’ incident

Hadrat Âsim bin Thâbit, one of the prominent archers of the Holy War of Uhud, had killed the polytheist Musâfi bin Talha and his brother Hâris, in that war. Their mother, Sulâfa binti Sa’d, famous for vehemently bearing a grudge, promised to give one hundred camels to whomsoever brought her the head of Hadrat Âsim bin Thâbit, who had killed two of her sons. She swore an oath to drink wine from Hadrat Âsim’s skull. Additionally, the sons of Lihyân had come to an agreement with the Adal and Kara tribes, because Abdullah bin Unays had killed Khâlid bin Sufyân from among the sons of Lihyân.

These two tribes, which were settled around Medina, made a plan and prepared envoys. They told them, “Say to them you have become Muslim and you will give zakât, asking them for teachers to take the zakât and teach you Islam. By doing so, we will kill some of those who have come and take our revenge. We will bring the others to Mecca and sell them to the Quraysh.”

In the Safar month of the fourth year of the Hegira, a committee of six or seven persons came from these two tribes to our Master, the Prophet and said, “We have become Muslims. Send us teachers to teach us the Qur’ân al-karîm and Islam.” Mean- while our beloved Prophet had prepared a military expedition of ten people to check if the Meccan polytheists were in preparation for war. When the committee came from the Adal and Kara tribes, he sent this patrol with this committee to inspect the situ- ation. Coming from the Ashâb-i kirâm, this military expedition consisted of Marsad bin Abî Marsad, Khâlid bin Abî Bukayr, Âsim bin Thâbit, Hubayb bin Adiy, Zayd bin Dasinna, Abdullah bin Târik, Mu’attib (Mugir) bin Ubayd and three other sahâbîs whose names are not known.

This reconnaissance unit, by hiding during days and walking at nights, reached the waters of Rajî’ towards the break of dawn. They rested for a while, ate a delicious kind of Medina dates called Ajwa. Then, they left there, climbed up a mountain near- by and concealed themselves. A woman from Huzayl tribe, herding sheep, had come to the Râjî’ water. She saw date pits and understood that dates of Medina had been eaten. Shouting, “Some people have come here from Medina,” she informed her tribe. Meanwhile, one of the envoys from the Adal and Kara tribes, found an excuse and departed. He immediately notified the sons of Lihyân of the situation.

The sons of Lihyân were motivated by this news. They sent a force of two hundred men against this small expedition. One hundred of them were archers. That group of polytheists found Hadrat Âsim bin Thâbit and his friends on the mountain and they encircled them. Meanwhile, the person who had informed the polytheists of the ten Companions joined them. The Companions understood that they were deceived. They decided to fight and drew their swords. Understanding the situation, the polytheists tried to deceive them, by saying, “If you come down, we will kill none of you. We are giving a definite promise. We swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that we do not want to kill you. However, we wish to get ransom for you from the Meccans.”

Âsim bin Thâbit, Marsad bin Abî Marsad and Khâlid bin Abî Bukayr rejected all the offers, saying, “We will never accept the promises and the pledges of polytheists.” Hadrat Âsim bin Thâbit said, “I have made an oath not to accept the protection of polytheists. I swear by Allah that I will not go down and surrender, by believing their protection and words.” He opened his hands and prayed, “O my Allah! Inform your Prophet about our condition.” Allahu ta’âlâ accepted Hadrat Âsim’s prayer and in- formed our Master Rasûlullah of the incidents.

Hadrat Âsim said to the polytheists, “We do not fear death. For, we persevere in our religion (when we die, we will become martyr and go to Paradise).” When the leader of the polytheists told him, “O Âsim! Do not waste you and your friends, surrender!” Âsim bin Thâbit replied to him by shooting arrows. While he was shooting arrows, he was reciting these lines:

“I am strong, I have no deficiency. The thick string of my bow is drawn. Death is true, life is false and temporary.

They will come true, all the things in destiny. People will return to Allahu ta’âlâ finally.

If I do not fight you, my mother (out of her agony) will lose her sanity.”

There were seven arrows in Âsim’s quiver. He killed one polytheist with each arrow he shot. When he ran out of arrows, he killed many of them with his spear. However, his spear had become broken. He drew his sword immediately and broke its scabbard. (In those times, it meant, “I will fight until I pass away and I will never surrender.”) Then he invoked as follows, “O my Allah! I have protected Your religion up to now. I supplicate You to protect my body at the end of this day.” The interjections of “Allahu akbar!” of Âsim bin Thâbit and other Companions were resounding the mountains. Ten mujâhids were fighting to the death against two hundred people and whoever approached them was paying the penalty of the deeds they committed. At the end, Hadrat Âsim having been wounded on both his legs, fell to the ground. Since the disbelievers deeply feared him too much, they could not move close to him, even after he had collapsed, but they martyred him by shooting arrows from a distance. That day, seven of those ten Companions that were present there attained martyrdom and three of them were taken captive.

The sons of Lihyân wanted to cut off Âsim bin Sâbit’s blessed head, to sell it to Sulâfa binti Sa’d. However, Allahu ta’âlâ accepted the prayer of Hadrat Âsim bin Sâbit, He sent a drove of bees there. Like a cloud, they hovered over Âsim bin Sâbit. The polytheists could not approach him. Finally, they said, “Let him alone, when it is evening, the bees will disperse and we will cut off his head and take it away.”

In the evening, Allahu ta’âlâ made it rain heavily. The creeks flooded and carried away the blessed body of Âsim bin Thâbit to an unknown place. They thoroughly searched for him, however, they could not find him. Thus, the polytheists were unable to cut Hadrat Âsim bin Thâbit. When this incident was mentioned, Hadrat ’Umar said, “Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ protects His believer slave. As Âsim bin Thâbit was protected in his lifetime, Allahu ta’âlâ protected his body after his death and did not let the poly- theists damage him.” For this reason, whenever Âsim bin Thâbit was remembered, he was referred to as “the person who was protected by bees.222

The sons of Lihyân martyred seven sahâbîs, starting with Âsim bin Sâbit. They captured three sahâbîs. The three captivated sahâbîs were Hubayb bin Adiy, Zayd bin Dasinna and Abdullah bin Târik. The sons of Lihyân tied them with bow cords. Among them, Abdullah bin Târik refused to be brought to Meccan polytheists. He resisted. He shouted, “My martyred friends have been honored with Paradise.” He broke the ties of his hands. However, the sons of Lihyân martyred him by stoning him. Hadrat Hubayb bin Adiy and Hadrat Zayd bin Dasinna persevered, thinking they might find an opportunity to perform the duty of reconnaissance, given by Rasûlullah.

The sons of Lihyân brought both of them to Mecca. The polytheists, whose relatives had been killed in the Wars of Badr and Uhud, were burning with a desire for revenge and they were looking for an opportunity. Hubayb was bought by the polytheist Hujayr bin Abî İhâb-i Tamîmî, in order to take revenge for the killing of his brother in the War of Badr, and Zayd bin Dasinna was bought by Safwân bin Umayya in order to take revenge for the killing of his father Umayya bin Halaf, who had been also killed in the War of Badr. The intention of the polytheists was to kill both of them. However, they were in the months in which they regarded as being forbidden to make war. Therefore, they imprisoned them and waited for the passing of time. They kept them separated. Both Companions showed great patience, strength and dignity against this captivity.

Mâwiya, an emancipated female slave (who later became Muslim), who was pres- ent in the house where Hubayb bin Adiy was kept, reported:

“Hubaby was imprisoned in a cell of the house in which I was present. I have not seen any prisoner better than him. One day, I saw him eating grapes from a big bunch of grapes. Everyday, he was seen with a bunch of grapes. In that season, in Mecca, it was never possible to find any grapes. Allahu ta’âlâ gave him livelihood. He used to perform ritual prayers and recited the Qur’ân-i karîm in the cell where he was impris- oned. The women, who listened to the the Qur’ân-i karîm he recited, used to weep and feel pity for him. Sometimes, when I asked him, “Do you want anything?” He used to say, “Give me sweet water, do not bring me meat from the animals sacrificed for the idols, and inform me beforehand, when they will kill me, I do not want anything more.” When the day of his persecution was determined, I went and informed him. When he learned this, he did not show any sorrow and there was no change in his attitude. When that day approached, he said he would shave his body and requested a razor. Therefore, I gave a razor to my child and sent him. When the child went to him, I suddenly became afraid. I said, “This man will cut the child with the razor. He will be killed in the end.” I ran to see the child.

Taking the razor from the child, Hubayb made him sit on his lap to caress him. When I saw that scene, I shouted out from my fear. When he noticed the situation, he said, “Do you suppose, I will kill this child? There is nothing like that in our religion. Killing a person undeservedly is not part of our behavior and glory.”

The day, on which the polytheists had agreed to kill Hubayb bin Adiyy and Zayd bin Dasinna, arrived. That day, in the early morning, the polytheists unchained and brought them to the place called Tamîm, out of Mecca. The people of Mecca and no- tables of the polytheists had gathered to watch the execution. There was a large crowd.

The polytheists had set up two gallows where they would execute the captives. While they wanted to raise Hubayb and tie him to the gallows, he said, “Leave me, and let me perform a ritual prayer of two rak’ats.” They released him and said, “Per- form it there.” Hubayb started the ritual prayer immediately and performed it with awe of Allahu ta’âlâ. The gathered polytheists, women and children watched him in excitement. After he completed his prayer, he said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that if you would not think that I extended the ritual prayer out of fear of death, I would ex- tend it and I would pray more.” Hadrat Hubayb bin Adiyy was the first person who performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats before his execution. When our Master, the Prophet heard that he made a ritual prayer of two rak’ats at his execution, he found this behavior appropriate.223 Thus, it became a sunnat for people who will be executed to perform a ritual prayer of two rak’ats before being put to death.

After he performed his prayer, they lifted him up to the gallows tree and tied him. They turned his face from the Qibla to Medina. Then, they said, “Now, abandon your religion! If you do, we will set you free!” He replied, “I swear by Allah that I won’t! Even if all the world is given to me, I will not give up Islam!” The polytheists, who re- ceived this answer, said, “Do you want Muhammad to be in your place and to be killed instead of you now? If you say yes, you will free yourself and stay at your home in peace!” Hubayb said, “I can never consent to even a toe’s harm to Muhammad ’alai- his-salâm’s foot!” The polytheists, making fun of him and together laughing, said, “O Hubayb! Abandon Islam! If you do not, we will kill you absolutely!” Hubaby replied to them, “As long as I am on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, to be killed is not important to me at all.”

After this, Hubayb prayed, “O my Allah! Here, I am not seeing any other face than the foes’. O my Allah! Forward my greetings to your Messenger. Inform your Messenger of what is done to us,” and said, “Assalâmu alayka yâ Rasûlullah.” While Hubayb said this prayer, our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm was sitting with his Com- panions. He said, “Wa ’alaihis-salâm.The Ashâb-i kirâm asked, “O Rasûlullah! To whose greeting this is a reply to?” He answered, “It is a reply to the greeting of your brother Hubayb. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) has brought me the greeting of Hubayb.”224

222 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 28; Wâqidî, “Maghâzî”, I, 354; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, V, 354; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 221; Safadî, al-Wâfî, IV, 357.
223 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 28; Wâqidî, “Maghâzî”, I, 354; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 221; Safadî, al-Wâfî, IV, 357.
224 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 221; Abû Nu’aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyâ, I, 159; Ibn Abdilbarr , al-Istî’âb, II, 28.

The Quraysh polytheists, gathered around Hubayb, had youngsters attack him with spears by saying, “This is the man who killed your fathers,” and started wounding his blessed body. At that moment, Hubayb’s face turned towards the Kâ’ba. The polythe- ist turned him towards Medina. Hubayb prayed, “O my Allah! If I am a good slave in Your sight, turn my face towards the Kâ’ba. His face again turned towards the Kâ’ba. None of the polytheists could turn his face towards any other direction. At that mo- ment, Hubayb, recited a poem stating that he was being martyred, surrounded by the foes. When the polytheists started tormenting him by thrusting spears into his body, he said, “I swear by Allah that as long as I will be killed as a Muslim, I do not care on which of my sides I will fall. All of these are on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ.”

After this, Hubayb pronounced maledictions over the polytheists, “O my Allahu ta’âlâ! Perish all the Quraysh polytheists! Disperse their community! Take their lives one by one; do not let them survive!” When the polytheists heard this malediction, they became very afraid, some of them fled. Some of those who remained, started spearing him. One of them thrust into him from his chest through to his back. While blood was pouring from his body, still hanging from the gallows tree, he proclaimed, “Ash-hadu anlâ ilâha illallâh wa ashadu anna Muhammadan abduhû wa rasûluh,” and Hubayb became a martyr.225

The corpse of Hubayb bin Adiy hung from the gallows tree for forty days. However, his body did not bruise and stink. His blood flowed continually. Our beloved Prophet sent Zubayr bin Awwâm and Mikdâd bin Aswad, from the Ashâb-i kirâm, to bring his corpse. They secretly entered Mecca at night. Then they took down his body from the gallows tree, put him on a camel and departed for Medina. When the polytheists re- ceived the information, they started to gather. Both Companions put the corpse down on the ground in order to protect themselves. After a while, they saw that the ground, on which they put the corpse, had split, taken in the corpse and closed. They then continued on the road to Medina.

They tied Zayd bin Dasinna to the gallows tree they prepared, too. They were trying to force him to abandon his religion. However, they could not get anything, except strengthening Zayd’s faith. Upon this, they shot arrows at him. In the end, Zayd was martyred by Nistâs, the emancipated slave of Safwân bin Umayya.

The Bi’r-i Maûna incident

Again, in the Safar month of the same year, Abû Barâ Âmir bin Mâlik, who was the chieftain of the sons of Âmir from Najd region in Arabia, came to Medina. He visited our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). Our Master, the Prophet told him about Islam and recommended him to become a Muslim. Abû Barâ did not become a Muslim; however, he announced that Islam was a beautiful and honorable religion. In addition, for spreading Islam over Najd, he requested from our Master, the Prophet to send some of the Ashâb-i kirâm there. Our beloved Prophet said, “Regarding the persons whom I will send, I am not sure of the people of Najd!” Âmir replied, “I will protect them, then, no one can harm them”.

225 Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, V 354; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 221.

The Master of the worlds accepted that definite undertaking and prepared a delega- tion of seventy persons from the Ashâb-i Suffa. He sent them under the command of Hadrat Munzir bin Amr.

Abû Barâ, who wanted his tribe to be honored by embracing Islam, set off before the Ashâb-i Suffa and went to his tribe. He told them that committee that was to come was under his protection and no one should harm them. Everyone, except his nephew Âmir bin Tufayl, accepted not to harm them. He armed men from three tribes, headed them himself and surrounded the Companions who came to Bi’r-i Maûna. Completely circled, the Companions drew their swords and fought until all, with the exception of one of them, became martyred.

The last words of that blessed Companion were as follows, “O my Rabb! There is no one else except You who will inform Rasûlullah of our situation. Let him know our greetings!” At that moment, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came in grief, conveyed their greet- ings and said to our Master, the Prophet, “They have reached Allahu ta’âlâ. They attained the consent of Allahu ta’âlâ and Allahu ta’âlâ is pleased with them.” After our beloved Prophet replied, “Alaihimussalâm” he turned to his Companions and informed them of the events by saying sadly, “Your brothers encountered poly- theists. The polytheists slew them and riddled them with their spears…”

In this incident, while Hadrat Âmir bin Füheyre was fighting against the enemy, someone named Jabbâr stuck his spear into Hadrat Âmir’s back. At that moment, Hadrat Âmir had said, “I swear by Allah that I have won Paradise!” Then his body had ascended to the sky in the presence of Jabbâr and other polytheists. Everybody there was astonished by that event, however, among the polytheists, only Jabbâr, who had martyred him, became Muslim.

Our Master, the Prophet sorrowed over the Raji’ and Bi’r-i Mâuna events. For one month, after each ritual prayer, he pronounced maledictions over the tribes who com- mitted these grievous events. Allahu ta’âlâ accepted His Messenger’s invocation. He gave those tribes a vehement drought and famine. Later, among them, seven hundred people died of an epidemic disease.226

The Jews of Banî Nâdir

After the Holy War of Uhud, in the fourth year of Hegira, a Jewish tribe named the Sons of Nâdir, conspired to kill our beloved Prophet. Hadrat Jabrâil (Archan- gel Gabriel) informed our beloved Prophet of this. Thus, the assassination became thwarted. Upon this, the Master of the worlds sent Muhammad bin Maslama to the Jewish tribe that broke the treaty and said, “Go to the Jews of the sons of Nâdir! Tell them, Rasûlullah has sent me to you to communicate the order: Go out of my homeland! Do not stay here with me! You conspired to kill me. I am giving you ten days. After that time, whomsoever from you is seen here will be beheaded.”

226 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 28; Muslim “Imâra”, 147; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 183; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 346-352; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 51-54.

When Hadrat Muhammad bin Maslama conveyed this order, out of fear, they began to make preparations for the journey. However, Abdullah bin Ubayy, the leader of hypocrites, sent a message to them, saying, “Never leave your fortress. Do not aban- don your goods and homeland. We are coming to help you, with two thousand of my men.” Upon this, the Master of the world, with his Ashâb-i kirâm, marched towards the fortress of the sons of Nâdir, which was four kilometers away from Medina. The banner was carried by Hadrat Ali. The fortress was besieged. The Jews, who chal- lenged the Ashâb-ı kirâm before, did not dare to go out of the fortress. The help of the hypocrites did not come. The Ashâb-i kirâm controlled the surroundings of the fortress completely. In the end of the siege, which lasted more than twenty days, the Jews surrendered. Leaving all their weapons, gold and silver to Muslims, some of them were expelled to Damascus and some of them to Khaybar. Thus, from the Jews, only the sons of Kurayzâ remained in Medina.227

The passing away of Fâtima Binti Asad

The âyat-i karîma, which prohibits alcoholic drinks, descended in the fourth year of the Hegira.228 Hadrat Ummu Salama’s husband had been wounded and died in the Holy War of Uhud. He had left behind several children. Our mother Ummu Salama was old and in difficulty. Our beloved Prophet greatly pitied her and honored her by marrying her.229

Again, that year, the Holy War of Zâturrika’ was fought and the surrounding poly- theist tribes were daunted.230

Abdullah, the son of Hadrat ’Uthman and our Master, the Prophet’s daughter Hadrat Ruqayya, died when he was six years old. The Master of the worlds conducted the janâza prayer for his grandchild and he himself put him into the grave. He was very sad. His tears dropped into the grave. He put the gravestone with his blessed hands and said, “Allahu ta’âlâ shows mercy to His slaves who are lenient and softheart- ed.”231

Fâtima binti Asad, mother of Hadrat Ali, passed away that year.232 Our Master, the Prophet became very sorry and said, “Today, my mother passed away.After the death of his grandfather, Abdulmuttalib, our beloved Prophet had grown up near to her. When he announced his prophethood, she had become Muslim immediately. For this reason, the Master of the worlds regarded her as his mother and paid much esteem. Due to his compassion towards her, he gave his shirt and ordered for it to be used as her shroud. After conducting her janâza prayer, he said seventy thousand angels were present at the prayer. He went to the grave. In order for her life in the grave to be easy and fine, he made signs towards the corners of the grave as if he were enlarging the grave. Then, he lied down in the grave.

227 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 441; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, III, 386.
228 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XXII, 59.
229 Tirmidhî, “Nikâh”, 40; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 174.
230 Bukhârî, “Wudû”, 334; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 343; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 203; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 396; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 61; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 400.
231 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 51; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XI, 35.
232 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XXIV, 351; Abû Nu’aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyâ, III, 121.

When he came out of the grave, his blessed eyes had been full with tears and his tears had dropped into the grave. O my Rabb! What a compassion was that?… And how fortu- nate a lady she was?… Even Hadrat ’Umar could not stand it and asked, “O Rasûlullah! May my life be sacrificed for your sake! You did for this lady what you have not done for anybody so far!” Then our beloved Prophet who is the most loyal of those who are loyal said, “After Abû Tâlib, there was nobody else who had done as much favor for me as this lady had done. She was my mother. While her children were hungry, she would give food to me first. While her children were covered with dust and dirt, she would comb and pour rose oil on my hair first. She was my mother!

I made her wear my shirt as a shroud in order for her to be dressed up with garments of Paradise. I lied down next to her, in order to let her life in the grave be tender and easy for her. Jabrâil brought me the news from Allahu ta’âlâ that, this lady is deserving of Paradise.Then he invoked for our mother Fâtima binti Asad as follows, “May Allahu ta’âlâ forgive and reward you. O my mother! May Alla- hu ta’âlâ show compassion to you. When you were hungry, you made me eat. You would think of me first before yourself about dressing and eating. Allahu ta’âlâ is the One who resurrects and who takes the souls as well. He is always alive and never dies. O my Allah! Forgive my mother Fâtima binti Asad! Inform her of your deed. Widen her grave. O my Allah who is the most gracious! For the sake of Your prophet, me and the previous prophets; accept this invocation of mine.”

After these, Hadrat Zaynab binti Huzayma, one of our Master, the Prophet’s blessed wives, passed away at the age of thirty.233 Again that same year, Hadrat Hussain, the second child of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima, was born.234

Again that year, Abû Sufyân, with two thousand soldiers under his command, set off for Badr, to prevent Islam’s spread. The Master of the worlds, with his one thousand and five hundred brave Companions, arrived at Badr before them. Fear filled into the hearts of the polytheists, who learned that the Mujâhids had come to Badr before themselves. They were only able to advance to Marrazzahrân. They could not dare to confront the heroic soldiers of Islam, they returned to Mecca. Our Master Rasûl-i akram, with his glorious Ashâb, waited for the polytheists at Badr for eight days. Then, he set off for Madina.

233   Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XXIV, 58; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 593.
234 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 392; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, IV, 68.

The Holy War of Banî Mustaliq

In the fifth year of the Hegira, Haris bin Abî Dirâr, the leader of the sons of Mus- taliq, had gathered many men to fight against our Master, the Prophet. He would have armed them and marched towards Medina. When this news reached our beloved Prophet, a military expedition, against the sons of Mustaliq, with seven hundred troops began immediately. The military headquarters was established at the well of Muraysî. Firstly, the sons of Mustaliq were invited to Islam. They did not accept that and started the war by shooting arrows. The Ashâb-i kirâm performed the order of our Master Rasûlullah, “Attack them all together suddenly,” and killed ten persons from the sons of Mustaliq. The chief of the tribe had escaped and rescued his life but his daughter Barra and six hundred people from his tribe had been held captives. The booty was distributed. Barra, entering the presence of our Master, the Prophet, said, “I have agreed with my master, to whom I was allotted, to gain my freedom against nine gold coins. Do help me!” Pitying her, our Master, the Prophet bought and emancipated her. Due to the communication of Islam by our beloved Prophet, she became Muslim. Being very glad that she became Muslim, our Master, the Prophet honored her with marrying her. Upon seeing this, all the Ashâb-ı kirâm said, “We would be ashamed to use the relatives of Rasûlullah’s wife, our mother, as servants.” They emancipated their captives. This marriage caused hundreds of captives to be emancipated. Our beloved Prophet changed his blessed wife’s name from Barra to Juwayriyya. About our mother Hadrat Juwayriyya, our mother Hadrat Âisha used to say, “I haven’t seen a woman more auspicious than Juwayriyya.”235

As the Islamic army started returning to the luminous Medina, the surrounding pol- ytheist tribes had been intimidated and they had understood how dangerous it would be to dare to attack Muslims.

You are the physician to the worlds, I am so ill,
I have brought my heart to you, hoping I will get well.

A mountain of sin is on my back, from horror, white is my face,
But, I am full of hope, I have brought my sins here to terminate.

O head of the knowing! You, I do admire;
I weep day and night due to being far.

Your great compassion is elixir, and I am thirsty;
If I do not get even one drop of it, I pass away.

Trying to praise him, the mind is in difficulty,
May Allah protect it, limited is its capacity.

It is a vain effort to praise him according to his temper.
Trying to describe him with words is much harder.

He is so forgiving and generous, pearl comes from water,
Metal from stone, Rose from thorn.

If the sun illuminates, it is of his light,
The water drop on a rose, comes from his rose like face.

Depicting him is higher than this, however,
If I say it openly, the negligent will be denier.

It is possible to stuff all the world into a mote,
It is harder to describe him for me.

MAWLÂNÂ KHÂLİD-İ BAGHDÂDÎ

235 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 294; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 413; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 74; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 13.

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THE HOLY BATTLE OF TRENCH

It was the fifth year of the Hegira. The Jewish sons of Nâdir, who were a source of anarchy and disorder, had been exiled from Medina, had been divided into groups, some of them went to Damascus, some of them to Khaybar. However, their hearts were full of feelings of hostility and desire for revenge against Islam and our Master, the Prophet. Their leader, Huyayy, went to Mecca with twenty prominent figures of his people. They met with Abû Sufyân and began to negotiate to kill our beloved Prophet. They said, “We will be on your side and we will not leave you alone until we finish this business,” Abû Sufyân said, “Those who are enemy to our enemy are appreciated by us. However, for trusting you, you must worship our idols. Only after this, can we accept that you are sincere and we can be sure of you.” The treacherous Jews, who could give up even their religion to attain their goal, prostrated themselves on the ground in front of the idols. While they were disbelievers with a holy book, after prostrating they became disbelievers without a holy book. They swore to kill our beloved Prophet and to demolish Islam.

The polytheists started preparations for war immediately. They sent men to neigh- boring polytheist tribes too. The Jews also took action to persuade various tribes. They armed some of the tribes by promising them money and palm dates. The polytheists had extracted a force of four thousand men from around Mecca. Abû Sufyân unfurled their banner at Dâr-un-Nadwa and gave it to ’Uthman bin Abî Talha. In the army, there were three hundred horses, many weapons and one thousand five hundred camels.

When the polytheist army of four thousand soldiers came to Marrazzahrân, many tribes such as the sons of Suleiman, the sons of Fazâra, the Ghatafanites, the sons of Murra and the sons of Asad had increased the number of the troops to ten thousand with their reinforcement of six thousand soldiers. This was a very large force at that time.

The Khuzâa tribe, who had friendly relations with our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had informed Medina of the situation. A horseman who passed the ten days’ way in four days had given detailed information about the polytheists to our Master, the Prophet.

Our beloved Prophet, who counseled with his Companions in his businesses, gath- ered the Companions and discussed the situation. Each Companion gave his opinion about where and how to make the war. In this council, Hadrat Salmân-i Fârisî took the permission to talk and said, “O Rasûlullah! We have a war method. When we feared that the enemy might raid, we used to dig a trench around us and make defense.” Our Master, the Prophet and the Companions liked this method and it was decided to fight against the enemy in this manner.236

Our Master, the Prophet immediately went to see where the trench should be dug. There were gardens in the south of Medina and they were full of trees. The possibil- ity of a collective polytheist attack from there was weak. Furthermore, a small force could defend there. In the east, there was a Jewish tribe, called Banî Kurayza, with whom there was a treaty made. For this reason, the polytheists could attack only from the open lands in the west and in the north. The locations where the trench should be dug were determined. To each companion, a place of around 3 meters was allotted. Each person should dig his place at the height of two persons (around 3,5 meter) and the trench should have a width that a running horse could not jump over. The time was limited. The enemy had left Mecca and they were marching towards Medina. It was necessary to dig the trench at the soonest.

Our beloved Prophet, with his heroic Companions, first chose by saying Bismi’llâhi’r-rahmâni’r-rahîm. Everyone was trying to dig the trench as soon as possi- ble with his all power. Even the children participated in this task. A tent was prepared for our Master, the Prophet on the Zubâb Hill. Earth from the trench was thrown around this hill and stones were picked from the mountain of Sal’. Those who could not find a vessel were carrying earth by their own clothes. Our beloved Prophet also was working until he was tired. The Companions who saw this situation were saying, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Our work will suffice. Do not work, rest.” He was replying, “I wish to participate in your rewards you earn by working”.

In those days, the weather was very cold. Furthermore, that year there was a famine due to drought. It was very difficult to find food. Including the Master of the worlds, all the companions suffered a great hunger. To make themselves feel powerful, they roped stones around their abdomens, so that the feel of hunger would perish by pressing it.

Our beloved Prophet, who has been sent as a mercy for the worlds, would not think about his hunger, he was very sad due to the difficulties of his companions, working in cold and in hunger. He was praying, “O my Allah! There is no life (to be desired) except the Hereafter. O my Rabb! Forgive the Ansâr and the Muhâjirs.” They were replying to our Master, whom they loved more than their own lives, saying, “We have become obedient to our Master Rasûlullah on the path of Allah, to spread the re- ligion of Islam until the end of our lives.” This mutual love uprooted many difficulties such as hunger and thirst.

236 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 220; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 441; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 65-74; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 415.

Digging the trench started early every morning and continued until evening. One day, during the digging of the trench, Hadrat Alî bin Hakam received an injury on his foot. They brought him on a horse to our Master, the Prophet. The Master of the worlds rubbed his foot, saying, Bismi’llâhi’r-rahmâni’r-rahîm. As the miracle of our Master, his foot’s bleeding and pain stopped suddenly.

The trench digging continued. Meanwhile, the Companions were faced with solid earth. It was not possible to dig. They came to our Master, the Prophet and told him about the situation. He came and went in the trench. He demanded a cup of water. He took a drop and returned it to the cup. Then he spread the water onto the hard earth. He then took a sledgehammer and dispersed that place with one strike, as if it were sand. That place became very easy to be dug. During that strike, the garment covering the blessed abdomen of our Master had been opened and the companions saw that a stone was tied on his abdomen due to hunger. Hadrat Jâbir bin Abdullah saw that and asked for permission by saying, “May my mother and father be sacrificed for your sake, O the Messenger of Allah! If you allow me, I will go home and come back.” Hadrat Jâbir informed about what happened, after having taken permission, as follows:

I went home and asked my wife, “I saw signs of hunger on Rasûl ’alaihi’s-salâm that are not possible to bear. Is there any food at home?” She answered, “Except for this goat and a few fistfuls of barley, there is nothing to eat.” Immediately, I butchered the goat and my wife turned the barley into flour from a handmill. She put the meat in the pot and began to cook it in the tandoor oven. After that, I went to our Master Rasûlullah and said, “O Rasûlullah! I have very little food. With a few persons, please come for the meal.”

Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) asked, “How much food do you have for your meal?” I said how much it was. Upon this, he said, “It is both a bounteous and beautiful meal. Tell your wife not to take the meat pot or the bread from the tandoor until I come.” Then, he turned towards the mujâhids and said, “O the people of the trench! Stand up! We will go to the feast of Jâbir!” Upon this order, the Ashâb-i kirâm gathered and started to walk behind our Prophet. I went to my home immediately and told my wife what happened. When I asked, “What will we do now?” She said, “Did Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm not ask about the quantity of the food?” I replied, “Yes, he did and I told him.” My wife asked, “Did you or our Master Rasûlullah invite the Ashâb-i kirâm?” When I said, “Rasûlullah invited them,” she soothed me, saying, “Rasûl ’alai- his-salâm knows better.”

After a short while, the luminous face of our Master, the Prophet was seen at our door. He said to the crowded Sahâbîs, “Come in, without crowding each other.My sahâbî brothers sat down in groups of ten people. The Esteemed Prophet prayed for abundance of the bread and the meat. Then, without taking the pot out from the tandoor, he took the ingredients with a ladle, put them on the bread, and gave them to his Companions. Until all the Ashâb were full, he went on in this manner. I swear that although the people who ate were more than one thousand, the bread and the meat remained in the same quantity. After we ate too, we distributed it to our neighbors.237

237 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 27; Dârimî, “Muqaddima”, 7; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 425.

Hadrat Salmân-i Fârisî would dig trenches very well. He was making the job of ten people by himself. While he was digging the place allotted to himself with his friends, he faced a very hard and big white rock. They persevered to break it apart. However, all their efforts were in vain. Furthermore, their sledgehammers and shovels were broken too. Hadrat Salmân went to our beloved Prophet and submitted the situation to him, saying, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! We have encountered a hard rock. Although our tools, made of iron, were broken, we could not even make it move.” Our Master Habîb-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam went there and demanded a sledgehammer. The Ashâb-i kirâm were curiously waiting for the result.

Our Master, the sultan of the Prophets went into the trench. He lifted the sledge- hammer, saying, Bismi’llâhi’r-rahmâni’r-rahîm, and then he struck the rock with so much strength that lightning, which enlightened Medina, appeared from this strike and a of the rock fell to the ground. Our Master, the Prophet said takbîr, “Allahu Ak- bar!” Those Ashâb who heard this, said takbîr too. Then, he stroke the sledgehammer to the rock a second time. Again, there was lightning and pieces fell down from the rock… Our beloved Prophet said takbîr, “Allahu Akbar.The Ashâb-i kirâm repeat- ed this after him. When the sledgehammer struck the third time, another lightning had appeared and the rock was in pieces. The Master of the worlds said takbîr again and his honorable Ashâb again repeated this after him.

Hadrat Salmân extended his hand. Our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm climbed up. When Salmân-i Fârisi asked, “May my parents, my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! I have just seen something, which I had never seen in my life before. What is the explanation of this?” Our Master, the Prophet turned towards his Com- panions and asked, “Did you also see what Salmân saw?” They answered, “Yes, O Rasûlullah! When you hit the sledgehammer on the rock, we saw that there was an intense lightning. When you said takbîr, we said takbîr too.” Our Master, the Prophet said to them, “In the light of the previous strike, the palaces of the ruler of Iran (which were in Madâyin) were shown to me. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) (Archangel Gabriel) came and told me, ‘Your community will own those lands.In the second strike, the red mansions of the Roman province (that is of Damascus) were shown to me. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) came and told me, ‘Your community will own that land too.In the third, the residences of San’a (that is of Yemen) were seen. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) told me, ‘That place also will be owned by your community’.”

After this, when the sultan of the worlds described the palace of the Persian Shah in Madâyin, Hadrat Salmân, who was from that place, said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who sent you with a true reli- gion and a true book, those palaces are exactly as you mention. I bear testimony that you are the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “O Salmân! Absolutely, Damascus will be conquered. Heraclius will run to the most desolate place of his lands. You will take control all over Damascus. No one will be able to oppose you. Absolutely, Yemen will be conquered. Absolutely, that Eastern Land

too will be conquered and the Shah will be killed. Allahu ta’âlâ will grant these conquests to you after me.”238

Hadrat Salmân-i Fârisî communicated, “I saw all these glad tidings of our Master Rasûlullah come true.”

The enemy was then about to come. The trench was speedily being dug and was attempted to be completed as soon as possible. Only in case of strong necessity, by taking permission from our Master, the Prophet, the Mujâhids would only cease work- ing long enough to meet their need and would run back to their task.

The hypocrites were working in an extremely lazy manner. They were coming to work whenever they wished, they were leaving the work, without taking permis- sion, whenever they wanted. Furthermore, they were making fun of the efforts of the Ashâb-i kirâm. In addition, they were talking about the glad tidings of our Master, the Prophet, by saying, “We are taking refuge in the trenches out of fear from the enemy. He is promising us the mansions of the Yemenese, Roman and Persian lands. We are astonished by you!…”

Upon this, in the âyat-i karîma, which descended regarding the mujâhids, it was purported, “Only those are believers, who (sincerely) believe in Allah and His Messenger and when they are with him (Rasûlullah) on a matter requiring collec- tive action (such as the Holy War, measures regarding the Holy War, Friday or Eid gatherings) they do not depart until they have asked for his leave. (O My beloved!) Therefore those who ask for thy leave are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger. So when they ask for thy leave, for some business of theirs, give leave to those of them whom thou wish, and ask Allah for their forgiveness. For Allah is the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”239

In the âyat-i karîmas, which descended regarding the hypocrites, it was purported, “Deem not the summons of the Messenger like the summons among you (which you sometimes accept and sometimes not) (immediately run to his summons and do not leave without his permission)! Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ knows those of you who slip away by making each other a shield to themselves. Then let those who withstand the Messenger’s order beware of inflicting a calamity in the world and a bitter torment in the Hereafter! Pay attention! To Allahu ta’âlâ belongs whatever is in the heavens and on earth. He knows well what belief you are upon (whether you are a believer or a hypocrite) and the Judgment Day when they (hypocrites and disbelievers) will be brought back to Him. Allahu ta’âlâ will tell them what they did in the world. Allahu ta’âlâ knows everything.”240

238 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 450; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 159; Bayhaqî, Dala›il al-Nubuwwa, III, 482.
239 The Nur Sûra, 24/62.
240   The Nur Sûra, 24/ 63-64.

Six days had passed since the commencing of the digging of the trench. Everyone had duly completed his work. However, due to insufficient time, one place could not be dug deep and wide enough. Our Master, the Prophet expressed his concerns about this place and said; “The polytheists could not pass, except here.” He set sentries there.

When the polytheist army came very near to Medina, Huyayy, the chief of the Jew- ish sons of Nâdir, informed the Quraysh army commander that Qurayzâ Jews in Medi- na were in treaty with the Muslims, however, he could deceive their leader, Ka’b bin Asad and make them join their ranks. The commander said, “O Huyayy! At once, go to Ka’b bin Asad. Tell him to break the treaty which they made with Muslims and to help us.” One of the articles of this treaty was, “uniting with Muslims and resisting, if an enemy army attacks Medina.”

During the night, Huyayy, the Jew left the polytheist army and came to the house of Ka’b, chieftain of the Banî Kurayzâ. He knocked on the door and introduced him- self. He said, “O Ka’b! I have brought all the army of the Quraysh, many tribes such as the sons of Kinâna and Ghatafanites as an army of ten thousand soldiers. Now, Muhammad and his Ashâb will not be able to survive. We have made an oath with the Qurayshîs not to leave here until we destroy them totally!” Ka’b expressed his concern, “If Muhammad and his Companions cannot be killed and the Quraysh and the Ghatafanites return to their lands, we will remain here alone. I am afraid that they will kill us all in the end.” Huyayy said, “To eliminate this fear, demand seventy peo- ple as hostage. They cannot leave here as long as these hostages are with you. If they are defeated and they go, I will not abandon you. Whatever calamity befalls you, will befall me too.” He deceived Ka’b first, then the other Jews. He made them tear apart the treaty with Muslims. Thus, the treaty was broken.

Huyayy returned to the polytheist army and told them about the situation. He in- formed them that the sons of Kurayzâ would stab Muslims in the back.

On the seventh day, the polytheists, with a large army of ten thousand soldiers, came to the West and the North sides of Medina and established their military headquarter. The headquarters was at the same place where the trench had been dug. The plan of the polytheists, with this large army, was to destroy Medina completely, and by killing our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis salâm) and his Ashâb, to demolish Islam. Apparently, this was an army very large and very difficult to be resisted.

When the polytheists saw the trench barrier, which they had never expected, they became perplexed and dispirited. Because, the trench had a width which a good and speedy horse could not jump over. No one who fell into it could go out easily either. Especially, for a man in armor, it was very difficult to climb up.

Our beloved Prophet learned that the polytheists had come. He immediately gath- ered his Companions who were tired, due to six day’s ceaseless work, and he estab- lished his military headquarters on the slopes of Sal Mountain. Behind them, there were Sal Mountain and Medina, in front of them, there was the trench and beyond it the enemy. Again, Ibn-i Umm-i Maktûm was left in Medina as the deputy of our Master, the Prophet. The women and the children were in the fortresses. In the Islamic Army of three thousand soldiers, there were thirty-six horsemen. The banners were carried by Hadrat Zayd bin Harisa and Hadrat Sa’d bin Ubâda.241 The skin tent of our Master Rasûlullah was set up on the slope of Sal Mountain.

The Ashâb-i kirâm, who would show many heroisms again, began to watch the enemy movements intently. Meanwhile, it was seen that Hadrat ’Umar came to the presence of our beloved Prophet. He said, “O Rasûlullah! I heard that the Jews of the Kurayzâ have broken the treaty between us and they are preparing for war against us!” The Master of the worlds replied to this unexpected news by saying, “Hasbunallâhu wa ni’mal wakîl – Allahu ta’âlâ suffices for us. He is such a beautiful helper.” He was greatly saddened. Now, the Islamic Army was in crossfire. In the north and in the west, there were polytheist armies, in the South East, there were Jews.

Our Master Rasûlullah sent Hadrat Zubayr bin Awwâm to the fort of the sons of Kurayzâ. Hadrat Zubayr went there and learned the situation. When he came, he told about what he saw, “O Rasûlullah! I saw them repairing their fort, making military training and maneuvers. Also, they were collecting their animals.” Upon this, our Master, Habîb-i akram, (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sent Sa’d bin Mu’âz, Sa’d bin Ubâda, Hawwât bin Jubayr, Amr bin Awf, Abdullah bin Rawâha to the sons of Kurayzâ to advise and to renew the treaty.242

These five Companions went to the fort of the Kurayzâ Jews and advised them. However, the advice did not work. The Jews began to insult them. As a final word, they said, “You have broken our arms and wings, by expelling our brothers, the sons of Nâdir, from their lands. Who is Muhammad? There is neither a promise nor a treaty between him and us. We have made an oath to collectively attack on your prophet and kill him. Certainly, we will back our brothers and help them!…”

Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz and his friends came to the presence of our Master Rasû- lullah and told about the situation inexplicitly, so that not everyone would understand. Our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) said, “Keep your news secret. Tell it to only those who already know it. Because, war is of measure and trick.”243

The Ashâb-i kirâm, on their side of the trench, were waiting for our Master, the Prophet. They wondered what they would do. After a short while, the sultan of the worlds honored the place where his heroic Companions were. He said takbîrs, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” Hearing this, the glorious sahâbîs said takbîr collectively and announced the highness of the blessed name of Janâb-i Haqq. They injected fear to the hearts of the polytheists who crowded the other side of the trench. The polythe- ists, when they heard the takbîrs, said, “Probably rejoicing news came to Muhammad and his Ashâb.”

241   Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 67.
242   Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 460; Bayhaqî, Dala›il al-Nubuwwa, IV, 8.
243   Bukhârî, “Jihad”, 157; Abû Dâwûd “Jihad”, 101; Tirmidhî “Jihad”, 5; Ibn Maja, “Jihad”, 28; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 126.

Our Master, the Prophet told his Ashâb, “O Muslim community! Be joyful with the conquest and help by Allahu ta’âlâ!” Thus, he gave the good news that they would be victorious. The glorious Ashâb were present in many military expeditions, they had joined the Holy Wars of Badr and Uhud so far. They had defeated the poly- theists, who were in large numbers and more powerful, with the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ and the benediction of our Master, the Prophet’s invocation. As long as “the Crown of the Creatures” was with them, there could not be an impossible task, an unendurable difficulty. The weather was cold, the shortage was severe, and the hunger was great. Including our Master, the Prophet, many of them, tied stones on their bless- ed abdomens. Against them, there were innumerable enemies! However, for the glo- rious Ashâb, the number of the enemy or the endured difficulties had no importance. Allahu ta’âlâ was the most beautiful helper. They depended on Him, they counted on Him and they took refuge to Him.

The prominent commanders of the Quraysh and the chiefs of other tribes which came with the Quraysh, before making a decision to arrange the all out attack, began to search for a place where they could pass to the other side of the trench. They walked all along the trench. Finally, they stopped where the trench had not been completed due to the lack of time. The polytheist soldiers followed their commanders, they were amazed. They looked at the trench and the glorious Ashâb. They said, “We swear that this is not a method which Arabs use. Certainly, that Persian man recommended it!”

When the Quraysh commanders, showing the narrowest part of the trench, asked, “Who can jump over here and pass to the other side?” five horsemen went forward. They would pass over to the other side to fight face to face. The glorious Ashâb-i kirâm and the polytheist soldiers began to watch the actions of these five horsemen with curiosity. They moved back to gain speed. Then, they turned the heads of their horses towards the narrowest part of the trench. At full gallop, these five thoroughbred horses succeeded in reaching the other side with one jump. Many horsemen wanted to follow them, however, they could not succeed and they stayed on the other side of the trench. There was a very strong man, named Amr bin Abd, among those that passed over. He was in full armor, he had a majestic look. This man, who caused fear by his appearance, shouted at the mujâhids, “If there is anyone who can combat me, let him come to the battle field?…”

Meanwhile, it was seen that Hadrat Ali came to the presence of our beloved Prophet and asked for his permission, saying, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Let me fight him.” He did not even have his armor on. The Ashâb-i kirâm watched him in admiration. Our beloved Prophet removed his blessed armor and had Hadrat Ali put it on. He gave his sword to Hadrat Ali. He removed his turban from his blessed head and wrapped it over Hadrat Ali’s head. Then he invoked, “O my Allah! In the Battle of Badr, Ubayda, my uncle’s son and in the Battle of Uhud, Hamza, my uncle became martyrs. With me, Ali, who is my brother and my uncle’s son, is left. Protect him. Bestow your help on him. Do not leave me alone.” The Ashâb-i kirâm said, “Âmîn (Amen)!”

The lion of Allahu ta’âlâ, who walked forward, surrounded by invocations and tak- bîrs, stopped in front of Amr bin Abd, who looked like a monster. Amr, fully covered by armor except his eyes, could not recognize this hero and asked who he was. Hadrat Ali answered, “I am Ali bin Abî Talib.” Amr replied, as if he pitied him, “O my broth- er’s son! (A customary way of addressing a person) Your father was my friend. There- fore, I do not want to shed your blood. Is there not any one from your uncles who can encounter me?” Hadrat Ali provoked him by saying, “O Amr! I swear by Allah that I wish to shed your blood. However, is it not necessary for us to be on equal terms? Is it not suitable to the fame of bravery? I am on foot, you are on horse!”

Hearing this, Amr’s zeal of bravery filled him. He dismounted his horse at once. He cut his horse’s legs with his sword. Then he stood in front of Hadrat Ali. While he was about to attack, the lion of Allahu ta’âlâ asked him, “O Amr! I heard that you made an oath to perform one of the two wishes of a Qurayshi, when you meet him. Is this true?” He answered, “Yes, it is true.” Hadrat Ali invited him to Islam, “So, my first wish is your believing in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger and embracing Islam.” Hearing this, Amr became angry. He said, “Don’t mention this! I do not need this!” Hadrat Ali said, “My second wish is your giving up the combat and returning to Mec- ca. Because, if Rasûlullah becomes victorious over the enemy, you will have helped him with this act of yours!..” Amr said, “Don’t mention this too! I made an oath not to use fragrances unless I get my revenge. If you have another wish, tell me.” Hadrat Ali said, “O the enemy of Allahu ta’âlâ! There is nothing left except fighting you!”

Amr laughed at these words. He said, “Unbelievable! I never thought that there could be a warrior in Arabia who could challenge me! O my brother’s son! I swear that I do not want to kill you. Because, your father was my friend. I wish one of the no- tables of the Quraysh, like Abû Bakr or ’Umar, would confront me.” Hadrat Ali said,

”Even though that may be, I have come here to kill you.” Amr became furious. With a great speed, he swung his sword. The lion of Allahu ta’âlâ was expecting something like this, so, he jumped aside and met the strike with his shield. However, Amr had broken apart many a shield like that. Even the strongest shields could not resist his strike. Again, the same thing happened. The shield of Hadrat Ali was torn down. In addition, the sword went very near to his head and he was wounded. Now, the turn of attack was of Hadrat Ali. Saying, “Yâ Allah!”, he swung the Zulfikâr (the name of our Prophet’s sword) at the neck of Amr. With his strike, the Islamic Army sounded, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” The army of infidels were screaming. Yes, the crown of the creatures’, the sultan of the prophets’ invocation had been accepted. Monstrous Amr had fallen to the ground. His blood was pouring from him body. His head in his helmet had flown away. His friends, seeing that Amr was defeated, attacked Hadrat Ali immediately. The Ashâb-i kirâm ran there. Zubayr bin Awwâm wounded Nawfal bin Abdullah and made him fall, with his horse, into the trench. Hadrat Ali went down into the trench and parted Nawfal into two. The others passed the trench in difficulty and retreated. The commander-in-chief of the polytheist army was despaired at the beginning of the war.

Then, the formation of the war had been established. The trench impeded face-to- face combat. They tried to harm each other with shots of arrows. That had no use except delaying the end. The polytheists understood that they could not overcome them in that manner and decided that the most suitable way was to attack from all around the trench. They attacked. The large enemy army of ten thousand soldiers tried to pass over the trench and the glorious army of three thousand Muslims, with arrows and stones, strove not to let them pass. A horrific struggle had started. This struggle lasted until the evening.

Our Master, Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam set sentries at various points of the trench at night. He himself started to stand sentry at a narrow place. He sent a military patrol of five hundred soldiers to Medina and ordered them to loudly say takbîrs (Allahu Akbar) in the streets. Thus, causing a timely prevention from the danger from Jews or Quraysh polytheists; women and children would be protected.

The Kurayzâ Jews sent Huyayy bin Akhtab to the polytheists and demanded a force of two thousand soldiers to make raids at night. They would attack women and chil- dren who were defenseless at night. But, the patrolling of the mujâhids, until morning, and the sound of their takbîr “Allahu Akbar!” spread a great fear over their hearts. They retreated to their fort and began waiting for an opportunity. From time to time, they tried to enter Medina in small groups.

One night, Ghazzâl, one of the prominents of the sons of Kurayzâ, with his military unit of ten soldiers, succeeded in reaching the mansion of our mother Safiyya, who was the maternal aunt of our beloved Prophet. Inside, there were women and chil- dren. They did not even have a weapon to defend themselves. Firstly, the Jews shot arrows at the mansion. Then, they tried to enter. One of them entered the inner court and started searching for a suitable place to enter the building. Meanwhile, the brave aunt of our beloved Prophet told those that were there to be silent. She went down to where the door was. With a headscarf, she made a turban and disguised herself in a man’s appearance. She took a stick and a knife. She opened the door slowly and approached that Jew from behind. She hit his head with the stick. Without losing any time, she killed the Jew who fell to the ground. Then, she threw the head of the Jew at his friends who were shooting arrows from outside. When they saw the decapitated head of their friend, the Jews were terrified and started running away. They were say- ing, “We had been told that Muslims sent all the men from their homes to the war!…”

The war continued with the same intensity in the morning. Arrows were shot. The Master of the worlds (’alaihis-salâm) told his glorious Companions, “I swear by Al- lahu ta’âlâ Who owns my existence, all the difficulties we meet will be removed from you and you will be taken to ease.” He advised them to be patient and gave the glad tidings that the victory would belong to the believers. Having taken this good news, the heroic Companions forgot such difficulties as hunger and famine. They did their best. They did not allow even one polytheist’s passing from the trench. Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz, one of the prominent of the Ashâb-i kirâm, was fighting with a great zeal. During the war, he was wounded on his arm by an arrow shot by a polytheist named Hibbân bin Qays bin Araka. The arrow hit an artery vein and caused too much blood loss. Seeing how much they were trying to stop the blood, he understood that the situation was dangerous. He invoked, “O my Rabb! If the Quraysh will continue to battle, grant me a longer life span. Because, I do not like anything more than fighting these polytheists who have denounced and tormented your Messenger. If the war between us is ending, grant me to reach the degree of martyrdom. But, do not take my soul until I see the end of Banî Kurayzâ.” His invocation was accepted and the bleeding stopped.

The hypocrites, like Abdullah bin Ubayy, who seemed to be combating among the Companions, were very reluctant. They did not approach the front lines. In addition, they were doing all they could to demoralize the Mujâhids. They were trying to cause disorder, saying, “Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is always promising you the treasures of the Roman Emperor and Iranian Shah. In fact, we are imprisoned in the trench. Out of fear, we cannot even go to the toilet. Allah and His Messenger are not doing anything except fooling us, they promise nothing indeed!…” Whenever they felt difficul- ty, they left their positions, claiming that the enemy could attack their homes. These kinds of acts of the hypocrites were another problem.

The polytheist army, to obtain results as soon as possible, was spending all its power; however, they could not succeed against the heroic defense of the glorious Companions. The place where they attacked the most was the narrow passage. Our Master, the Prophet did not leave there and he encouraged his Ashâb to battle. The Ashâb-i kirâm, wishing to reach the honor of fighting near our Master, the Prophet, were showing unprecedented heroism in the battlefield. At one stage, it was seen that the polytheists started a vehement barrage of arrows. Their only target was the tent where the sultan of the worlds was.

An armor covered our beloved Prophet’s (’alaihis-salâm) body. He had put his hel- met on. He was standing in front of the tent and commanding his Companions ac- cording to the course of the war. Sometimes, the polytheists made a joint attack to a point where they regarded weak and the blessed companions were reaching there and fighting until they expelled the enemies of the religion. This unprecedented strug- gle was very intense; the heroic companions could not find even an opportunity to look around them. That day, this fight having starting in the morning, continued until late in the night. Whenever a time of prayer came, the glorious companions said, “O Rasûlullah! We could not perform the ritual prayer,” the Master of the worlds was replying to them, “I swear by Allah that I could not either.At night, they waged an attack and dispersed the polytheist group who did not permit them to make their worships. The Quraysh and the Ghatafanids could not reorganize and they retreated to their headquarters. The Mujâhids walked to the tent of our beloved Prophet. Then, Fakhr-i âlam, who was sent as a mercy for the worlds, even though it was not his custom to utter maledictions, he said about the polytheists, “May Allahu ta’âlâ fill their homes, their abdomen, their graves with fire, since they made us busy until the sunset and kept us from performing our ritual prayers!” After performing the delayed ritual prayers of noon, afternoon and evening; he conducted the night prayer.

After their struggles to demolish Islam completely, the polytheists understood that they could not overcome Muslims in day light. According to them, the only solution was to organize sudden attacks at night. The Muslims could be defeated only in this way. They carried out their decision immediately. They started making night raids, together with the Jewish sons of Kurayzâ. The polytheists divided their soldiers into groups. They were attacking by turns. These attacks continued for many days. Our be- loved Prophet and brave Companions went on defense even though they were hungry, sleepless, tired. No enemy soldier could pass the trench. This hearty defense was more fearful, more intense, and more difficult than the previous wars.

A food scarcity started among the polytheists who fought for days. Their horses and camels too began to die, since they could not find even a handful of dry plants on the ground. For this reason, the commander of the polytheists sent a military unit under the command of Dirâr bin Khattâb to the Jews of Kurayzâ to obtain provisions. The Jews, who sacrificed all they had for the disbelievers, immediately delivered twenty camel-loads of wheat, barley, dates and hay for the animals. While Dirâr was happily returning with his soldiers, they met a group of sahâbîs near Quba. The heroic Ashâb attacked at once. After a bloody combat, they put the enemy to flight. They delivered the loaded camels to our Master, the Prophet and they obtained an abundance of his invocations.

The sultan of the worlds, our Master (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) showed a great deal of compassion for his brave Companions who lived through many difficult times during this vehement fight which continued about a month. Seeing his glorious Com- panions’ extraordinary efforts, he was invoking about his Companions, “O my Allah Who helps people who are in difficulty. O my Allah who accepts the invocations of the needy! Verily, You see and know the conditions of me and my Companions. O my Rabb! Rout the disbelievers. Spread disunity among them. Grant us victory against them!…”

Our beloved Prophet repeated his invocation often in the last days.

The polytheists, because of the additional difficulties of scarcity, were spending all their power to destroy Muslims as soon as possible. One evening, a person from the polytheist army, whose heart had the love of Islam, came to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. This person was Nu’aym bin Mas’ûd from the Ghatafan tribe. He told our beloved Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! I have come here to testify that Allahu ta’âlâ is one and you are a true prophet. I thank Allahu ta’âlâ that I am honored by becoming Muslim. So far, I fought against you. From now on, I will fight against the disbelievers. I am ready to do what you order me! O Rasûlullah! Even my people do not know that I have become a Muslim! Our Master, Rasûl-i akram said, “Can you infiltrate the ranks of these disbelievers and try to separate them by causing dis- agreements among them?” He said, “O Rasûlullah! With the help of Allahu ta’âlâ, I can separate them from each other. However, do you permit me to say whatever I wish?” Our Master said, “War is about tricks. You may tell whatever you want.”

Hadrat Nu’aym bin Mas’ûd firstly went to the Jews of Kurayzâ and told them, “You know my love towards you. What we will speak of must remain between us. No one must know it!” The Jews made oaths and said nobody would know them. Upon this, Hadrat Nu’aym said, “That man (our Master Prophet)’s business is a real problem. You know what he did to the sons of Nâdir and Kaynukâ. You all saw that he has expelled them from their homelands. Now, the Quraysh and Ghatafanites have come and are fighting against Muslims. You are helping them. Although we have fought for many days, we could not get any result. It seems that the siege will extend. The Quraysh people and the Ghatafanites do not have their properties, homes, children here as you do. If they find an opportunity and become victorious, they will gather the loot and leave. If they lose, they will go away and leave you alone against Muslims. However, you do not have enough power to overcome Muslims. The current state of war shows that Muslims will attain the victory. If what I suppose occurs, Muslims will put you to the sword. For this reason, we must urgently take precaution.244

The Jews, who listened to these words in excitement and fear, were very glad that Hadrat Nu’aym took such care of them. They said, “You have shown us your friend- ship duly. Tell us which precaution we should take.” Nu’aym bin Mas’ûd was waiting for this, he replied, “The truth is, unless you take some of the notables of the Quraysh and Ghatafan as hostage, never engage in war against Muslims! As long as the hos- tages are with you, they cannot escape from the war!” Accepting this as a very good precaution, they thanked him and offered gifts.

Hadrat Nu’aym left the Jews and went directly to the Quraysh headquarters. He told their commanders, “You know my enmity towards Muhammad and how much I do like you. Out of our friendship, I have regarded it a great duty to inform you what I have learned. But, you should give promise and make an oath that you will not tell anybody what you will hear.” They made an oath, and asked curiously, “Tell us, we are listening to you.” He said, “Know that the Jews of Kurayzâ have become regretful of making an alliance with you and they sent a message to Muhammad. They told him that they should take captives from the notables of the Quraysh and the Ghatafan to deliver them to him. Then, they should fight, in alliance with him, against the polythe- ists until they all were destroyed. However, he should forgive the sons of Nâdir, their brothers, and leave their homelands. Muhammad has accepted these requests of the Jews. If the Jews ask for hostages from you, never accept it, they will kill all of them!” The Quraysh people thanked Hadrat Nu’aym very much for this important news and paid respects to him.

Nu’aym bin Mas’ûd left there and came to the Ghatafanites. He said to them what he told the Quraysh people too.

The next day, the Quraysh commander notified the sons of Kurayzâ, “Now, it is very difficult for us to stay here. Because, the weather is cold, our animals are dying of hunger. Let us make a good preparation this night and launch a vehement attack tomorrow.” The Jews replied, “First, we do not make war on Saturday. Second, to be able to join the war, you need to give many notables of yours to us as hostage.

244 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 228; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 481; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 433; Kattânî, at-Tarâtîbu’l-idâriyya, I, 543.

If the siege period extends and if you become helpless and return to your lands, it will mean that you have delivered us to Muhammad. If you give us hostages, you will not aban- don us!…” When this news reached the Quraysh commander, he said, “So, the words of Nu’aym bin Mas’ûd were true!” He sent a message to the Jews again, “We will not give you any man as collateral. If you come and fight shoulder-by-shoulder tomorrow, it is very good. If not, we will go to our homeland and you will be left alone against Muhammad and his Companions!…”

Hearing that, Kurayzâ Jews thought the words of Nu’aym came true. They replied, “In this case, we will not unite with you and we will not fight against Muslims.” Thus, the hearts of the two parties fell into fear. 245

Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm (Archangel Gabriel) came. He gave the good news to our Master, the Prophet that Allahu ta’âlâ would make the polytheists wretched with a windstorm. Upon this, the Master of the universe, he kneeled down, outstretched his blessed hands and submitted his thanks to Allahu ta’âlâ by saying, “O my Allah! I thank You for You pitied me and my Companions.” Then, he informed his heroic Ashâb of the glad tidings.

That was a Saturday night. There was pitch darkness. Then, a sheer cold and a strong wind started. Hadrat Huzayfa-t-ibn Yemân reported:

“It was such a night that we had never, till then, seen any night as dark as it was. In addition to this deep darkness, a horrific wind started with a noise like thunder. Meanwhile, our Master, the Prophet told us that the polytheist army was in horror and disunity. We could not stand up due to the icy cold, hunger and the terror of the night. We had put on some covers and waited where we were.

Rasûlullah started performing a ritual prayer. In a part of the night, he prayed. Then, he turned towards us and asked, “Is there anyone among you who will go near the polytheist army and, by inspecting their conditions, bring me the news? I shall request from Allahu ta’âlâ that, the one who brings me the news will be a friend to me in Paradise.” Due to the vehement hunger and cold, no one there could stand up. Then, our Master Rasûlullah came to me. Out of cold and hunger, I was sitting on my two knees. Our Master Rasûlullah touched me. He asked, “Who are you?” I answered, “I am Huzayfa, O Rasûlullah.” Our Master Rasûlullah told me, “Go and see what these people are doing! Until you return to me, do not shoot any arrow or throw any stone at them, do not attack them with your sword or spear. Until you come back to me, you will not be harmed by cold or heat, you will not be captured or tortured.”

I took my sword and bow, and got ready to go. Our Master Rasûlullah invoked blessings on me, “O my Allah! Protect him from in front and behind of him, from his right and left, from above and below him.”

I started walking towards the polytheists. As if, I were walking in a bath. I swear by Allah that I had no fear, no coldness, no shivering. Finally, I reached the headquarters of the polytheists. Their commanders and leaders had set a fire and they were getting warm. Abû Sufyân was saying, “We should go away from here.” At that moment, I thought to kill him. From my arrow bag, I took out one arrow and placed it on my bow. I wanted to shoot him by by taking advantage of the light of the fire. When I was about to shoot, I remembered that Rasûlullah had told me, “Until you return to me, you will not cause any incident.Therefore, I gave up killing him. After this, I found a great courage in myself. I approached the polytheists and sat down near the fire. The unprecedented strong wind and the invisible army of Allahu ta’âlâ (that is Angels) struck them. In the wind, their kitchen tools were falling down, their fires and lights were put out, and their tents were collapsing over their heads. At one stage, Abû Su- fyân, the commander of the polytheist army stood up and said, “Beware! There may be watchers and spies among you. Let everyone check who the person beside him is! Let everyone hold the hand of the person sitting next to him.” Abû Sufyân had nearly sensed that there was a stranger among them. I stretched my hands at once. I held the hands of the two persons on my right and my left. I asked for their names, before they asked me. Thus, I prevented my being recognized.

Finally, Abû Sufyân addressed his army, “O Quraysh! You are not at an appropriate place to stay. Horses and camels have begun to die. Famine is everywhere. You see what has happened to us because of the wind. Immediately leave here and go! Now, I am going.” He got onto his camel. The polytheist army, in a wretched condition, gath- ered and moved towards Mecca. They were in a harsh sand storm.246

When the Quraysh army left, I walked towards our Master Rasûlullah. When I reached halfway along the way, I met with twenty horsemen (angels) with white turbans. They told me, “Inform Rasûlullah. Allahu ta’âlâ has made the enemy wretched.When I returned to where Rasûlullah was, he was performing the ritual prayer on a rug. However, as soon as I returned, my condition of being cold and shivering began again. After the ritual prayer, our Master Rasûlullah asked me what news I brought. I told him the polytheists were wretched, and they departed. Rasû- lullah greatly rejoiced at this news and he smiled. We were sleepless for days. Our Master, the Prophet covered me with a part of the rug he had used, as a blanket. In the morning, there was no trace left of the polytheist army. Until they approached close to Mecca, there was a vehement wind behind them and they constantly heard sounds of takbîr.

245 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 228; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 481; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 433.
246 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 489.

When the Quraysh polytheists left their headquarters and escaped, other polytheist tribes that also came with them, left Medina. They were in a deep grief due to a great defeat, which they could not forget. While they were suffering this great loss, the Mas- ter of the worlds (sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and his honorable Companions, in sajdas of thankfulness, were paying gratitude and praising Allahu ta’âlâ. The mujâhids headed toward luminous Medina with sounds of “Allahu akbar!… Allahu akbar!…” The streets of Medina were flooded with children. They were out to meet the sultan of the worlds and their blessed fathers, paternal uncles, maternal uncles, older brothers. Our Master, the Prophet replied to them by smiling…

In the Holy War of Trench, six Muslims became martyred… Regarding this Holy War, Allahu ta’âlâ purported in the âyat-i karîmas, “Allahu ta’âlâ (in the War of Trench) made those disbelievers return with their anger. They gained no good, no victory. Thus Allahu ta’âlâ (with angels and wind) sufficed to believers (for their victory) in the battle. Allahu ta’âlâ’s power suffices for all. He is triumphant over everything.”247

“O Believers! Remember the blessings Allahu ta’âlâ grants to you. When Ar- mies had attacked you (in the Battle of Trench) We had sent a wind and armies (of angels) which you did not see over them.”248

After this war, our beloved Prophet, (’alaihis-salâm) said, “Now, it is your turn. From now on, the Quraysh will not be able to march against you.”

The Jews of Banî Kurayzâ

When our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) returned to Medina, he came to the house of our Mother Âisha. He took his armor and weapons off. His blessed body was covered in dust; therefore, he took a bath. At that moment, an armed and armored horseman, in the disguise of Hadrat Dihya, came. This was Archangel Gabriel. When our Master, the Prophet reached him, he declared the command, say- ing, “O the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ! Janâb-i Haqq is ordering you to march against the sons of Kurayzâ immediately!” The Master of the worlds called for Hadrat Bilâl and gave him his instruction to inform the Companions, “O my Ashâb! Get up; mount your horses, camels! Those who obey shall perform the ritual prayer of afternoon in the lands of the sons of Kurayzâ!”

Our Master Habîb-i-akram immediately put on his armor and his sword. He wore his helmet on his blessed head, his shield on his back. He took his spear. Then he got onto his horse. Reaching his companions, he gave the banner of Islam to Hadrat Alî and sent him as vanguard to the fortress of Kurayzâ Jews. As usual, he left Abdullah Ibn-i-Umm-i-Maktûm as his deputy in Medina.249

The glorious Companions surrounded our beloved Prophet and set off from Medina, by saying takbîrs “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” They met the sons of Ghanm on the way. They were armed, and waiting for our Master Rasûlulah. Our Master, the Proph- et (’alaihis-salâm) asked them, “Has anybody met you?” They answered, “O Rasû- lullah! Dihya-i Kalabî met us. He was on a saddled white mule. On the mule, there was silk velvet.” Our beloved Prophet told them, “He is Jabrâil (Archangel Gabriel). He was sent to Banî Kurayzâ so that he would shake their fortress and inject fear into their hearts.” By the time they reached the fortress of the sons of Kurayzâ, the number of the Islamic Army increased to three thousand.

247 The Ahzab Sûra, 33/25.
248   The Ahzab Sûra, 33/ 9.
249   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 234; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 497; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 74; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 436.

Hadrat Ali set up the banner of Islam in front of the fortress of Kurayzâ Jews. See- ing that, the Jews spoke ill of our Master, the Prophet. Hadrat Ali went and informed our Master of the situation. Rasûl-i akram (the Prophet) (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam), with three thousand soldiers that were honored by being there, invited the Jews to Is- lam due to his compassion. They did not accept this beautiful offer. They also rejected his blessed order, “In that case, come down from the fortress and surrender by yielding to the order of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger.” Upon this, the Master of the worlds commanded the master of the archers Sa’d ibni Abî Waqqâs, “O Sa’d! Forward and shoot arrows at them!” Hadrat Sa’d and other archers began to shoot their arrows from their arrow sheaths at the Jewish fortress chanting takbîr. The Jews retaliated by shooting arrows, slinging stones and started the fight.

This group of Jews, who stabbed Muslims in the back when they were weak and who did not accept the prophethood of Muhammad ’alahis-salâm due to their jealousy, did not have the courage to open the gates of the fortress to go out to the battlefield.

The siege continued. The hypocrites among Muslim soldiers sent secret messages to the fortress and said, “Never surrender! Do not accept even if they want you to leave Medina! If you continue to fight, we will help you with our all power, we will not deny anything from you. If they expel you from Medina, we will go away with you too!” With this news, the Jews went on defending with a renewed determination and hope. They were waiting for help from the hypocrites. The siege extended. Almost one month passed; there was no help from the hypocrites. The Jews were in fear, so they announced that they would like to make a treaty.

In order to make a treaty, a Jew, named Nabbâsh bin Qays went to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah and said, “O Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)! Do show us the compassion you showed to the sons of Nâdir. Let our goods and weapons be yours! Do not shed our blood. This is our only wish. Permit us to leave our land with our children and women. Except weapons, allow us to take a camel load of our goods with each family!…” The Master of the worlds replied, “No, I can not accept that offer!” This time, he said, “We have given up the idea of taking goods with us. Do not shed our blood! Allow us to take our women and children with us.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “No! You do not have any other solution except to bow to my verdict uncon- ditionally and surrender by obeying it!” Nabbâsh, the Jew, returned to the fortress wretchedly. This time, the Jews of Kurayzâ fell in a great dismay and sorrow.250

Ka’b bin Asad, one of their leaders, acted with justice. He made this admission and offer to his nation, “O my nation! As you see, a great catastrophe has befallen us. In this case, I will offer three advices to you. You may choose one of these and act ac- cordingly. First, let us become obedient to this person and accept his prophethood. I swear by Allah; we all know that he is the prophet who has been sent by Allah and of whom we saw his attributes in our books. If we believe in him, our blood, children, women, and goods will have been rescued. The only reason for our disobedience to him is our feeling of envy towards Arabs and he is not one of the sons of Isrâil. However, this is something, which only Allah can know. Let’s become obedient to him!..” The Jews, in unanimity, rejected and said, “No! We will not accept this and we will not obey anybody who is not one of us.”

250 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 460.

This time, Ka’b made his second offer, “Let us kill all of our children and wives. When there is no body left which we worry about behind us, let us march towards Muslims and fight until death.” The Jews rejected this offer too.

Ka’b, in his third offer, said, “This night is Saturday night. Muslims know that we will not fight this night. They might be sure and remiss. Let us draw our swords, exit from the gate together. With this raid, perhaps we can win!…” The Jews rejected this offer too, by saying they could not lift the ban on working on Saturdays.” Only the Asîd and Sa’laba brothers, and their paternal uncle’s son Asad, accepted the first offer and were honored by becoming Muslims. They went out of the fortress and joined the the Ashâb-i kirâm.251

251   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 235; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 501; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, III, 439; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 230.

The Jews discussed among themselves for a long time. In the end, they decided to surrender and requested an arbitrator from our Master, the Prophet to give a verdict on themselves. Our Master Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ told them to choose one of his Companions as the arbitrator. They said they would agree with the verdict which would be given by Sa’d bin Mu’âz. Our Master, the Prophet accepted that and ordered to bring Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz.

Sa’d bin Mu’âz had been heavily wounded in the War of Trench. Our Master Rasûlullah had him treated in a tent in the Masjîd-i Nabî. When he was chosen arbitrator, they brought Hadrat Sa’d on a stretcher to the fortress of Kurayzâ. On the road, Had- rat Sa’d said to himself, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that, on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, I will not listen to anyone who criticizes me!” They brought him to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah. Our Master, the Prophet told him, “O Sa’d! Those people have accepted to surrender according to your verdict. Tell me your verdict about them.” Sa’d bin Mu’âz replied, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlull- ah! Verily, to verdict, Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger are more worthy.” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “Allahu ta’âlâ has commanded you to give a verdict about these people.” Hadrat Sa’d took a definite promise from the Jews that they would agree to his verdict. Both sides started waiting for it intensely. Upon this, Hadrat Sa’d an- nounced his great verdict, which showed his highness:

“My verdict is that, all the sane and pubescent men shall be beheaded! Their women and children shall be captivated. Their properties shall be distributed among Mus- lims!..”

Against this definite verdict, the Jews were petrified with astonishment. Because, in their own books, that was the penalty for those people who were excessive like they were. It was written, “When you reach a city to fight, invite them to peace. If they ac- cept this and open their doors, all the insiders shall give you tax and serve you. If they decide to make war, siege them. When you become victorious with Allahu ta’âlâ’s help and assistance, put all of their men under the sword. Take their women, children and properties as booty!…”

Due to the fact that Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz’s verdict was in agreement with the divine verdict, the Master of the worlds, our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) congrat- ulated him and expressed his appreciation, saying, “You have given a verdict about them, which is suitable with the verdict of Allahu ta’âlâ, written above the seven skies, in the Lawh-i mahfûz!”

The Jews could not raise an objection against this verdict, which was mentioned in their own books. All the sane and pubescent men were gathered, bound and the verdict was carried out. The children, women and goods were distributed among the Ashâb-i kirâm.252

Thus, this nation, who stabbed Muslims in the back in their most difficult times, who broke all the treaties made, who tried to kill our Master, the Prophet since his childhood, were purged from Medina. The Ashâb-i kirâm, prosperously and happily, set off for luminous Medina.

A woman among the captives attained the bliss of becoming Muslim. Our Master, the Prophet rejoiced at this act of her’s. Since he wanted to make her happy and obtain very high degrees in Paradise, he accepted her in marriage. This lady was our mother Rayhâna.253

252 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 75.
253 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 245; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 519; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 75; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 449; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 242.

The martyrdom of Sa’d bin Mu’âz

After giving his verdict about the Jews of Banî Kurayzâ, Sa’d bin Mu’âz was brought to his tent again. His wounds became worse. His status was dangerous. Our Master, the Prophet (sall Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came and embraced him. He prayed, “O my Allah! Sa’d performed the Holy War for Your consent on Your path. He believed in Your Messenger. Grant him easiness…” Hadrat Sa’d bin Mu’âz, when he heard these blessed words of our beloved Prophet, opened his eyes and whispered, “O Rasûlullah! I submit my greetings and regards to you. I bear testimony that you are the Prophet of Allahu ta’âlâ.” Then, his relatives took him in the house of the sons of Abdulashal. That night, his status worsened even more. Jabrâil (’alaihis salâm) came and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Who is the person from your community that passed away this night and of whom’s death was announced among the angels?” Upon this, the Master of the worlds asked about Sa’d bin Mu’âz. They said he had been brought to his home. With some of the Companions, our Master, the Prophet went to Sa’d bin Mu’âz. They were going very quickly. The Ashâb-i kirâm said, “We have been tired, O Rasûlullah!” Our Master, the Prophet explained the reason of their going so fast, “The Angels will be present at his funeral before us, as they did at the funeral of Hanzala. We will not be able to reach him before them.” When our Master, the Prophet came near Sa’d bin Mu’âz he saw that he had passed away. He said, by mentioning the nick name of Sa’d bin Mu’âz, “O Abû Amr! You were the best of the chieftains. May Allahu ta’âlâ grant you bliss and the best rewards! You have fulfilled your promise to Allahu ta’âlâ. Allahu ta’âlâ too will give you what He promised!” Meanwhile, the mother of Sa’d bin Mu’âz recited this couplet by weeping, 254 “How can she endure, Alas, for his mother! Patience is required, I weep for what I lived through!…”

Aslam bin Hâris reported as follows, “Rasûlullah came to the house of Sa’d bin Mu’âz. We were waiting at the door. Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) entered. He was taking large steps. We walked after him too. When Rasûlullah sig- naled us to stop, we stopped and returned. There was no one inside except the corpse of Sa’d. Rasûlullah remained there for a while, and then he came out. I was curious, I asked, “O Rasûlullah! What is the reason that you took such large steps?” Upon this, he replied, “I have never been to an assembly so crowded. (The Angels filled there.) One of the angels took me upon his wing, so that I could sit down.” Then, by mentioning the nick name of Sa’d bin Mu’âz, he said, “Enjoy the blessings, O Abâ Amr! Enjoy the blessings O Abâ Amr!, Enjoy the blessings O Abâ Amr!”

His death made Rasûlullah and the Ashâb-i kirâm very sad; they shed tears. In his funeral, all the Ashâb-ı kirâm gathered. Our beloved Prophet conducted his janâza prayer. He carried his corpse. While the Ashâb-ı kirâm were carrying away Sa’d bin Mu’âz’s corpse, they said, “O Rasûlullah! We have not seen a corpse carried as easily as this so far.” Upon this, our Master, the Prophet replied, “Angels have descended, they are carrying him!”

While his funeral was being carried out, to speak ill of him, the hypocrites said, “How light!” Our beloved Prophet replied, “Seventy thousand angels have descended for Sa’d’s funeral. Up to now, they did not descend so crowded to the world.”

Abû Sa’îd-il Hudrî narrated that his grandfather told him, “I was one of the persons who dug the grave of Sa’d bin Mu’âz. When we started the digging of his grave, an odor of musk emanated from the grave!” Shurahbil Bin Hasana reported, “While Sa’d bin Mu’âz was being buried, a person had taken a handful of earth from his grave. When he brought it to his home, that earth turned into musk. While his corpse was being descended to the grave, our Master, the Prophet sat down near his grave, his blessed eyes were in tears, he held his blessed beard and felt grief. He said, “Over the death of Sa’d bin Mu’âz, the Arsh quivered.”

Once, our Prophet had taken very valuable clothing as a gift. When the Ashâb-i kirâm saw it and mentioned how beautiful the clothing was, he replied by saying, “Sa’d bin Mu’az’s handkerchiefs in Paradise are more beautiful than this clothing.”

254 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 250.

Some of the other important events in the fifth year of the Hegira are as follows: Our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm), with a force of one thousand soldiers, marched against the tribes who lived in Dûmat-ul-Jandal. These tribes were discomforting the travelers on the Damascus route and they were threatening Medina. Those enemy tribes, learning that the Islamic Army was coming, ran away. After staying a few days at Dûmat-ul-Jandal, they returned to Medina.255

Our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) got married to Zaynab binti Jahsh in the Zilkâda month.256 That year, hijâb âyat-i karîmas were descended and Muslim women have been commanded to cover themselves.257 In addition, the hypocrites slandered our mother Hadrat Âisha. Some Muslims too had believed in these slanders. Âyat-i karîmas came and the slanders of the hypocrites were disclosed and Hadrat Âisha was praised.258 The Muzayna tribe, who lived around luminous Medina, sent envoys and became Muslim. They were regarded as the muhâjirs.259 Again, that year, an earth- quake and a lunar eclipse happened. In addition, the Hajj became fard (an act or thing that is commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ in al-Qur’ân al-kerîm) in that year.

Longing for you, my heart became bloody, I am covered in red, O Rasûlullah,
I don’t know how I could endure that fire O Rasûlullah
I was an inconsolable moan in the assembly of the past O Rasûlullah
Make me happy with your beauty since I am scorched O Rasûlullah.

You are remedy for a burning heart, and an unequaled healing,
You are a great salvation and a pathfinder
You are the beloved of Allah, you are Muhammad Mustafâ
Make me happy with your beauty since I am scorched O Rasûlullah.

Roses do not bloom, waterfalls do not flow if there were not your nûr,
World wanes, breath ends if you don’t look at the sky
Separation cries, union cries if infinity is not cryptic of yours
Make me happy with your beauty since I am scorched O Rasûlullah.

YAMAN DEDE

255 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 403, Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 62; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, III, 414; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 177.
256 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 42; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 231.
257 Bukhârî, “Tawhid”, 22; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 106.
258 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 34; Muslim, “Tawba”, 68; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 194; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 431.
259 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 291.

lineTHE PEACE TREATY OF HUDAYBIYA

After the Holy War of Trench, some of the surrounding tribes acknowledged the power of the Islamic State. Then, they began thinking that the right thing to do was to be friends with Muslims, or even to embrace Islam. Some of them came to the pres- ence of our Master, the Prophet and were honored by becoming Muslims.

The Master of the worlds, sall-Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam formed military units from his Ashâb to spread the religion of Islam. He sent them to invite the surrounding tribes to Islam. To some tribes, he himself went. Some tribes, such as the Dûmat-ul-Jandal people, accepted the advice given and became Muslim. Some other tribes, such as the Ghatafanites and the sons of Lihyân, were afraid of confronting Muslim soldiers and they ran away. Thus, the tribes in that area were intimidated.

There was a severe drought in the sixth year of the Hegira. Not even a single drop of rain fell from the sky. For this reason, there was not a green plant on the earth. Humans and animals were in hunger. People informed our beloved Prophet (’alai- his-salâm) of their wish on a Friday in the holy month of Ramadan, “O Rasûlullah! Do pray that Allahu ta’âlâ bestow rain upon us!…” With his Companions, our Master, the Prophet went out to an open field. Without reciting adhan or qamat, they performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats. Our Master, the Prophet turned his ridâ (cardigan) inside out. Then he lifted up his blessed arms until his blessed armpits were seen through his sleeves and started entreating, “O my Allah! Bestow rain upon us!..” The Ashâb-i kirâm were saying, “Âmîn! Âmîn!” (That is amen).

At that moment, the sky was clear; there was no cloud. While our Master Rasûl-i akram was invoking, a wind started and it was seen that the sky was covered with clouds. Then it began to rain slowly. The Master of the worlds, this time, invoked, “O my Allah! Make it rain heavily and make it auspicious for us!” At that moment, a downpour began.

No dry place was left on the clothes of our Master, the Prophet and the Ashâb-i kirâm. By the time they reached their homes, water covered everywhere. Everyone walked in water. The rain went on. That day, the day after and the day after that. At the next Friday prayer time, the Ashâb-i kirâm said, “O Rasûlullah! Due to the rain, our houses started to collapse, our animals started to drown. Please invoke to Allahu ta’âlâ that the rain stops!” Our beloved Prophet smiled and, lifting his hands, invoked, “O my Rabb! Send this rain to the hamlets, woodlands, valleys!” That moment, the rain of one week stopped and those place mentioned, began to receive the rainfall.

It was the month of Dhu’l-qa’da in the sixth year of the Hegira. One night our esteemed Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam in his dream saw that he, together with his Companions, went to Mecca, made tawâf around the Kâ’ba, some of them shortened their hair, some of them shaved their hair off. When our Master Rasûlullah told his Ashâb about his dream, they became very excited. They would go to Mecca, their beautiful homeland, where they grew up and was full of their memories. They would visit and circumambulate the Kâ’ba, towards where they turned in the five daily prayers times. What a beautiful good news it was! When they received the glad tidings of our beloved Prophet, “You will certainly enter the Masjid al Haram!” The Ashâb-i kirâm started preparations immediately.

Having completed his preparations, our Master Habîb-i akram (’alahis-salâm) ap- pointed Abdullah bin Umm-i Maktûm as his deputy in Medina. On the first of the month of Dhu’l-qa’da, on Monday, he got upon his camel named Kuswâ. Together with his one thousand four hundred Companions, they said farewell to the remaining people in Medina. They made an intention for Umra and walked towards the holy city of Mecca. They had taken weaponry for travel, their swords, and seventy camels for sacrifice. Two hundred horsemen and four lady sahâbîs had joined the convoy. One of the ladies was Hadrat Ummu Salama, blessed and chaste wife of our beloved Prophet.

When they came to the place of mîkât (places outside Mecca at which Muslims assemble before entering the Haram. On reaching these assembly points they pre- pare themselves both physically and spiritually for this sacred duty) which was called Zu’l-Hulayfa, they wore (the attire called) ihrâm and performed the ritual prayer of early afternoon. Then, they marked the ears of the camels, which would be sacrificed and tied ropes on their necks. Nâjiya-t-ubnu Jundub Aslamî was given helpers and he was appointed to look after the camels. Abbâd bin Bishr was appointed as commander of a unit of twenty horsemen and he was sent in advance for reconnaissance. Bushr bin Sufyân was sent as a herald to Mecca.260

260 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 574; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 95.

Our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) and brave Companions, in white ihrâm attire, started praising Allahu ta’âlâ, confirming His glory and entreating Him; “Labbayk! Allâhumma Labbayk! Labbayk! Lâ sharîka laka Labbayk! Innal hamda wen- ni’mata laka wal-mulka lâ shârika lak!” The earth and the sky resounded with this blessed talbiya and Zu’l Hulayfa turned into a spiritual state. Everyone was in excite- ment. They left Zu’l Hulayfa to reach Mecca as soon as possible.

On the road, Hadrat ’Umar and Hadrad Sa’d bin Ubâda came near to our Master Habîb-i akram and expressed their concern by saying, “O Rasûlullah! Will we go to the people who are at war with you without any weapons? We are afraid that they will harm your blessed body.” The Master of both worlds said, “I have made an intention for umra (sunna pilgrimage to Mecca). I do not want to carry weapons while I am in this state.”

The journey was peaceful. Enroute, they called on various tribes and our Master, the Prophet invited them to Islam. Some of them hesitated to accept, some of them sent presents. In this manner, they had passed half of the way and they had come to the place called Gadîr-ul-Ashtât, behind Usfân. There, Hadrat Bushr bin Sufyân, who had been appointed to communicate with the Meccans, returned after meeting with the Quraysh. He told our beloved Prophet what he saw, “O Rasûlullah! The Quraysh have learned that you are coming. Out of fear, they gave feasts to neighboring tribes and asked for their help. They have sent a unit of two hundred horsemen for recon- naissance against you. The neighboring tribes accepted this request and they have united at the location known as Baldah. They have built many military fortifications and made an oath not to allow you into Mecca.”

Because of this news, the Master of the worlds became very sad and said, “The Quraysh has become destroyed. The war has already consumed them… Do the Quraysh polytheists think they have any power? I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that, until making this religion dominant and superior, for which Allahu ta’âlâ has sent me to spread, or my head separates from my body, I will never hesitate to fight them!”

Then he turned towards his heroic Companions and asked for their opinions on this matter. The glorious Companions who fully dedicated themselves to Rasûlullah said, “Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Messenger know better. May our lives be sacrificed for you, O Rasûlullah! We have set off with the intention of performing tawaf around the Baytullah. We have not come to kill anybody or to combat. However, if they want to prevent us from visiting the Kâ’ba, we will certainly fight them and reach our goal!”

Our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) liked the determination of the Ashâb-i kirâm. He said, “So, walk with the blessed name of Allahu ta’âlâ!…” The Companions, around our Master, the Prophet, started heading towards Mecca saying talbiyas (Lab- bayk! Allahumma Labbayk!..) and takbîrs (Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!…).

At noon time, Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî recited the adhân with all the beauty of his voice and proclaimed that the time of the prayer came. Meanwhile, the Quraysh force of two hundred horsemen had arrived there and stopped between the Companions and Mecca. They were ready to attack. Despite that, the Master of the worlds, with his exalted Companions, formed lines and started praying. It was a unique scene that our beloved Prophet and his one thousand five hundred Companions were in qiyâm (standing in the ritual prayer) and in rukû (bowing in the ritual prayer). Their sajda was as if a great mountain was bending down and standing up.

Their showing humbleness by putting their honorable foreheads on soil before Al- lahu ta’âlâ made some of the Quraysh horsemen love Islam. When the Ashâb-i kirâm finished the ritual prayer by giving salâm, the Quraysh cavalry commander became sorry. He was saying, “If we had made a raid, taking the advantage, we would have killed most of them! Why did we not attack while they were performing the ritual prayer?” Then, he told his friends they would not miss the opportunity this time, “Do not worry. Certainly they will start another ritual prayer which is more beloved to them than their own lives and children!”

Allahu ta’âlâ informed our Master, the Prophet of their words by sending a revelation by Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm.

In the descended âyat-i karîma, it is declared, purporting, (O My Beloved!) When you are among them and (against the enemy) you conduct the ritual prayer (divide them into two group), let some of them stay with you (in the ritual prayer, and the others against the enemy). Let them take their weapons. Let those who were with you and performed one rak’at (by avoiding deeds, which nullify the ritual prayer) go against the enemy. After this, the others who have not performed their prayer come and perform the second rak’at of the prayer with you. Let them too take their armors, shields and weapons. (Let them say the tashahhud with you. When you give salâm, let them go against the enemy without giving salâm, let those who had prayed one rak’at come, pray one more rak’at and give salâm. Let those who had performed the second rak’at with imâm come again, perform another rak’at, complete the ritual prayer and give salâm). The disbelievers wish that you will neglect your weapons and goods and they will make a sudden raid… If you are hurt by the rain, or if you are ill, you will not be responsible for putting away your weapons. However, take all precautions. Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ has prepared an insulting torment for disbelievers.”261

261 Sûrat-un-Nisâ, 4/102.

In the afternoon, when Hadrat Bilâl recited the adhân, the Quraysh horsemen, ready to attack, stood between the Ashâb-i kirâm and Mecca again. Our Master, the Prophet conducted prayer as mentioned in the Âyat-i karîma.

The polytheists were amazed by this cautious praying of Muslims. Allahu ta’âlâ injected horror to their hearts. They could not dare attacking. They left there to bring news to Mecca. Our Master, the Prophet and his Companions headed to the location called Hudaybiya.

When they reached the borders of Holy Mecca, Kuswâ, the camel of our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) suddenly sat down without any apparent reason. They strenuously tried to make it rise; however, it did not. Upon this, the sultan of the worlds said, “It does not have a custom of sitting down like this. However, Allahu ta’âlâ Who had impeded the elephant (of Abraha) to enter Mecca once, now kept Kuswâ. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that whatever the Quraysh requests from me, of the things which Allahu ta’âlâ prohibited in the interiors of Haram (like giving up fighting and shedding blood), I will certainly fulfill their requests!”

After that, he wanted Kuswâ to stand up. The camel jolted and stood up. It did not enter the boundaries of Haram. It stopped at Hudaybiya location that was just on the border. Our Master, the Prophet and his Ashâb-i kirâm stayed at this place, where there was less water.

Rasûl-i akram had his tent set up outside of blessed Mecca. He started to wait there with his Companions. When the prayer times came, they performed the prayers within the boundaries of Mecca-i mukarrama. There was no water left in the wells, for either drinking or using. Only, there was water in the ewer of our Master, the Prophet. The Companions who were in difficulty said, “May our lives be sacrificed for you, O Rasûlullah! There is water only in your ewer. We have been ruined.”

The Master of the worlds said, “As long as I am among you, you will not be ruined.” Saying “Bismillah,he put his blessed hand on the ewer. Then, he lifted it and commanded, “Take it!…”, water started pouring down from between his fingers. The Ashâb-i kirâm drank it, they performed ritual ablution with it, they filled all their water skins, and they watered their horses and camels. Our beloved Prophet, the sea of compassion, watched his Ashâb smilingly. He thanked Allahu ta’âlâ.

Hadrat Jâbir bin Abdullah, who was present there that day, said, “We were one thou- sand five hundred people. If we were even one hundred thousand, that water would have sufficed for us all.

(Whoever hears the flow of the water that he gave, to Ansâr, from his fingers, on that vehement day, in wonder, certainly, he will stay.)

Bî’at-i Ridwân

While our Master Rasûl-i akram was at Hudaybiya, Budayl, the chief of Huzâa tribe, who had friendly relations with Muslims, came and reported that the Quraysh army, joined by the neighboring tribes, stopped at Hudaybiya and they made an oath to fight until their army was dispersed. Upon this, our Master, the Prophet said, “We have not come here to fight anybody. We have come here only to make Umra, circumambulate and visit the Kâba-i muazzama. Despite this, we will combat anybody who tries to keep us from visiting the Baytullah. Certainly, the wars greatly weakened the Quraysh and made it suffer greatly. If they wish, I shall determine a period of truce with them. Within this period, they shall be safe un- der my guarantee. They shall not interfere in the affairs between me and other tribes. They shall leave me alone with them. If I become victorious over those tribes, and Janâb-i Haqq bestows His guidance over them and they become Mus- lims, the Quraysh polytheists too may become Muslims as they do. If I cannot be victorious over other groups of people, as they suppose, they will have been at ease; they will have gained power. If, the Quraysh polytheists do not accept these and try to fight me, I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that I will fight them until my head departs from my body for the sake of this religion which I try to spread. At that time, verily, Allahu ta’âlâ will fulfill His promise for help to me!”

Budayl, the chief of Huzâa tribe, set off to convey what our Master, the Prophet offered to the headquarters of the Quraysh. From Budayl, the polytheists listened to what our Master Rasûlullah had said. Then, they sent one of their prominent men, Urwa bin Mas’ûd, to our Master, the Prophet for talks. When Urwa declared that the Quraysh was determined not to allow anyone to enter Mecca, our Master Habîb-i akram asked, “O Urwa! Tell me for Allah’s sake! Is it appropriate to hinder the sacrificing of those camels, visiting the Kâ’ba-i muazzama and circumambulat- ing it?” Then, he told Urwa what he had said to the chief of the Huzâa tribe, too.

While Urwa was listening to our Master, the Prophet, he was also paying attention to the Ashâb-i kirâm, their attitude, respect and reverence towards each other and the Master of the worlds. After he listened to the offer of our beloved Prophet (’ala- his-salâm), he stood up and walked away to tell the Quraysh of this. He went to them and said, “O Quraysh people! You know that I had gone to the presence of many rulers such as the Roman Emperor, Negus, the Shâh as an envoy. I swear that, until now, I have never seen any respect and reverence shown to any ruler such as the Muslims show to Muhammad. None of his companions speak unless he obtains permission from him. Whenever a hair falls from his head, they grasp it and keep it on their chests to get benediction. While they talk near him, they lower their voices so much so that they can hardly be heard. Due to their respect for him, they cannot look at his face; they look down at the ground. Whenever he gives a signal or a command to his Com- panions, they try to carry it out even if it costs them their lives.

O Quraysh people! How many times have you drawn your swords, whatever rem- edy you try, they will not deliver even a single hair of their Prophet. They will not let anything harm him, they will not allow anyone touch him. This is the situation. Think of the future well! While this is so, Muhammad is offering us a good truce, take advantage of it!”

The Quraysh polytheists did not accept these words. They maltreated and offended Urwa.

When there was no news from the Quraysh headquarters, our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam sent Hirâsh bin Umayya as an envoy to repeat his offers. The polytheists treated the envoy of Muslims very badly. They slaughtered his camel and ate it. They attacked with the intention to kill him. Hirâsh bin Umayya could narrowly escape them. When he came to the presence of our Master, the Prophet and told him what had happened, our Master felt a deep sorrow over the insult made to his envoy.

Meanwhile, Hulays, the leader of Ahâbish tribe, appeared from the military head- quarters of the polytheists. He was coming towards our Master, the Prophet. The pol- ytheists had appointed him as envoy. When our beloved Prophet saw that Hulays was coming, he said, “That person who is coming is from a nation that respects sacrifices and that takes pains to observe the orders of Allahu ta’âlâ and to worship. (O my Companions!) Drive the sacrificial camels towards him so that he will see them!” The Ashâb-i kirâm released the sacrificial camels towards him and said talbiya, “Labbayk! Allâhumma Labbayk!”

When Hulays saw the sacrificial animals with ties on their necks and earmarked, he looked at them for a long duration. His eyes filled with tears and could not stop himself saying, “Except the tawâf and visiting the Kâ’ba, the Muslims do not have any other intentions. What an unseemly behavior to prohibit them from this! I swear by the Rabb of the Kâ’ba that the Quraysh will be perished because of this wrong act of theirs.” The Master of the worlds, heard these words and said, “Yes, they will, O Brother, belonging to the sons of Kinâna.” Hulays, very ashamed, could not come before our Master, the Prophet. He could not even look at his blessed face. He re- turned to the Quraysh military headquarters. He told them what he saw and spoke out his opinion, “I do not find it right that you prohibit him from visiting the Kâ’ba.” The Quraysh polytheists became very angry and accused Hulays of ignorance.

This time, the polytheists sent Mikraz bin Hafs, who was well known for his mer- cilessness, as envoy. He also took his reply and returned. After the mission of Mikraz failed, the polytheists feared a sudden raid of Muslims.

Our Master, the Prophet did not discontinue the task and wanted to send one of his Companions who was esteemed by the Quraysh. Finally, it was decided to send Hadrat ’Uthmân. Our beloved Prophet told ’Uthmân bin Affân that, “Tell them that we have not come here to fight anybody, we have come only to visit the Kâ’ba-i muazzama and make a tawâf, we will slaughter the sacrifice camels we have. And invite them to Islam!” In addition, he instructed him to give the glad tidings to Muslims in Mecca of the conquest of Mecca in a short time.262

Hadrat ’Uthmân went to the polytheists and told them what our Master, the Prophet had said. They gave a negative reply to the offer of Hadrat ’Uthmân too. They said only Hadrat ’Uthmân could make a tawâf (circumambulation) around the Baytullah, if he wished. Hadrat ’Uthmân responded, “Unless Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm circumambu- lates the Baytullah, I will not, either!

Being very angry at this, the polytheists kept him. This news reached the Ashâb-i kirâm as being that “Uthmân was martyred.” When they informed our Master, the Prophet of the situation, he became very sad and said, “If this news is correct, we will not leave this place until we fight these people.” Then he sat there under a tree called Samûra and said, “Allahu ta’âlâ ordered you to take the oath of allegiance to me” and invited his Companions to bîat.

The heroic Ashâb put their hands over the blessed hand of our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) and promised, “We have paid our allegiance that, until Allahu ta’âlâ grants you victory, we will either realize the conquest by fighting in front of you or we will attain martyrdom on this path!” Our Master, the Prophet put one of his hands over his other hand and paid allegiance to himself on behalf of Hadrat ’Uthmân, who was not present there. Our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam was very glad due to his Ashâb’s bî’at and said, “None of those who paid allegiance truly under the tree will enter Hell.” This bî’at was called Bî’at-i Ridwân.263

262 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 97.
263 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 19; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 59; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 279; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 97.

The Ashâb-i kirâm had unsheathed their swords, very eagerly; they were looking forward to a signal from Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm.

Meanwhile, Quraysh spies who watched the Islamic headquarters saw that mujâhids made allegiance to our beloved Prophet to fight until martyrdom. They saw that they were making preparations. The spies immediately reached the military headquarters of Quraysh and told them what had happened.

Just in case, our Master, the Prophet set sentries during the nights to protect his Ashâb. During one of the nights that Hadrat ’Uthmân was imprisoned, a polytheist group of fifty men under the command of Mikraz attacked, so that they could raid while Muslim soldiers were asleep. That night, Muhammad bin Maslama and his friends were on duty. After a short struggle, they caught the disbelievers. Only Mikraz could escape. They brought the captives to our Master Rasûlullah. Some of them were imprisoned, some of them were pardoned. The polytheists wanted to make another raid the next night; however, they were caught again. Our Master, the Prophet par- doned and released them too.

Save me O Rasûlullah!

The army of the disbelievers understood that the Islamic Army was on alert day and night, ready for war, and could attack any time. The disbelievers sunk into horror. They saw that there was no way out except making a treaty. They urgently chose a committee of envoys. The head of the envoys was Suhayl bin Amr. They were in- structed to make a treaty on the condition that Muslims would not enter Mecca that year.

Our beloved Prophet met the Quraysh envoys. The first request of the envoys was the release of their captured men. The Master of the worlds said, “Unless you release my Companions whom you have captured in Mecca, I will not set free these men of yours.” Suhayl, saying, “Honestly, you have treated us very justly and reasonably,” ensured the release of Hadrat ’Uthman, who was captured in Mecca, and around ten other sahâbîs whom they had imprisoned. Then, the polytheists who had been caught and captured during the raid were released.

After long talks, an agreement was reached. It was then time to write it down. Had- rat Ali was chosen to be the scribe. Paper and pen were brought to write the peace treaty on. Our Master Habîbullah, who has been sent as a mercy for the worlds, told Hadrat Ali, “Write”. “Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm!” Suhayl protested this imme- diately. He said, “I swear that I do not know what the word Rahmân means. Do not write like this, write Bismika Allahumma! Otherwise, I will not make peace!” Our Master, the Prophet saw that the making of the peace was necessary. Therefore, he said, “Bismika Allahumma also is beautiful,” and told Hadrat Ali to write in this way. After it was written, when our Master, the Prophet said, “These are the under- signed articles on which Muhammad Rasûlullah agreed with Suhayl bin Amr to carry out by the parties,it was seen that Suhayl held the hand of Hadrat Ali. He turned towards our Master, the Prophet. He said, “We swear that if we accepted you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not oppose you, we would not prevent you from visiting the Kâ’ba. Therefore, write Muhammad, son of Abdullah, instead of the Messenger of Allah!”

Our Master, the Prophet accepted that too. He said, “I swear by Allah that, even though you deny me, I am certainly the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. Having my name and my father’s name written will not terminate my prophethood. O Ali! Delete it, write Muhammad, son of Abdullah.”

None of the glorious Companions consented to erasing the word of Rasûlullah. For- getting everything for a moment, they said, “O Alî! Write down Muhammad Rasûlull- ah, otherwise, our problem with the polytheists will be solved only by the sword!…” Our Master, the Prophet was pleased about his Companions’ zeal, however, he ges- tured his blessed hands to make them silent. When he commanded Hadrat Alî to erase it, he asked to be pardoned by saying, “May my life be sacrificed for you, O Rasû- lullah! I have no heart to erase your blessed attribute.” Our Master, the Prophet asked him to show the mentioned word. When Hadrat Alî showed it, he held the treaty and erased the word with his own blessed finger. He had son of Abdullah written down.

Then, the articles started to be written down:

1 The treaty shall be valid for ten years. During this period, the two parties shall not fight each other.

2 Muslims shall not visit the Kâ’ba this year. However, they shall be able to visit it next year.

3 Muslims, who come to visit the Kâ’ba, shall stay at Mecca for three days and they shall not carry any other weapon except usual weapons for travel.

4 While Muslims make tawâf around the Kâ’ba, the Meccan polytheists shall go out of the Kâ’ba and facilitate the tawâf of Muslims’.

5 If a person from the Quraysh becomes Muslim and comes to Medina without his guardian’s permission, he shall be returned. If a Muslim changes sides and goes to Mecca, he shall not be returned. Regarding this article, Hadrat ’Umar asked, “O Rasûlullah! Will you accept this condition too?” Our beloved Prophet smiled and said, “Yes. May Allahu ta’âlâ make us away from those who will defect from us and go to them!”

6 If a Companion comes to Mecca for the purpose of performing a Hajj or Umra, his life and property shall be in safety.

7 If a polytheist stops in Medina while going to Damascus, Egypt or any other place, his life and property too shall be in safety.

8 Other Arab tribes shall be able to accept the protection of any party they wished.

They shall be free to unite with Muslims or polytheists.264

264 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 35; Abû Dâwûd, “Jihad”, 168; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 323; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 307; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 608; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 97-98.

Then, it was time to sign the treaty. At that moment, it was seen that a person was coming towards the Islamic army, dragging the chains tied to his feet. He approached and shouted, “Save me!…” Hearing this voice, the head of the Quraysh committee sprang up immediately. He held a thorny tree branch and started hitting that person’s head and face. The chained person sprang to the feet of our Master Rasûlullah and said, “Save me O Rasûlullah!” This person had embraced Islam in Mecca and for this reason he had been chained by his own father. He would face heavy torments every day and he was forced to worship idols. He had used the opportunity, when the pol- ytheists went to Hudaybiya. He had broken his chains. He snuck away from Mecca and reached Muslims without being seen. This blessed person who attained guidance, Hadrat Abû Jandal, was the son of the polytheist committee head Suhayl. Suhayl, pointed out his son Abû Jandal to our beloved Prophet and said, “This is the first man whom you will return to me in accordance with the treaty we have just written down.”

Our Master, the Prophet and the Companions grieved. Everyone was waiting for the reply of our Master Rasûlullah with curiousity. On the one hand, there was the peace treaty, and on the other hand, there was a Companion under torture. The Master of the worlds told Suhayl, “We have not signed the peace treaty yet!” Suhayl persisted, saying, “O Muhammad! We had written down and finished the articles of the treaty before my son came here. If you do not return my son, I will never undersign this peace treaty!”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “Keep him out from the treaty for my sake,how- ever, the polytheists did not accept this. While Suhayl bin Amr was dragging his son away, Abû Jandal was crying, “O Rasûlullah! O my Muslim brothers!.. Are you de- livering me to the polytheists although I have been honored by becoming Muslim and have taken refuge to you? Do you see it appropriate that they torture me everyday unbearably? O Rasûlullah! Do you return me so that they will make me abandon my religion?!…”

It was very difficult to bear these heartrending entreaties. The Companions felt great sorrow. They began weeping. The sea of compassion, our beloved Prophet’s blessed eyes were full of tears. He went to Suhayl and requested, “Don’t do that! Grant him to me!” However, Suhayl replied, “It is not possible, I will not pardon him!”

Upon this, our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) consoled him by saying, “O Abû Jandal! Be patient a little more! Endure what is done to you! Want the rewards from Allahu ta’âlâ. Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ will grant you and other Muslims who are weak and alone like you, an ease, a way out.” Then he said, “It is not appro- priate for us not to keep our word.”

Even the polytheists in the committee could not bear this heartrending incident. They said, “O Muhammad! For your sake, we are taking Abû Jandal under our pro- tection. We will not let Suhayl torture him!” After this, our Master Rasûlullah and the Ashâb-i kirâm felt relieved a bit. (Suhayl bin Amr, after the conquest of Mecca, became Muslim and one of the Ashâb-i kirâm.)

The Peace Treaty was written down in two copies and signed by both parties. The polytheists returned to their military headquarters.265

Because of the articles, which were regarded disadvantageous for the Muslims, the Quraysh committee was very joyful. In fact, this peace treaty was a great victory and these articles were advantageous for the Muslims. First of all, the polytheists recog- nized the Islamic State. The life and properties of a polytheist from Mecca, if he paid a visit to Medina on his journey to Damascus or Egypt for trade or another purpose, would be in safety. Thus, the polytheists would closely see the lives of Muslims and they would admire the justice of Islam and beautiful attitudes of the Companions to each other, and they would love Islam. Consequently, they would become Muslims and join the ranks of the sahâbîs.

With this treaty, which should have been valid for ten years, the Muslims would increase in number and they would get strength. Islam would widespread to every- where.

However, the article which read, “If anyone from the Quraysh becomes Muslim and wants to take refuge in Medina, he shall be returned,” saddened our Master, the Prophet. He said, “Certainly, Allahu ta’âlâ will create an opportunity, a way of solution for those.”

There was nothing left to do with the polytheists. Our Master Rasûl-i akram sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam commanded the Ashâb-i kirâm, “Stand up! Slaughter your sacrificial animals. After shaving your heads, go out of ihrâm.” Our Master, the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animal before everyone. Hadrat Khirâsh bin Umayya, his barber, shaved him. The Ashâb-i kirâm caught those blessed hairs in the air, before falling to the ground and kept them to get benediction. The Sahâbîs too slaughtered their sacrificial animals; some of them got their hair shaved; some of them had their hair shortened.266

They had stayed at Hudaybiya for twenty days. Our Master, the Prophet, with their Companions, set off for Medina. On the road, Allahu ta’âlâ revealed the Sûra Fath to our Master, the Prophet and gave the glad tidings that He would complete His bless- ings and His help.

During the days when the sultan of the worlds sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam honored radiant Madina, Abû Basîr, from the Sakîf tribe of the Quraysh, had been honored by embracing Islam. Abû Basîr, who understood that he could not live among polytheists, came to Medina on foot. Pursuant to the Hudaybiya Treaty, he left Medina and he settled down at the place called Îs, on the coast of the Red Sea.267

That place was on the trade route of the Quraysh polytheists to Damascus. After this, those who became Muslim from the Quraysh, left Mecca and went to Îs, near Abû Basîr, instead of Medina. The first of them was Hadrat Abû Jandal. This process continued. They became fifty people, one hundred people, two hundred people, and three hundred people. While going to Damascus, the Quraysh caravans had to pass there. Hadrat Abû Basîr, with the Muslims around him, caught the polytheists who passed by and wanted them to become Muslim. They fought non- Muslims and drove them into trouble.

265 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 321; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 608; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VII, 405; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 56.
266 Bukhârî, “Shurût”, 15; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 323; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 283.
267 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 324; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 625; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 57

Meccan polytheists, seeing that their trade routes to Damascus were blocked, sent a committee to Medina. They begged for abolishing the article of the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty which read, “If a person from the Quraysh, who has become Muslim, goes to Medina without permission of his guardian, he shall be returned.” Our Master, the Prophet pitied them and accepted their request. Thus, the Quraysh’s trade route to Damascus was opened. The Muslims, on account of their patience, came to Medina, near our Master, the Prophet.

Reaching to you are compassion and pleasure, O Rasûlullah,
Your appearance is the cure of the trouble of the lover, O Rasûlullah.

While Âdam’s state was between water and clay, you were Prophet,
Certainly, your being the leader of Prophets is appropriate, O Rasûlullah.

Perfect human beings reach perfection by means of your light, O Rasûlullah,
Your body is the mazhar-ı tâm of Allah, O Rasûlullah,

They have reached to the essences of all sorts of sweet tastes by you,
Your act is benefaction for those who help to public, O Rasûlullah.

Intercede for Hudâyî, regarding both inwardly and outwardly,
He is a beggar, who has taken refuge at your door!

AZIZ MAHMÛD HUDÂYÎ

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LETTERS OF INVITATION

The letters sent to rulers

Having returned from Hudaybiya, Nabiyy-i muhtaram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam wished for Islam to spread all over the world and for people to be saved from the torment of Hell and attain true bliss. Because, he had been sent as a mercy to all the universe. Therefore, he thought he send envoys to rulers from all around and invite them to Islam. He charged Dihya-i Kalabi as the envoy to the Roman ruler; Amr bin Umayya as the envoy to the Abyssinian ruler; Khâtib bin Abî Baltaa as the envoy to the Egyptian ruler. In addition, with the same duty, he sent Salît bin Amr to Yamâma; Shuja’ bin Wahb to Ghassân; Abdullah bin Huzâfa to Iran as envoy to those rulers.268

These envoys were the most distinguished of the Ashâb-i kirâm. They were the ones who had the most beautiful faces and words. To each ruler, letters of invitation to Islam were written separately. Our beloved Prophet sealed the letters with the seal on his silver ring written as three lines, “Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ.As a miracle of our Master, the Prophet, the envoys who would be sent to the rulers woke up, having learned the language of the states to which they would go. 269

Hadrat Amr bin Umayya, who would go to Abyssinia, would also ask from Negus Ashama that the Ashâb-i kirâm, who had migrated there, be sent to Medina.

Amr bin Umayya soon reached Abyssinia and went to the presence of Negus Asha- ma. Negus descended from his throne, took the letter with a great respect and love. He kissed it, wiped it on his face and eyes, opened it and had it read out:

Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm!

From Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ to Negus

Ashama, the ruler of Abyssinia!…

May peace be upon those who follow the true guidance!… O Ruler! I wish your safety and I praise Allahu ta’âlâ for His blessings on you. There is no god save Him. He is Al-Malik (He is the One who is the owner of all things and the universe and the One whose dominion and sovereignty are permanent). He is Al-Quddûs (He is the One who is free from all defects and who is worthy of all praise and holiness).

268   Bukhârî, “Tafsir”, 4; “Maghâzî”, 77, 82, 84; “‘Ilm”, 7; Muslim, “Jihad”, 109; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 262; III, 441; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 43, 353, Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 259; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, IV, 301; VII, 4; Huzâî, et-Tahrîj, s, 183-184; Kattânî, at-Tarâtîbu’l-idâriyya, I, 345-346.
269   Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, II, 15

He is As-Salâm (He is the One who delivers His slaves from all danger and the One who greets His fortunate slaves in Paradise). He is Al Mu’min (He is the One who bestows security and serenity, who protects His creatures, and who gives the light of îmân). He is Al-Muhaymin (He is the One who watches over and protects His crea- tion and the One who knows everything that every being does).

I bear testimony that Îsâ (Jesus ‘alaihis-salâm) is the soul and the word of Alla- hu ta’âlâ who He put in Maryam (Mary) who was very chaste and who abstained from all worldly life. Thus, she became pregnant to Îsâ. Allahu ta’âlâ, with His power, created Îsâ as He created Âdam (Adam).

O Ruler! I invite you to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ Who has no partners, to wor- ship Him and to obey me, to believe in what Allahu ta’âlâ sent to me. Because, I am Allahu ta’âlâ’s Messenger whose duty is to communicate these.

Now, I have made the required notification to you and I have given the nec- essary advice which will provide you the bliss in your life in this world and the Hereafter. Accept my advice! Salâm (peace) be upon those who attain the guid- ance and the true path.”

The Ruler Ashama, who listened to the letter of our Master Rasûl-i akram sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam with a great respect and humbleness, immediately became Muslim by saying the word of Shahâdat, “Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasûluh.” Then he said, “I swear that he is the prophet who the people of the book (the Jews and the Christians) have waited for his coming and he is the prophet who was heralded by previous prophets.

If I could go to him, I would certainly go and be honored by being at his service!” Respectfully, he put the letter into a beautiful box and said, “As long as these letters are here, auspiciousness and benediction will not go away from Abyssina.”270

270   Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 198; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 223; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 79; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 207-208; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XX, 80.

Our Master Rasûlullah had sent two letters to Negus. Ashama, the Negus, fulfilled the commands in the other letter and sent our Prophet’s blessed wife, our mother, Ummu Habîba and the Companions, who were present there, with many gifts, on ships to Medina. He declared in his letter, that he had belief.

Hadrat Dihya-i Kalabî was appointed to invite the Roman Emperor to Islam. He would have given the letter to Khâris, the Gassân ruler in Busra, and then, he would have sent it to Heraclius, the Roman Emperor.

Hadrat Dihya, who respectfully took the letter of invitation of our Master, the Prophet sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, rapidly came to Busra. He met with Khâris and told him of the situation. Khâris gave Adiy bin Hâtam, who had not become Muslim yet, to Dihya and sent them to Heraclius. He was in Jerusalem at that time. Hadrat Dihya and Adiy bin Hâtam came to Jerusalem and tried to talk with the emperor. Men of the emperor told Hadrat Dihya, “When you come to the presence of the emperor, you will walk by bowing your head, and when you come near to him, you will make sajda (prostration) before him. Unless he allows you stand up, you shall never raise your head from the ground.”

To Hadrat Dihya, these were stern words. He told them, “We, Muslims, do not make sajda for anyone except Allahu ta’âlâ. Furthermore, it is against human nature to make a sajda to another human being.” Upon this, the men of the emperor said, “In this case, the emperor will not accept your letter anytime and he will dismiss you.” Hadrat Di- hya replied, “Our prophet Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm does not allow anyone to make a sajda for him, he does not permit even anyone’s lightly bending before him. Even if the person who wants to talk to him is a slave, he pays attention to him. He accepts him to his presence, listens to his requests, removes his troubles, and appeases him. For this reason, all the obedient to him are free and honorable.”

One of the listeners said, “Since you will not prostrate before the emperor, I will show you another way so that you can perform your task. In front of the palace, there is a place where the emperor rests. Every afternoon, he goes out to this atrium and walks around. There is a pulpit. If there is a writing on it, firstly he takes and reads it, then rests. Now, go and put the letter on the pulpit and wait outside. When he sees the letter, he will call you. Then, you will carry out your duty.”

Upon this, Hadrat Dihya left the letter at the place mentioned. Heraclius took the letter and asked for a translator who knew Arabic. The translator began to read out the letter of our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. On the top of the letter, it was writ- ten,  “Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm! From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ to Heraclius, the elder of Romans”. Yennak, son of Heraclius’ brother, be- came very angry about this and thumped a vehement fist on the chest of the translator. Due to the shock of the fist, the translator fell down. The blessed letter also fell from his hands to the ground. When Heraclius asked Yennak, “Why have you done this?” He replied, “Don’t you see the letter? He both began the letter with his name before yours and he did not mention that you are ruler, he referred ‘to Heraclius, as the elder of Romans.’ Why did he not write ‘the ruler of Romans’ and why did he not begin with your name first? His letter will not be read out today.”

Upon this, Heraclius said, “I swear by Allah that either you are very stupid or com- pletely insane. I did not know that you were such a person. Do you want to tear the letter up, even before I see its content? I swear by my life, if he is the Messenger of Allah as he says, he has a right to write his name before my name in his letter and he has a right to mention me as the elder of Romans. I am only their elder, not their ruler.” He dismissed Yennak from his presence.

Then he called for a person named Uskûf, who was the head and most knowledge- able of the Christians. He also was Heraclius’ adviser. He had him read the letter. In the following part of the letter, it had been written, “Peace be upon those who obey the guidance of Allahu ta’âlâ, who attain the true path!” After this, “(O the elder of Romans!), I invite you to Islam. Embrace Islam so that you will obtain salvation. Be Muslim so that Allahu ta’âlâ will grant you two fold rewards. If you turn away from it, all the sins of Christians will be on your shoulders!” “Say: O (Jews and Christians who are) People of the Book! Come to the word which is shared between us: that we shall worship none but Allahu ta’âlâ, and that we shall not attribute any partner to Him, we will not abandon Allahu ta’âlâ and we will not deem any of us as the creator. If they turn away from this, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.”271

271   Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/ 64.

While the letter of our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam was be- ing read out, Heraclius’ forehead was sweating. When the letter was read completely, Heraclius said, “I have not seen a letter which starts with ‘Bismillâhirrahmânir- rahîm’ since the time of Sulaiman ’alaihis-salâm.” When Heraclius asked Uskûf about his opinion on this matter, he answered, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that he is the Prophet who Mûsâ (Moses) and Îsâ (alaihimus-salâm) gave the glad tidings of. We have already been waiting for his coming.”

Heraclius asked, “What do you recommend me to do regarding this issue, what do you see as the appropriate thing?” Uskûf answered, “I find it suitable for you to be obedient to him.” Heraclius replied, “I know very well what you have said. However, I do not have the power to obey him and embrace Islam. Because, in this case, both my rule will end and they will kill me.” Upon this, he called for Hadrat Dihya and Adî bin Hâtem. Adî said, “O Ruler! This person beside me, who is from the cow and camel owner Arabs is talking about an amazing event which takes place in his home- land.” When Heraclius asked, “What is that incident in your land?” Hadrat Dihya said, “A person has appeared among us. He has declared that he is a prophet. Some of the people obey him; some oppose him. There are clashes between us, the believers and the non-believers.”

After this, Heraclius began to inquire about our Master, the Prophet. He command- ed the Governor of Damascus to find a person from the same lineage with our Master Rasûl-i akram. In the meantime, he wrote a letter to a scholar in Rome and asked about this matter. That scholar was a friend of his and knew Hebrew. A letter came from his friend in Rome. It mentioned that the person he had written about was the Prophet of the Last Age. The Governor of Damascus met a Quraysh caravan which was on a trip for commerce. The head of Quraysh polytheists, Abû Sufyân, who had not been a Muslim yet, was among them.

Abû Sufyân reported, “While we were at Gaza, Heraclius› Damascus governor came, as if he were attacking us. He asked, “Are you from the people of this person in Hijâz?” We answered, “Yes.” He said, “Come on! You will come with us to the presence of the Emperor.” He brought them to Damascus. The governor of Damascus got Abû Sufyân and his attendants audiance before Heraclius. Meanwhile, Heraclius was at a church in Jerusalem. He was sitting with his minister.  He had his crown on. Heraclius accepted the visit of Abû Sufyân and thirty other Meccans there.

He called for a translator and asked them, “Among you, who is the closest relative to the person who says he is a Prophet?” Abû Sufyân answered, “I am the closest relative of his.” Heraclius asked his degree of kinship. He said, “He is my paternal uncle’s son.” Heraclius wanted Abû Sufyan to be brought closer and told the others to stay behind Abû Sufyân. Abû Sufyân said lies at first; however, due to the threat of the rul- er, he could not tell lies. Then, this conversation took place between them. Heraclius,

– What is the degree of nobleness of the person who says he is a Prophet?

– He is the noblest person. He has the most distinguished ancestry.

– Did anyone claim to be a Prophet before him?

– No, no one.

– Was there any ruler among his ancestors?

– No.

– Are the people who become obedient to him notables or the poor and weak of the people?

– Those who become obedient to him are the poor, the weak, the young and women. There are not many from the old or the notables.

– Is the number of his followers increasing or decreasing?

– It is increasing.

– Is there anyone who abandons his religion, by disliking it or by being angry?

– No.

– Before he said he was a prophet, was it seen that he told lies at any time?

– No.

– Has that prophet ever broke his word and not fulfilled his promise?

– No. However, we have made a treaty with him, and stopped fighting him for a while. We do not know what he will do during this time.

– What does he command you to do?

– He commands us to worship only Allah, who is the only god, and not to attribute any partner to Him. He prohibits us from worshiping the things (idols) which our ancestors worshipped. He orders us to perform ritual prayers, to be honest, to help the poor, to refrain from the prohibitions, to keep our word, not to usurp the entrusted property and to visit the relatives.

These talks had taken place in the church and the letter of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm had been read out. When Heraclius kissed the letter and wiped it over his eyes, the murmuring among the Romans increased. The Emperor ordered to take out Abû Su- fyân and the other Quraysh people. Abû Sufyân, who had not embraced Islam yet, made an oath there and said he believed the cause of our beloved Prophet would be successful.

Hadrat Dihya stood in front of Heraclius. With his blessed beautiful face and sweet voice, he said to Heraclius, “O Emperor! A person (Hâris) from Busra sent me to you. He is more auspicious than you are. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that the person (Rasûlullah)  who sent me to him is more auspicious than both him and you. You should listen to my words in humbleness and you should accept the given advice! For, if you become humble, you will understand the advice. If you do not accept the advice, you cannot be right-minded.”

When Heraclius told him, “Go on,” Hadrat Dihya said, “Thus, I invite you to be- lieve in Allahu ta’âlâ to whom Isâ (Jesus) ’alaihis-salâm performed ritual prayer. I invite you to believe in that ummî [that is, he had never received an education from anybody] Prophet whom previously Mûsâ (Moses) ’alaihis-salâm and then Isâ ’alai- his-salâm communicated and gave the good news of his coming. If you know any- thing about this subject and if you want to attain bliss in both this and the next worlds think about them. Otherwise, you will miss bliss in the Hereafter and you will be in disbelief and polytheism. Be well aware that Allahu ta’âlâ, who is your Rabb, is He who destroys the cruel and changes the blessings.”

Heraclius said, “I do not leave a writing unread and I do not leave a scholar with- out my asking and learning about the unknown from him. By doing so, I obtain only goodness and benedictions. Give me some time to think this over and discover the truth.” Later on, he called for Hadrat Dihya and spoke to him in privacy. He made it clear what was in his heart,  “I know that the person who sent you is the prophet of the Last Age who was announced in the books and has been waited for. However, if I obey him, I am afraid that Romans will kill me. I will send you to Dagatir, who is their greatest scholar. They respect him more than me. All the Christians obey him. If he believes, all the Romans will believe. In that case, I will also declare my faith and what is in my heart.

Then, Heraclius wrote a letter, gave it to Hadrat Dihya and sent him to Dagatir.

Our Master Rasûlullah had sent a letter to Dagatir as well. When Dagatir read the letters and heard the attributes of our Master, the Prophet, he said he had no doubt that Hadrat Muhammad was the prophet of the Last Age, whose coming was announced by Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) and Hadrat Îsâ (Jesus). He embraced Islam. He went to his house. For three weeks, he did not appear at the sermons, which he used to preach every Sunday. Christians shouted, “What happened to Dagatir, that he has not gone out since the time he spoke to that Arab? We want him!”

Dagatir removed his black priest clothes. He wore a white cloth. He came to the church, his staff in his hand. He assembled the people of the town, then stood up and said, “O Christians! Know that, a letter from Ahmad (’alaihis-salâm) has come to us. He has invited us to the true religion. I openly know and believe that he is the true messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ.” When the Christians heard this, they attacked him and by their beating him, he became martyred. Hadrat Dihya came and informed Heraclius of the situation.

Heraclius said, “Did I not tell you? To Christians, Dagatir is more beloved, more superior than me. If they heard, they would kill me like him.”

According to the report of Buhârî in his book called Sahih, narrated from Zuhrî, “Heraclius called for Roman notables to come to his residence in Humus and ordered the closing of the gates. Then, he stood on a high place and said, “O Roman communi- ty! Do you want to attain happiness and ease, the continuation of your dominance and to abide by the sayings of Hadrat Îsâ?” The Romans asked, “O our ruler! What shall we do to attain these?” Heraclius replied, “O Roman community! I have gathered you for a good business. I have received the letter of Hadrat Muhammad. He is inviting me to the religion of Islam. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that he is the Prophet whom we were waiting for, who is mentioned in our books, whose signs we know. Come, let us be obedient to him and attain the salvation in this and the next worlds.” Upon this, they all started cursing, grumbling, they ran to the gates to go out. However, they could not, because the gates were closed. Seeing these actions of Romans, Heraclius understood that they refrained from Islam. He feared being killed and said, “O Roman community! Those words I uttered were to test your loyalty to your religion. I have seen your loyalty to your religion and your actions which made me happy.” Upon this, the Romans made sajda to Heraclius and they went out, when the gates of the residence were opened.272

272   Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 259.

Heraclius called for Hadrat Dihya. He told him what happened. He gave him many valuable presents. In addition, he wrote a letter to our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). He sent his letter and his presents to our beloved Prophet with Hadrat Dihya. Heraclius had wanted to become Muslim, however; he did not em- brace Islam due to his fear of losing his office and life. He said, in his letter to our Master, the Prophet, “To Allahu ta’âlâ’s Messenger Muhammad, whose glad tidings were given by Hadrat Îsâ, from Ceaser, the Roman Emperor! Your letter came to me with your envoy. I bear testimony that you are the true Messenger of Allah. We have already found you mentioned in the Bible. Hadrat Îsâ had given your glad tidings to us. I invited the Romans to believe you; however, they refrained. If they listened to me, it would absolutely be good for them. I wish much to be present near you, to serve you and wash your feet.”

Hadrat Dihya left Heraclius’ palace and came to Hismâ. On the road, in the Shanâr Valley, one of the valleys of Juzâm, Hunayd bin Us, his son and his men, robbed Had- rat Dihya. They took away everything except his old clothes. In this place, Dubayb bin Rifâa bin Zayd and his people had embraced Islam. When Dihya came to them and informed about what had happened, they marched against Hunayd bin Us and his tribe and they took back all the things. Afterwards, our Master Rasûlullah sent Zayd bin Hâris against Hunayd bin Us and his men. All the people in that land became Muslim. When Hadrat Dihya came to Medina, before going to his home, he went to the house of our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm). He knocked on the door. Our Master, the Prophet asked, “Who is it?” Dihya replied, “Dihyat-al-Kalabî”. The Master of the worlds said, “Come in”. Hadrat Dihya entered the house and told of the events in detail. He read out the letter of Heraclius to our Master, the Prophet. Rasûlullah said, “He will stay (at his throne) for some time. As long as my letter is with them, their rule will continue.”

In his letter, Heraclius had written that he believed in our Master, the Prophet  sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. However, our Master Rasûlullah said, “He is lying. He has not abandoned his religion.” Heraclius wrapped our beloved Prophet’s letter in a silk cloth and protected it in a round, gold box. Heraclius family saved this letter and kept it as a secret. They said and believed that, as far as they had the letter, their rule would continue. It was exactly what happened.273

When our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), before sending Khâtib bin Abî Baltaa to the ruler of Egypt, asked, “O my Ashâb! By expecting its reward from Allahu ta’âlâ, who of you will convey this letter to the ruler of Egypt?”, Hadrat Khâtib rushed forward and said, “O Rasûlullah! I will convey it! Then our Prophet said, “O Khâtib! May Allahu ta’âlâ make this duty of yours blessed for you!”

Hadrat Khâtib bin Abî Baltaa took the letter from our beloved Prophet. He bid farewell and went to his house. He prepared his animal. After bidding farewell to his family, he set out. He learned that Muqawqas, the ruler of Egypt, was in Alexandria. He reached his palace. The gatekeeper, who learned his purpose before letting him enter the palace, paid much respect to him. He did not make him wait. At that time, Muqawqas was on a ship in the sea and talking to his men. Hadrat Khâtib boarded a boat and went to where Muqawqas was. He gave him the letter of our Master, the Prophet. Muqawqas took the letter from Khâtib and started reading.

“Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm!

From Muhammad, the slave and the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ to Muqawqas, the elder of the Copt (ancient people of Egypt)! May peace be upon those who fol- low the guidance. I invite you to Islam for your own salvation. Be Muslim so that you will attain the salvation and you will reach two fold rewards from Allahu ta’âlâ. If you turn away from it, all the sins of the Copt will be on your shoul- ders!” “Say: O (Jews and Christians who are) People of the Book! Come to the word which is shared between us: that we shall worship none but Allahu ta’âlâ, and that we shall not attribute any partner to Him, we will not abandon Allahu ta’âlâ and we will not deem any of us as the creator. If they turn away from this, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.”274

273   Bukhârî, “Tafsir”, 4; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 441; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 353; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 259.
274   Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/64.

When the letter of the sultan of the universe was read out, Muqawqas told Hadrat Khâtib, “Let’s hope for the best!” The ruler of Egypt gathered his commanders and statesmen. He began talking to Khâtib. He said,

“I will ask you about certain things which I want to understand, I will talk to you on this issue.” When Hadrat Khâtib replied, “Very well, let us talk,” Muqawqas said,

-Tell me about the person who has sent you. Is he a Prophet? Tell me some things about him.

-Yes, he is a Prophet.

-If he is really a prophet, why did he not utter malediction against his people who expelled him from his homeland and forced him to take refuge in another place?

-You believe that Îsâ (Jesus) bin Maryam ’alaihis-salâm is a prophet, don’t you? When his people wanted to catch and kill him, he did not utter malediction over them and Janâb-i Haqq ascended him to the sky. He rewarded him. However, was it not necessary for him to pronounce malediction over his people? He did not do that.

-You gave a very nice answer. Verily, you are a wise person, who has come from the court of that wise person. Stay with us tonight. I will reply you to tomorrow.

Hadrat Khâtib, referring to the Pharaoh in the time of Hadrat Mûsâ, told Muqawqas:

-There was a ruler here before you. He had claimed his divinity, saying, “I am the greatest god!” Allahu ta’âlâ punished him with torments of this world and the Here- after. Allahu ta’âlâ avenged. Draw a lesson from this, do not be a lesson for others!

-A religion is already available for us. Unless there is a better one, we will not abandon it.

-For sure, that religion is Islam, which is better than your religion which you adhere to and you say you will not abandon unless there is a better one. We are inviting you to Islam, the last religion of Allahu ta’âlâ. Allahu ta’âlâ has completed His religion through him, made him sufficient for human beings and this is beyond doubt. This Prophet has invited not only you but also all human beings to Islam. At that time, among the people, the Quraysh became the most reactive and rude; the Jews became the most vehement adversary and the Christians were the closest to him. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that Mûsâ ’alaihis-salâm’s heralding the coming of Isâ ’alaihis-salâm is like Isâ ’alaihis-salâm’s heralding the coming of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. There- fore, our inviting you to the Qur’ân al-karîm is like your inviting the Jews to the Injîl (the Bible). You doubtlessly well know that each prophet had been sent to a people who could understand and comprehend him. And that people’s obeying to that prophet had become obligatory over them. You are one of those who reached this Prophet. Now, we are inviting you to this new religion.

Upon these words of Hadrat Khâtib, Muqawqas said,

-I have observed the state of this Prophet and could not find in his commands and prohibitions any unreasonable thing. As far as I understand, he is not a sorcerer, a soothsayer or a liar. I have seen some states from the signs of prophethood on him. Disclosing hidden things is one of these signs. Giving information on certain secrets appeared from this person. Then, saying, “Let me consider awhile” he demanded time.

In the night, Muqawqas awoke Hadrat Khâtib and told him that he wanted to ask many more questions about our Prophet. Then they spoke as follows,

-If you answer the questions which I will ask about him correctly, I want to ask you three things.

-Ask whatever you want! I will always tell you the truth.

-To what does Muhammad invite people to?

-He invites people to worship only Allahu ta’âlâ. He orders to perform namâz (ritual prayer) five times a day, to fast in Ramadân, to keep the given promises. He prohibits eating carrion.

Upon this, Muqawqas asked,

-Describe his shape and outward features (physical appearance)!

He briefly described his appearance. He had not mentioned many of his features. When Muqawqas said,

-There are such features of his, which you have not mentioned, such as the fact that he has a little redness in his eyes and a seal of prophethood between his two shoulders. He rides a donkey. He wears woolen cloth. Palm date and food with little meat suffice for him. He is protected by his paternal uncles or sons of his paternal uncles.

Hadrat Khâtib replied,

– These are his attributes, too.

Muqawqas asked Hadrat Khâtib about our Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) again:

– Does he use kohl?

– Yes! He uses a mirror, combs his hair and always keeps with him his mirror, kohl box, comb and miswâk, whether he travels or stays home.

– I knew that there remained one prophet who would come and I thought he would emerge from the region of Syria. For, previous prophets used to arise there. Though, I had seen in the books that the last prophet would arise in Arabia, which is the land of harshness, scarcity and famine. No doubt, this is the time of arising for the prophet whose attributes we have found written in the books. We had found his attributes to be as such that he does not allow two sisters be married to a man simultaneously, he accepts presents but does not accept alms, he sits and walks with the poor. The Copts will not listen to me about obeying him. I will not abandon my reign either. I am very greedy about this matter. That prophet will dominate countries, and, after him, his companions will come and seize these lands of ours. In the end, they will be victorious over those here. I will never mention any word of these to the Copts and I never want to tell anyone these words of mine!

After this conversation, Muqawqas called his secretary who wrote in Arabic. He had him write the following answer to the letter of our Master, the Prophet:

“To Muhammad, son of Abdullah! From Muqawqas, the elder of the Copts!

Peace be upon you. I have read the letter you sent. I understood what you mentioned and your invitation therein. I, too, knew that a prophet would come. Yet, I thought he would appear from the region of Syria. I have shown honor to your envoy. I have sent

you two female slaves and garments, highly valued by the Copts. Also, I have given you a she mule as a gift for riding.”

Muqawqas did not do anything more. He did not become Muslim either. He en- tertained Hadrat Khâtib in Egypt for five days. He showed much respect and gave presents. Then, he said, “Immediately return to your land, to your Master! I have com- manded that they send two female slaves, two riding animals, one thousand mithqâl (one mithqâl is 4.8 gr.) gold, twenty fine Egyptians garments and some other presents for him. I have commanded them to give one hundred dinâr and five garments for you. Now, leave me and go! Never let the Copts hear even one word from you!”

As presents for our Master, the Prophet, Muqawqas also gave a drinking glass made of crystal, some aromatic honey, a turban, a flax fabric peculiar to Egypt, some es- sence like musk, a walking stick, kohl in a box, rose oil, comb, scissors, miswâk [which is the twig of the arak tree that grows in Arabia and is used for brushing the teeth], mirror, needle and yarn.

Muqawqas gave Hadrat Khâtib bin Abî Baltaa, the Islamic envoy, soldiers as guards and sent them. When they entered Arabian lands, they met a caravan going to Medina. Khâtib sent Muqawqas’ soldiers back and joined that caravan.

Khatîb bin Abî Baltaa came with the presents to Medina and went to the presence of Rasûlullah. Our beloved Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam accepted the presents of Muqawqas. When Khatîb gave the letter of Muqawqas and reported his words, our Master, the Prophet said, “What an evil man! He could not give up his ruler- ship. However, his rule which prevented him from believing, will not remain with him!”275

The names of two jâriyas, whom Muqawqas sent to our Prophet as gifts, were Mâri- ya and her sister Sîrîn. When Khâtib bin Abî Baltaa offered them to become Mus- lim while travelling, they had accepted it and had become Muslims. Our Master, the Prophet greatly rejoiced at our mother Hadrat Mâriya’s embracing Islam and honored her by marrying her. Our Prophet had a son named Ibrâhim from her. As for Sîrîn, our Prophet had her marry one of his Companions, Hassan bin Thâbit, who was the Poet for our Prophet. Of the two pure-blooded mounts with whitish grey hair; the mule was named Duldul and the donkey was named Ufayr or Yâfûr. Until that day, a mule with whitish hair had not been seen in Arabia. Duldul was the first mule with whitish hair that Muslims ever saw. Our Prophet would drink water from the drinking glass made of crystal that was given as a gift.

Muqawqas esteemed our Prophet’s letter very much; he put it into a box, made of ivory. He sealed the box and delivered it to one of his female slaves. (The afore men- tioned letter was  found among Copt books in an old monastery in the Ahmin region of Egypt in 1267 (1850 A.D.). It was bought by Ottoman Sultan Abdul-Majîd Khan, the 96th Caliph. It was put in the Sacred Trusts Section of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.)

275   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 260.

Abdullah bin Huzâfa had been sent to the ruler of Iran. When Hadrat Abdullah sub- mitted the precious letter of the Master of the worlds to the arrogant ruler of Iran, he gave it to his secretary to read aloud.

“Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm!

From Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ to Kisrâ, the elder of Persians…” While the secretary had read aloud to there, the arrogant Shah became furious, he took the letter and tore it up. He was very angry that our Master, the Prophet had started the letter with his blessed name. When he wanted to dismiss Hadrat Abdullah bin Huzâfa, the Islamic envoy, Hadrat Abdullah told the Shah and the fire worshippers who had gathered around him, “O Persians! You do not believe the prophets and you do not accept the Heavenly Books. You are living in a dream, your limited days are passing by on these lands where you live!..

O Shah! Before you, many rulers sat in this throne and reigned. They passed away from this world; those who carried out the orders of Allahu ta’âlâ have obtained their bliss in the Hereafter, those who did not carry out the orders of Allahu ta’âlâ have incurred the Divine Wrath.

O Shah! The letter, which I brought and submitted to you, was a great blessing for you. You despised it. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that when the religion you disdain comes here, you will look for any place to take shelter in!…”

Then, he left the ruler’s palace and mounted his riding-animal. He quickly went away from there. When he came to Medina and told the sultan of the worlds the sit- uation, he invoked, “O my Allah! Tear him and his reign to pieces as he tore up my letter!…”

Allahu ta’âlâ had accepted His Messenger’s invocation and one night, the Persian King was stabbed to pieces by his own son. In the time of Hadrat ’Umar, all the Irani- an lands were seized and taken by Muslims.276

Hadrat Shuja’ bin Wahb had been sent to Haris bin Abî Shimr, the ruler of Ghassân. Firstly, Shuja’ spoke to the ruler’s gatekeeper. When he invited him to Islam, the gate- keeper accepted it and submitted his regards and greetings to our Master Rasûlullah. Immediately, he arranged the meeting of Hadrat Shuja’ with the ruler. When Haris bin Abî Shimr read out the letter, the ruler became angry and threw it to the ground. Had- rat Shuja’ immediately returned to Medina and told the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ what happened. Our beloved Prophet felt sorry that his letter was thrown to the ground. He said, “May his rulership perish!” Shortly after, Hâris bin Abî Shimr died and his state was dispersed.277

276   Bukhârî, “Tafsir”, 4; “Maghâzî”, 77, 82, 84; “‘Ilm”, 7; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 189, 259; Huzâî, et-Tahrîj, s, 184.
277   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 261.

Salît bin Amr had been sent to Hawza bin Ali, the ruler of Yamâma.  Hawza was a

Christian. Our Master, the Prophet said in his letter:

“Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm!

From Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ, to Hawza bin Ali!

Peace be upon those who have attained the guidance, the true path! (O Hawza!) Know that Islam will spread over up to the farthest places where camels and horses can go and it will be triumphant over all religions. Accept Islam so that you will obtain salvation. If you become Muslim, I will leave the administration of the lands under your rule to yourself again.”

Hawza, the ruler of Yamâma, refrained from accepting this blessed invitation. He was full with the love of domination, greed for rank. For of this reason, he was de- prived of the blessing of attaining the good prayers of the sultan of the worlds. Hadrat Salît bin Amr, the Islamic envoy, pitied him and said, “O Hawza, the ruler of Yamâma! You are the elder of this people! The Caesars whom you suppose great have already died and become soil.

Real superiors are those who perform the commands of Allahu ta’âlâ and refrain from His prohibitions and thus they deserve Paradise. If a group of people is honored by believing, beware of deviating them from their correct path with your wrong be- lief!… Honestly, I advise you to do the orders of Allahu ta’âlâ and to abstain from His prohibitions. If you believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and carry out His orders, you will enter Paradise. If you follow Satan, you will stay in Hell.

If you accept this advice of mine, you will be safe from whatever you fear, you will attain whatever you hope for. If you reject my advice, there is nothing left to do for me. It is up to you!…”

Hawza did not listen to this beautiful advice of the Islamic envoy too. Sâlit bin Amr, understood that it was not necessary to stay at Yamâma any longer, and quickly re- turned to Medina. He informed our beloved Prophet of the result. Our Master Rasûl-i akram was sorry that Hawza deprived himself of the bliss of embracing Islam. After a short while, the news of Hawza’s death came. His love of kingship, eagerness of rank ended up in his grave, which was a pit of Hell.278

Thus, six envoys of Islam had performed their duty and they had announced the existence of Islam to the great states of their time. They informed them of the true bliss, they did not leave any room for saying, “We had not heard of it,” on the Day of Judgment.

Ashama, the ruler of Abyssinia, had been blessed by becoming Muslim, seeing the Ashâb-i kirâm and attaining good invocations of our Master, the Prophet. Heraclius, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Muqawqas, the sultan of Egypt, had not become Muslims; however, they had greatly esteemed the letters and had given soft replies, treated the envoys well and sent presents to our Master Rasûlullah. The rulers of Ghassân and Iran did not treat the envoys well and showed their animosity openly. As for the ruler of Yamâma, he had treated the Islamic envoy mildly.

278   Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, IV, 203; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 390.

Souls pine, longing for that essence of rose benevolence,
Look, the sun shines and burns out of desire to see your face,
A miserable supplication wails to the end of life,
Relieve me with your grace; because I am on fire, O Rasûlullah.
I feel no pain if I be without water and die in the burning deserts,
There are volcanoes in my chest, I do not feel the wetness of the seas,
I pay no attention, if flames rain down and if I touch them,
Relieve me with your grace; because I am on fire, O Rasûlullah.

lineTHE CONQUEST OF KHAYBAR

There were some Jews in glorious Medina, who were Muslim in appearance but hypocrites in fact. Among them, there was a man famous for practicing sorcery, named Labîd bin A’sam. The Jews gave him gold and said, “You know how Muham- mad expelled our people from Medina and killed our men. We want you to cast a spell on and punish him!” He accepted to do so and tried to obtain some of our beloved Prophet’s hair from the teeth of his comb. Through a Jewish child who worked in the service of our Master, the Prophet, he attained his wish.”

Labîd tied a thread, that had eleven knots on it, on to the blessed hair of our Master, the Prophet and the teeth of his comb and blew on them. He hid them under a stone in a well. After that, our Master, the Prophet lost his health. He fell ill and could not get up for days. When the Ashâb-i kirâm came to visit him and saw that his illness became more serious day by day, they were crying tears of blood. However, the hypocrites were very joyful as if they were at a feast.

Finally, one day our Master, the Prophet told our mother Hadrat Âisha, “O Âisha! Do you know? Allahu ta’âlâ notified me of the thing which contains my cure. Two persons (Jabrâil – Archangel Gabriel and Mikâil – Archangel Michael) came to me. One of them sat down near my feet, the other one near my head. One of them asked the other, “What is the illness of this person?” The other answered, “He is under a spell.He asked, “Who has cast the spell?” The other angel replied, “Labîd bin A’sam.Then he asked, “With what, has this spell has been cast?” He answered, “On a comb and it’s hair remnants which is in a male palm date seed.He answered the question, “Where is it?” as, “In the Zarwân well”.”279
Zarwân was a well in the garden of the Banî Zurayk tribe in Medina. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sent Hadrat Ali, Zubayr, Talhâ and Am- mar to that well. They took the water out of the well and removed the stone at the bottom. They found a thread with eleven knots on it. They took it and brought to our beloved Prophet. No matter how much they tried, they could not untie the knots. Archangel Gabriel brought the sûras of Falâk and Nâs. While our Master Rasûlullah recited these sûrâs, which comprise of eleven verses, the knots were opened one by one with each verse. When the knots were untied, the Master of the worlds realized ease and regained his health.
279 Bukhârî, “Bad’ul-Halk”, 11; “Tıb”, 47; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 63; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 341; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 196.
Labîd, the Jew was caught and brought to the presence of our Master Rasûlullah. When our Master, the Prophet told him, “Allahu ta’âlâ has informed me of your magic spell and showed me its place. You, why did you do that?” He answered, “Because of my affection towards gold!” Some of the Ashâb-i kirâm said, “O Rasû- lullah! If you give us permission, we will decapitate that Jew!” Our beloved Prophet, who does not punish anyone for his own sake, did not allow his execution, saying, “The divine punishment, which he will face in the end, is more vehement.”280

When the Jews were expelled from Medina, they had gone to the northern parts of Arabia. Some of them stayed at Khaybar and settled there. Some others went to Damascus, which was in the North. They had been driven out from their homelands because they had plotted an assassination of our Master Rasûlullah. However their feelings of hatred, rage and revenge against Muslims never died, it even intensified day by day. They wanted to put an end to the life of the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ and demolish the religion of Islam as soon as possible. Some of their notables said, “Let us go to the Ghatafanites and ask for their help, let us fight against Muslims with them!” Some others said, “Let us also call the Jews of Fadak, Taymâ and Wâd-il-Kurâ for help and take all of our revenge by attacking Muslims’ cities before they attack us.”

The Jews of Khaybar accepted these words and called the surrounding Jewish tribes and the Gatafanites for help. A great number of elite warriors came from the Gatafan- ites and they started preparations in Khaybar.

While they were making these preparations, the Master of the worlds, “sall Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam” learned of the situation of the Jews. He immediately sent Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha with three Companions to Khaybar to find out what was going on. Abdullah bin Rawâha and his three friends quickly came to Khaybar. It was an affluent city, which had eight strong forts, fertile lands, many fields and gardens. Had- rat Abdullah sent one of his friends to the Shikk fort, one of them to the Katiba fort, the other one to the Natat fort. He himself entered another fort. For three days, they watched the conditions of the Jews and war preparations. After three days, they united at a meeting point and quickly returned to Medina. They told our Master, the Prophet about the preparations in detail.

Our beloved Prophet ordered his Companions to get ready immediately. He decided to march against Khaybar, to prevent the attack of the Jews on Medina. The Jews of Medina, hearing of this decision, were in panick. In order to dishearten Muslims, they said, “We swear that you would never set foot there, if you saw the forts of Khaybar and the brave soldiers gathered there!.. The high towered forts on the peak of the mountains are protected by soldiers in armor. Thousands of soldiers have come to help them!.. Is it possible for you to conquer Khaybar?!…” Upon these words, the heroic Companions said, “Allahu ta’âlâ promised his Darling that he would conquer Khaybar.” Thus, they mentioned that they would never be afraid of Jews. This deter- mination of the Companions made the Jews more sad and anxious.

Abdullah bin Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites, sent an urgent message to Khay- bar, saying, “Muhammad is coming against you with a small force. There is no need to be afraid. Yet, be cautious and transfer your goods to your forts. Confront them, by going out of the fort!”

The Ashâb-i kirâm completed their preparations. They gathered around our Mas- ter, the Prophet. They were two hundred horsemen and one thousand four hundred infantry. Under the command of their beloved Prophet, they were ready for spreading Allahu ta’âlâ’s religion, for making Holy War and attaining the grade of martyrdom. Meanwhile, it was seen that some women asked for duties in the war, from our Mas- ter, the Prophet, to prepare food for the Ashâb-i kirâm, to bandage wounds and for some other works that they could do. Our Master Rasûlullah felt compassion for them and he did not deprive them of these rewards. Thus, twenty ladies, headed by Hadrat Ummu Salama, blessed wife of our beloved Prophet, joined the mujâhids.

Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam left Hadrat Sibâ’ of Ghifâr tribe as his deputy in Medina and then ordered to march towards Khaybar. (It has also been re- ported that the deputy was Numayla bin Abdullah.) The journey started with chants of “Allahu akbar!” Those who could not join the war, due to having an excuse, and those sahâbîs who were not permitted, because of their young ages, with admiration and invocations saw off our Master, the Prophet and their brave fathers, grandfathers, pa- ternal and maternal uncles, older brothers.

The calendar showed that it was the seventh year of the Hegira. The holy banner of our Master, the Prophet was being carried by Hadrat Ali; Hadrat ’Umar was in command of the right wing. 281 The journey passed in joy. The poets, with their po- ems, thanked Allahu ta’âlâ for the blessings He granted, said salawâts for our beloved Prophet and they praised the glorious Ashâb. The Sahâbîs, as if they were going to a festival, were saying, “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!”

280 Bukhârî, “Tibb” 47; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 63; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 198.
281 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 40; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 653; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 258.

He says O the darling of Allah, let me come towards you,
Let me forget everything and know only you.
Let me go out to open fields and burn and melt down;
Every moment, looking for you, in love and adornment.

Let me kiss the dust of the place you are buried,
In order to console my lips, which have burnt out of your love,
Let me kiss the pure soil of your place,
Let me make it cure for my soul and remedy for the ill body.

Let me supplicate to Allah, in the presence of you,
And stay in that state for hours, days and months,
Let me always pray for forgiveness and pronounce salât,
I confess that I am unable to express my gratitude to you properly.

Let me groaningly weep and offer my heart to you,
And let me shed burning tears of love for you,
I wish the tears would dry up and shed blood and melt like a candle,
Let me die before the place you are buried, which is higher than the Arsh.

You are the most beautiful means and the truest guide;
Only you can show the endless bliss;
And you give glad tidings to those who follow you;
Pen cannot explain and tongue cannot confess this.

Please show yourself once to me like a sultan for the poor,
And like Ken’ân for Ya’qûb, whose eyes went blind out of weeping,
And like a luminous moon in a dark night,
So that, my ruined heart can reach prosperity in an instant.

They were resonating everywhere saying, “Allahu akbar! Lâ ilâha illallahu wallahu ak- bar!” At each stop, the Master of the worlds invoked, “O my Allah! I take refuge in You from being anxious about the future, worrying about the past, weakness and laziness, stinginess, cowardice and heavy burden of debt, harassment by cruel and unjust persons!” When they approached Khaybar, it was seen that our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) stopped his Companions. He lifted his arms and started supplication, “O my Allah Who is Rabb of the skies and those which are shaded by them! O my Allah Who is the owner of the earth and those on it! O my Allah Who is Rabb of the devils and those who are deviated by them! O my Allah Who is Rabb of the winds and those, which are blown by them! We wish, from You, the good and the goodness of this land, the good and the goodness of the people who live in this land, the good and the goodness of everything which is in this land. We take refuge in You from the evil of this land, the evil of the people, and the evil of everything which is in it!” The Com- panions were saying, “Âmîn, âmîn (Amen).” Then, he told his Companions, “Advance, by saying, Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm.”

The Ashâb-i kirâm, around our Master Rasûl-i akram, started marching again. They came near the Natât fort, one of the strongest forts in Khaybar. They set up their military headquarter there. It was evening. Our Master Rasûlullah’s honorable habit was that he would not make a raid until it became morning and he would firstly invite the enemy to Islam. For this reason, the Ashâb i kirâm waited for morning. None of the Jews realized that the Islamic Army had come.

The Master of the worlds, after conducting the morning prayer, completed final prepara- tions and mobilized the mujâhids. Two hundred horsemen and one thousand four hundred infantrymen approached the Natât fort. Meanwhile, the Jews were going out of the fort to tend to their farming. They were very surprised when they confronted Muslim soldiers. They said, “We swear that these are Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) and his regular army!…” They started running away. Our beloved Prophet, seeing their condition, said, “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar! Khaybar has been ruined,” and he repeated this blessed word of his three times.

Our Master, the Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam told the Jews either to become Muslim, or surrender and give kharaj (land tax paid by non-Muslims) and jizya (tax imposed on non-Muslims living in an Islamic country), or there would be a war and bloodshed. The Jews went to Sallâm bin Mishkan, one of the notables of the Jews, and notified him of the situation. Sallâm encouraged them to fight by saying, “Previ- ously, I had told you to march against Muhammad, you did not accept. At least now, do not hesitate to fight him. Your dying one by one in war against him is better than your staying alive without relatives or friends.” The Jews massed their women and children in the Katiba fort, their provisions were in the fort of Nâim, their soldiers in the fort of Natât.

The Jews replied to the Islamic Army’s offer to become Muslim by shooting arrows. The Mujâhids met the arrows with their shields. Upon the order of our beloved Proph- et, their bows were stretched and their arrows were shot at the Jews in the bastions, with the hail of Allahu akbar. Now, the war had started. On the one side, the Master of the worlds and his heroic Companions were fighting for spreading Islam and for the Jews to attain Islam and be saved from Hell. On the other side, there were Jews, who did not accept any advice, who wanted to stab the Muslims in the back at every opportunity, who were persistent not to see the truth. When they understood that the last prophet was not one of their own people, out of their jealousy, they did not accept him. They had tried to kill our beloved Prophet since his childhood. They made many tricks, however, they could not do anything due to the protection of Allahu ta’âlâ.

At the one thousand six hundred glorious mujâhids, more than ten thousand Jew- ish soldiers were shooting arrows. The Ashâb-i kirâm were being protected by their shields, against those ceaseless arrows, and when they found an opportunity, in turn they were shooting the arrows which fell to the ground back at the Jews. However, some Companions were wounded.

Meanwhile, Hadrat Habbâb bin Munzir was seen to respectfully go to the pres- ence of our Master Habîbullah (’alaihis-salâm). He asked, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Shall we establish our headquarters in another place?” Our Master, the Prophet said, “Inshâallahu ta’âlâ we shall change its place in the evening!” The mujâhids were within the range of the arrows. The arrows shot by the Jews from the fort could reach to the back of the Islamic headquarters.282

That day, the combat continued with the barrage of arrows, until the evening. Around fifty companions were wounded from the arrows that were shot. When it was evening, Hadrat Muhammad bin Maslama was entrusted with the task of finding a new location for the headquarters. When he stated that the place called Rajî was suit- able, the Islamic military headquarters was relocated to there. The wounded began to receive medical treatment. 283

282 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 641.
283 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 641; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, IV, 68.

The next day, the heroic Ashâb who came before Natât, fought until the evening. The siege continued on the third, fourth and fifth days too. The Jews were always on the defensive. Our beloved Prophet had an acute headache and he could not be pres- ent among the mujâhidins for two days. On the first day, he gave the banner to Hadrat Abû Bakr, on the second day, to Hadrat ’Umar. Both of them, in charge of the Ashâb-i kirâm, fought against the Jews very fiercely, yet it was not possible to conquer the fort.

Meanwhile, it was seen that the Jews, whose courage increased, opened the gates of the fort and made an attack. Now, they had started fighting face to face. The battle had greatly intensified. While our Master, the Prophet told his Ashâb, “Say takbîrs, Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!” They were striking the enemy with their swords in zeal. At one stage, Mahmûd, the brother of Muhammad bin Maslama was martyred. The heavy fighting continued until the evening.

The next day, Marhab, one of the most famous commanders of Khaybar, went out in full armor. He was a strong, giant-like person. Till then, no one could confront him. He turned towards the mujâhids and started boasting, saying, “I am Marhab, known for his courage and bravery!” While he was boasting in this manner, one of the mûjâhids sprang forward. He told Marhab, “As for me, I am Âmir, who does not fear diving into horrific and fierce battles.” He screamed a war cry and stood in front of him. Giant-like Marhab struck Hadrat Âmir with his sword, on which it was writ- ten, “To whom it touches, it will make him perish!” Brave Âmir lifted his shield up immediately. When the thick sword hit the shield, a loud crushing sound was heard. It stuck into the shield.

Hadrat Âmir resorted to Allah shouting “Yâ Allah!” and struck the armored legs of Marhab with his sword. When the sword struck the steel armor, it glanced back and hit the Companion’s leg. With the strong recoil, the artery in Hadrat Âmir’s leg was severed. The Ashâb-i kirâm ran and embraced Âmir. They brought him to the base camp for treatment. However, Âmir attained martyrdom there.284

The combat fiercely continued. Towards the evening, our beloved Prophet (’alai- his-salâm) proposed to the polytheist Ghatafanites, who came with four thousand sol- diers to join the war to help the Jews, that they leave and return to their lands. If they did this, he promised them to give a year’s crop production of palm dates of Khaybar. However, the Ghatafanites rejected this offer. Upon this, the Master of the worlds, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, ordered his Ashâb to stay the night around the fort where the Ghatafanites were. The Ghatafanites were very anxious because the Mu- jâhids might attack at night. They could not sleep. That night, a voice declared that the lands of Ghatafanites were raided; their families and properties were taken as booty. This voice was repeated three times and all the Ghatafanites listened to it in horror. Uyayna, their commander, had heard this voice too. Before the dawn, he gathered his soldiers and immediately went away from Khaybar. They set out for their homeland. In the morning, the Jews were astonished that the Ghatafanites left Khaybar without any reason. They lost their hope. They became very sorry that they called the Ghata- fanites for help.

The heroism of Hadrat Ali

During that day again, intense fights occurred before Khaybar. However, the for- tress could not be conquered. In the evening, the sultan of the universe gave the glad tidings, saying, “I will give the banner to such a champion tomorrow, who loves Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger love him too. Allahu ta’âlâ will make the conquest happen through him!” That night, the Ashâb-i kirâm waited for the morning in excitement. Each of them hoped that the banner would be given to himself and made supplications to Allahu ta’âlâ for this. Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî called the adhân for morning prayer with his touching and beautiful voice. While the adhân was being recited, a unique sensation, a unique pleasure would arise in everybody. It was a holy taste. Our beloved Prophet stood up after conducting the morning prayer in congregation. He commanded that the blessed banner of Islam be brought. While the holy banner was being carried, the Ashâb-i kirâm were stand- ing, in curiosity, waiting to hear the words, which would come out of our beloved Prophet’s blessed lips. Finally, the Master of the worlds said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ who has honored Muhammad with prophethood that I will give this ban- ner to a champion who does not know what running away is.” Then, he scrutinized his Companions and asked, “Where is Ali?” The sahâbîs answered, “O Rasûlullah! His eyes are aching.” Our Master said, “Call him to me.In those days, Hadrat Ali had contracted pain in his eyes that was so painful he could not even open them. They went to him and informed him of the situation. Holding his arms, they brought him to the presence of Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm). The sultan of the universe supplicated Allahu ta’âlâ for the well being of Hadrat Ali. He wet his blessed fingers with his saliva and wiped the eyes of Hadrat Ali. At that moment, all the pain in Hadrat Ali’s eyes vanished. In addition, Our Master, the Prophet prayed to Allahu ta’âlâ, saying, “O my Rabb! Eliminate the trouble of heat and cold from this person.Then, he put armor on Hadrat Ali. He girded Hadrat Ali with his own sword. He handed him the white banner of Islam and commanded, “Fight, until Allahu ta’âlâ grants you victory. Never turn back!”

Hadrat Ali said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! I will fight them until they accept the religion of Islam.” Our beloved Prophet replied, “I swear by Allah that it is far better for you that Allahu ta’âlâ makes one of them to attain the guidance, because of you, than you owning many red camels and you giving them as alms on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ.”285

284 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 51; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 639; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 174; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 211.
285 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 653.

While Hadrat Ali, holding the banner, advanced towards the fort of the Jews, the glorious Companions followed him. When they approached the fort and the banner was set up next to a stone, it was seen that the Gates of the Natât fort were opened. The assault forces of the Jews went out. They were the elite champions of Khaybar. All of them were in two fold iron armor. It was seen that one of them walked towards Hadrat Ali and stopped in front of him for combat. This person was Khâris, who was the brother of Marhab. He was very brave. He quickly attacked. While the two steel swords clashed, it was seen that the sword Zulfikâr moved down suddenly and Khâris’ head fell from his body. At this moment, the sounds of “Allahu akbar! Allahu akbar!” filled the skies.

Marhab, who heard that his brother was killed, walked to the battleground with the soldiers under his command. He stood in front of Hadrat Alî. He, too, had two-folded armor on him. With his two swords and his big body, he seemed as if he was a giant. Completely enraged, he started boasting, “I am Marhab who springs forward and fights bravely at the most vehement times of wars! I honeycomb even roaring lions with my spear or my sword!…”

Hadrat Ali replied, “I am such a person that my mother named me Haydar (Lion). I am like a grandiose lion! I am the champion who will make you fall with one strike!” When Marhab heard the word Haydar, he was in fear. Because, in his dream at night, he was tore apart by a lion. Was this person the lion he dreamed of? At that moment, it was seen that the giant Marhab attacked and Hadrat Ali met the attack with his shield. Then, taking refuge to Allahu ta’âlâ, he hit the infidel’s head with Zulfikâr. Marhab’s shield, struck by Zulfikâr, and his steel helmet were split to pieces and his head was divided into two, down to his neck. The terrifying sound of Zulfikâr had been heard all over Khaybar.

Our Master, the Prophet said, “Rejoice! Now, the conquest of Khaybar has be- come easy.” The Ashâb-i kirâm admired the bravery of Hadrat Ali. The skies re- sounded with sounds of “Allahu akbar!” The combat fiercely continued. While the Ashâb-i kirâm reached the gates of the fort, a Jew, with his sword, struck at the shield of Hadrat Ali. The shield fell down. However, there was no time to pick it up. The Jew did not want to miss the opportunity, he snatched the shield and fled. The lion of Allahu ta’âlâ sorely grieved. After dispersing the enemies around him with his sword Zulfikâr, he intended to make the gate of the fort a shield. Saying “Bismillâhir- rahmânirrahîm,he pulled on the rings of the big iron gate. He pulled out the hooks from the wall. While Hadrat Ali was pulling the gate out, the fort shook. Hadrat Ali made a shield of this gate for himself and began to fight. That gate could not have been moved by even ten men.

Six of the bravest champions of the Jews successively confronted him. With Allahu ta’âlâ’s permission, Hadrat Alî overcame them all. Then, with his heroic friends, he entered the fort. Now, the combat was within the confines of the fort. In a short while, there was no one left to encounter them. They set up the banner of Islam. Thus, Natât, the strongest of the Jewish forts, was conquered.

Our beloved Prophet (’alahis-salâm) kissed the eyes of Hadrat Ali, then he said, “Because of the bravery you have shown, Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger are pleased with you.” Hadrat Ali, hearing these blessed words, wept out of joy. When our Master, the Prophet asked, “Why are you weeping?” he replied, “May my life be sacrificed for you O Rasûlullah! I am weeping out of my joy. Because, Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger are pleased with me.” Upon this, our beloved Prophet said, “Not only me, Jabrâil (Archangel Gabriel), Mikâil (Archangel Michael) and all the an- gels are pleased with you.”

Meanwhile, four hundred Muslims from the Daws tribe came to help our Master, the Prophet. Following this, fighting continued until all the forts were conquered. When the remaining seven forts of Khaybar fell, one by one, the Jews, hopeless, sent a delegation and requested peace. Our Master, the Prophet sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam accepted this proposition, and they agreed on the following articles:

1- The blood of the Jews who fought against Muslims in this war will not be shed.

2- Those Jews who leave Khaybar will carry away only their children and only enough necessary household goods that can be carried as one camel load.

3- All the remaining goods, movable or not, all the weapons such as armor, swords, shields, bows, arrows, all garments except those on there backs, gold and treas- ures, all such animals as horses, camels, sheep will be left to Muslims.

4- Nothing, which must be left to Muslims, will be hidden in any manner. Those who conceal them will be kept out of Allahu ta’âlâ’s and His Messenger’s secu- rity guarantee and protection…

Kinâna bin Rabî, who did not abide by these conditions and buried his treasures in the earth wrapped skins, was punished. The booties of war taken were innumerable. The fertile lands and palm date gardens of Khaybar were completely left to the Islamic army.

In the meantime, the Ghatafanites, who had returned to their homeland, came back to Khaybar, to help the Jews. When they saw that our Master, the Prophet conquered Khaybar and took over the Jews, they said, “O Muhammad! You had promised to give us Khaybar’s palm date crops of one year, if we would leave Khaybar. We have kept our promise. Now, them to give us.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “May the so-and- so mountain be yours.” The Ghatafanites tried to make threats by saying, “If so, we will fight you.” Our Master, Rasûl-i akram replied, “May our place of combat be Janafa.” Janafa was the name of one of Ghatafanite regions. When the Ghatafanites heard that, out of their fear, they left Khaybar and went away.

Our beloved Prophet, sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, and his heroic companions had become very tired from the conquest of Khaybar. On the one hand, the wounded were being treated; on the other hand, they were resting. Zaynab, the wife of Sallâm bin Mishkan, one of the prominent figures of the Jews, wanted to kill our Master, the Prophet by poisoning him. For this reason, she slaughtered a goat and cooked it. She added a large amount of poison to the meat. Then, she went to the presence of our Master, Rasûl-i akram and said she brought a present. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram ac- cepted it and called his Companions. All together, they sat down for the meal.

The Master of the worlds (’alaihis-salâm) took a piece from the foreleg of the goat by saying “Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm.After he chewed it a few times, he imme- diately spit it out and said, “O my Companions! Give up eating! For, this meat has informed me that it has been poisoned.” The Companions did not touch the meal.

However, the body of Hadrat Bishr bin Barâ, who had eaten a bit of the meat, became purple and he became martyred. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) came to our beloved Prophet and told him to draw his blood from between his shoulders, so that he could get rid of the effect of the poison mixed in his blessed saliva. It was done. Then, the poisoned meat was buried. Zaynab, who was responsible for this poisoning, was caught and brought to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. Our Master asked her, “Are you the one who has poisoned this roasted goat?” She confessed, “Yes! I had poisoned it!” Our Master, the Prophet asked, “Why did you want to do this!” She answered, “You have killed my husband, my father, my paternal uncle. I told myself, “If he is really a prophet, Allahu ta’âlâ will inform him. If he is not, this poison will affect him and he will die. Thus, we will have gotten rid of him.” The Ashâb-i kirâm grieved at this incident. When they asked, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasû- lullah! Shall we kill this woman?” The Master of the worlds, who forgave every insult to his own person, forgave her too. Zaynab, seeing this great compassion, recited the Kalima-i shahâdat and became Muslim.286

Among the war booty and captives, taken at Khaybar, there was Safiyya, daughter of Huyay bin Akhtab. As the right of chiefdom-in-command, she had fallen into the lot of our Master, the Prophet. The Master of the worlds emancipated her. She was very touched and sincerely became a Muslim by saying the Kalima-i shahâdat. Our beloved Prophet, who was very glad, honored our mother, Safiyya with his marriage. Thus, Hadrat Safiyya became mother of believers. At the place called Sahbâ, her wed- ding was performed and a wedding meal, consisting of melon and date, was given. 287

There was a bruise around the blessed eyes of our mother Hadrat Safiyya. When our beloved prophet asked, “What is this mark?” She said, “One night, I had seen in my dream that the moon had descended and entered my chest. When I told Kanâna, my husband, about this dream, he hit me on my eye, saying, ‘You have longed for be- coming the wife of this Arab ruler, who has come against us.’ So, it became bruised.”

After the conquest of Khaybar, the Jews said to our Master, the Prophet, “O Mu- hammad! We will abandon Khaybar. However, we know agriculture, maintenance of farm fields and gardens well. If you wish, rent these fruitful soils to us. We will work on these lands and give you half of the crop!” Our beloved Prophet and sahâbîs had no time to deal with farm work. They strove to spread the religion of Islam and for the holy war on the path of Allah. Our Master, the Prophet was pleased with this offer and said, “On the condition that we will expel you whenever we want.” The Jews accepted this and started to work the soils of Khaybar. 288

286 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 337; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 678; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 202; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 303; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 81; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 398; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 891; Zahabî, Siyar, II, 86.
287 Bukhârî, “Salât”, 12; “Jihad”, 74; Abû Dâwûd, “Haraj”, 21; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 101; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 330; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 669; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 121; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 645.
288 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 157; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 641; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, IV, 377; Hay- thamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, I, 205.

Our Master, the Prophet, with his Ashâb, returned to Medina as victorious. Mean- while, he saw that his Companions, who had migrated to Abyssinia, came back under the command of Hadrat Ja’far bin Abî Talib. He became very happy. He kissed Hadrat

Ja’far’s forehead and embraced him. He said, “I do not know at which I should re- joice, the conquest of Khaybar or the coming of Ja’far. Your migration is double. You have migrated to both Abyssinia and to my homeland.”

The war booties taken at Khaybar were distributed to all the Ashâb-i kirâm who attended the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiya, to those who joined the Holy War of Khay- bar, to the Ashâb who migrated to Abyssinia and to the Daws tribe who joined the conquest. 289

With the conquest of Khaybar, all the Jews in Arabia had been taken under control of our Master, the Prophet. As such, they had no capability to help the polytheists. Surrounding tribes and states understood that the Muslims, who had taken the Khay- bar castle, which seemed unconquerable, had a great power. They started to fear the Islamic State. The Meccan polytheists were in great sorrow and grief. Many tribes, large or small, came to Medina-i munawwara to embrace Islam and were honored by becoming Ashâb-i kirâm. Even Ghatafanites were among them. Regarding some disobedient tribes, they were made obedient by sending military forces against them.

289 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 353; Zahabî; Siyar, II, 82.

lineTHE EXPEDITION TO UMRAT-UL-KAZÂ

One year had passed since the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty. One month before the Feast of Sacrifice, our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam ordered his Ashâb-i kirâm to make preparations for Umra. Those who went to Hudaybiya and participated in the Bî’at-ur Ridwân, except for those that had died, all would attend the Umra. Upon this order, two thousand sahâbîs completed their prepa- rations. Seventy camels were taken to be sacrificed. Nâjiya bin Jundub and his four friends were instructed to bring the camels to Mecca by grazing them. In addition, one hundred horsemen under the command of Hadrat Muhammad bin Maslama were sent beforehand to carry such weapons as armor, spears, swords. The polytheists could not be trusted. In case of an attack, these weapons would be utilized. Some of the Ashâb-i kirâm said, “O Rasûlullah! According to the Hu- daybiya Peace Treaty, we would not come on Umra with weapons, except swords in sheaths.” The Master of the worlds replied, “We will not bring these weapons to Haram, near the Qurayshîs. Yet, they will be kept on hand in case of an attack from the Quraysh.”

Abî Zarr-il-Ghifârî was appointed as our Prophet’s deputy in Medina-i Munawwara.290 It is also reported that Abû Ruhm-ul-Ghifârî was the person who was appoint- ed as deputy. Two thousand companions, together with our beloved Prophet, set out for Mecca. The Ashâb-i kirâm were very excited. They would see their homes, their homelands, which they left for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ and our beloved Prophet… They would visit the Kâba to which they turned towards in each of the five daily prayers… They would meet their relatives who had just become Muslims, but could not come to Medina due to the Treaty. They would show the honor and greatness of Islam to the Quraysh polytheists who made them weep blood for years and who se- verely oppressed them, who martyred many of their brothers, in order to make them worship the idols. Perhaps, those polytheists who saw this would love Islam and be- come Muslims!…

Those who stayed in Medina attended the Master of the worlds up to the Wadâ slope, then they returned…

When our beloved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) came to Zulhulayfa, which was about ten kilometers away from Medina, he put on his ihrâm. The glorious Sahâbîs followed him. Everyone was in white. Now, the journey to Mecca for making Umra had start- ed. Everywhere was shaken with the sounds of “Labbayk! Allâhumma Labbayk!

290 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 353; Zahabî; Siyar, II, 82.

Lâ sharîka laka labbayk! Innal hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-mulka, lâ sharîka lak.” The journey was very joyful by praising Allahu ta’âlâ and supplicating to Him, mentioning His blessed name.

When the advance forces under the command of Muhammad bin Maslama ap- proached Mecca, the Quraysh polytheists saw them. In fear, the polytheists came near and asked, “What is this?” It was as if they saying, “Had we made an agreement one year ago for this?” Muhammad bin Maslama gave a reply which froze their blood, “These are horsemen of the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. If Allahu ta’âlâ allows, he too will honor here tomorrow!” The polytheists returned in fear and conveyed the news to Mecca. The Meccan polytheists said, “We swear that we have adhered to the treaty. Why will Muhammad fight us?” Immediately, they sent a delegation to talk with our Master, the Prophet.

Meanwhile, the Master of the worlds sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam had come to the place called Batn-i Ya’jaj, where he could see Mecca. They left all their weapons there, except swords. He set two hundred sahâbîs as sentinels to protect the weapons.

When these preparations were finished the Quraysh delegation requested per- mission to speak with our Master, the Prophet. When it was granted, they said, “O Muhammad! Since the Hudaybiya Treaty, we have not done anything against you. Despite this, will you come in Mecca, to your people, with these weapons? How- ever, according to our treaty, there would be no weapon with you, except swords in sheaths!…” The Master of the worlds replied, “Since my childhood until today, I am known with keeping my words and my abiding by promises. We will not enter Haram with anything except our swords in sheaths. But, I want the weapons to be present somewhere near me.” Seeing that the news conveyed to them was wrong, the delegation relaxed. They said, “O Muhammad! Honestly, we have seen only trust- worthiness and goodness from you. This is what suits you.” They returned to Mecca and notified the Quraysh of the situation. They felt at ease too.

Due to their grudge and jealousy, the notables of the Quraysh did not want to see this happy moment of our Master, the Prophet and his Companions. Therefore they went out of Mecca, to the mountains…

Our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm sent the marked sacrificial camels to the loca- tion Zîtuwâ, in advance. Then, he and his Companions completed the preparations and walked to enter the Holy City of Mecca. The Ashâb-i kirâm had encircled the Master of the worlds. The sultan of the universe was on his camel Kuswâ. He brightened all around, as if he were a sun blocking out thousands of stars. O my Rabb! What a beautiful, what a majestic scene it was!… The sounds of “Labbayk! Allahumma Labbayk! Labbayk! Lâ sharîka laka Labbayk!…” resonated. Hearts were full of love of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger. Step by step, they were advancing towards the Kâ’ba-i Muazzama. As they approached, their excitement increased. The excla- mations of talbiya said by all, filled Mecca. Seeing this scene, the polytheists became affected. Many felt the love of Islam pour into their hearts. Finally, Muhammad ’ala- his-salâm was victorious.

And so it was, our beloved Prophet and his glorious Companions, were entering the area where the Kâ’ba was. They were wearing their swords. Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha was holding the ropes of Kuswâ, the camel of our Master, the Prophet. Some Meccan polytheists, women and children had lined up along Dâr-un Nadwa, they were watching our beloved Prophet and his heroic Companions. While he was advancing, Abdullah bin Rawâha was, as if hammering these couplets into the heads of the polytheists, was reciting:

Hadrat ’Umar could not stop himself from warning him by saying, “O Ibn-i Rawâha! How can you recite poems before Rasûlullah and at Haram-i sharîf?” However, our Master, the Prophet said, “O ’Umar! Do not prevent him! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that his words are more effective on these Quraysh polytheists than shooting ar- rows at them. O Ibn-i Rawâha! Go on!” After a short while, our Master, the Prophet commanded Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha, “Say: There is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ! He is the One. He is the one who fulfills His promise! He is the one who helped this slave of His! He is the one who em- powered his soldiers! He, only He, is the one who destroyed the gathered tribes.”

Upon this, Abdullah bin Rawâha started to recite;

“There is no god, But Allahu ta’âlâ! He has no partner, Lâ ilâha illallah!

He is the One, who empowered, Muslim soldiers!

And He is the One, who Ruined, dispersed the disbelievers!”

Muslims were repeating these words, too.

When our beloved Prophet entered the Baytullah, he opened his blessed right shoul- der. People admired at the beauty of his blessed skin. Then, he said, “May Allahu ta’âlâ show mercy to those champions who will show themselves strong and ener- getic against those polytheists.” Upon these words, the Ashâb-i kirâm opened their right shoulders and made tawâf around the Kâ’ba three times. They were walking in a grand manner. But, they walked slowly between the Rukn-i Yamâni and the corner of the Hajar-ul-Aswad. Our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm and his Companions were approaching the Hajar-ul-Aswad, kissing it and outstretching their arms towards it.

The polytheists were watching the Ashâb. They were amazed by this majestic and spectacular marching. They had been told that Muslims were weakened and fell ill. These kinds of rumors had been spread. Now, they were witnessing a completely dif- ferent situation. They became more and more baffled.

The remaining four tawâfs had been made at a slow pace. After the tawâf, they made a ritual prayer of two rakats at the site called Maqâm-i Ibrâhim. Then, they strode be- tween Safâ and Marwa hills seven times. After the sacrificial animals were butchered, our Master, the Prophet had his hair shaved. They caught his blessed hair from the air. The Ashâb-i kirâm shaved themselves too. Thus, the dream, which our Master Rasûl-i akram (‘alaihis-salâm) saw one year before, came true.

So, as it was, the Umra visit had been completed and the time of noon prayer had begun. The Master of the worlds commanded Hadrat Bilâl to recite the Adhân at the Kâ’ba. Bilâl-i Habashî fulfilled the order immediately. While he was reciting the Adhân at the Kâ’ba, all Mecca started to shake. The Ashâb-i kirâm were listening to the Adhân with great respect, they were repeating its words silently. When it finished, our Master Habîbullah became the imâm. The noon prayer, performed in congrega- tion, had a different effect on the hearts of the polytheists.

A tent made of leather hides had been set up at the location of Abtah, for our be- loved Prophet (’alaihis-salâm). The Companions stayed in surrounding tents for three days. At each of the five daily prayer times, they would gather in the Baytullah and perform their prayers in jamâ’at (congregation). At other times, they were visiting their relatives and being exemplary for them, with the beautiful ethics they acquired from Islam. Seeing the beautiful attitudes of the Ashâb, other people could not stop themselves from expressing their admiration. It was as if Mecca were conquered from within, during those three days.

The three days had elapsed… Time for departure had come. Towards evening, our Master, the Prophet said, “None of the Muslims (who have come for Umra) will spend the evening at Mecca, they will all depart!” Everyone packed up and started off for Medina.

What a great blessing it is to pass away on your path
Will it not be my share to die in your sacred abode
It will be easy to die longing for you, while my eyes are losing their glimmer
Make me happy with your beauty since I am scorched O Rasûlullah.

I bowed my head, I am wretched, you have the cure of my pain
My lips are burned with fire, around your feet, reminding of your name
Reward this dog whenever my heart wishes to see you
Make me happy with your beauty since I am scorched O Rasûlullah.

lineTHE HOLY WAR OF MÛTA

When our Master, Habîb-i-akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, who has been sent as a mercy for the worlds, went to Mecca for umra, he asked Hadrat Walîd bin Walîd, one of his Ashâb, “Where is Khâlid? It is not suitable for a person such as he to not know Islam. What a good thing it would have been if he had displayed all his efforts and heroism with Muslims against the polytheists. (In that case) We would have loved and appreciated him.” Previously, from time to time, Walîd bin Walîd would write letters to his older brother and urge him to embrace Islam. When he forwarded these blessed words of our Master, the Prophet, to him, Khâlid bin Walîd’s inclination to Islam increased more and more. The companions had returned to Medi- na from the Umra visit. Days had passed and the eighth year of the Hegira had begun. Khâlid bin Walîd was very excited. He looked forward to reaching Medina, sitting on his knees in the presence of the Master of the worlds and being honored by becoming a Muslim. He himself narrated:

“Allahu ta’âlâ bestowed upon me the love of our Master, the Prophet. He placed the love of Islam into my heart. He turned me into a state which I could distinguish the good from the evil. I told myself: I was present in all the battles against Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. Leaving each battlefield, I felt that I was on a wrong path and he would definitely be victorious over us one day. I was the commander of the enemy cavalrymen when Rasû- lullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam came to Hudaybiya. In Usfân, I approached closer to Muslims and was seen by them. Being sure about us, Rasûlullah was conducting the early afternoon prayer in the congregation of his companions. We wanted to make a sudden raid. Yet, it was not possible. That was good. Probably, Rasûlullah understood our intention, they were wary, while performing the late afternoon prayer.

This situation affected me so much. I told myself that, this person probably was being protected by Allah. I was deep in thoughts and did not appear to him when he came to Mecca for Umra. He had come with my brother Walîd and could not find me. My brother had left a letter for me: “Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm! After thanking and praising Allahu ta’âlâ and greeting and invoking blessings on Rasûlullah, I state that I really do not know anything to be more surprising than your going away from Islam. However, you are not incapable of understanding that your path is wrong. Why do you not use your reason? What a strange thing that you could not know and understand a religion like Islam. Our Master, the Prophet asked me about you. He wishes you to know Islam, and for you to use your efforts and heroism among Muslims against the polytheists. O my brother! You have missed many opportunities. Do not be late anymore!”

When my brother’s letter reached me, my desire to become Muslim became very strong. I was rushing to go. What Rasûlullah said made me very happy. When I was sleeping that night, in my dream, I reached from gloomy, narrow, waterless, desert-like places to a place green, wide, spacious. I decided to tell my dream to Hadrat Abû Bakr when I reached Medina and ask for its interpretation.

While I was making preparations for going to Rasûlullah, I was thinking who could join me during my voyage. Meanwhile, I met Safwân bin Umayya. I told him the sit- uation. He rejected my offer. Then, I met Ikrima bin Abû Jahl. When he rejected too, I went to my home. I rode my horse and I went to ’Uthmân bin Talha. I said him too that I would go to Rasûlullah to become Muslim and I requested him to accompany me. He accepted without hesitation. The other day, before dawn, we set off together. When we reached the place called Hadda, we met Amr bin Âs. He was also going to Medina to embrace Islam.

We reached Medina. I wore my best clothes and got ready for the meeting with our Master Rasûlullah. Meanwhile, my brother Walîd came and said, “Hurry up! Our prophet has been informed that you came and he is very glad. Now, he is waiting for you.” In a hurry, I went to the presence of that great prophet. I greeted him and said, “I bear testimony that there is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ and you are Allahu ta’âlâ’s prophet.” He said, “Hamd (Praise) be to Allahu ta’âlâ who has showed you the right path and guided you to it.” Then I requested that he pray for my sins’ to be pardon. He invoked and said, “Islam cuts off the sins which were committed before it.” My other two friends embraced Islam too.”291

Thus, these three champions, among the bravest of Mecca, who did not hesitate to give their lives for their aims, had been honored by joining the Ashâb-i kirâm in the presence of our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm). Now, with all their power, they would try to eliminate disbelief. The Sahâbîs greatly rejoiced at their embracing Is- lam. They expressed their joy with calls of takbîr (Allahu akbar!).

In the eighth year of the Hegira, our Master Sarwar-i kâinat, who is a mercy for the worlds, sent envoys to various tribes and states for spreading Islam. Some of them yielded positive results. However, Hadrat Haris bin Umayr, sent to meet with the governor of Busrâ, had been arrested by Christian soldiers in the village known as Mûta of the Balkâ township of Damascus. Hadrat Haris, who was brought to Shurahbil Bin Amr, the gov- ernor of Damascus, had been slaughtered and martyred even though he was an envoy.292

Deeply grieved over this event, our beloved Prophet had immediately ordered his heroic Ashâb to gather. The Companions, who took this order, forgiving any outstand- ing obligations they had toward their children, gathered in the Jurf encampment. Our Master, Habîb-i akram, after conducting the early afternoon prayer, said, “I have appointed Zayd bin Hârisa commander for those people who will go to Jihâd. If Zayd bin Hârisa becomes martyr, let Ja’far bin Abî Tâlib take his place. If Ja’far bin Abî Tâlib becomes martyr, let Abdullah bin Rawâha take his place. If Abdul-

291 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, IV, 455; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XVI, 228; Zahabî, Siyar, II, 118.
292 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 756; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 128; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XI, 464.

lah bin Rawâha becomes martyred, let Muslims choose an appropriate person among themselves and make him their commander!” Upon this, the Ashâb-i kirâm understood that the heroes whose names were mentioned would be martyred. They started weeping and said, “O Rasûlullah! We wish they would be alive so that we could benefit from them.” Our Master, the Prophet did not give a reply to them and kept quiet.293

293 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 46; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 756-758; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 128-130.

Hadrat Zayd, Ja’far and Abdullah, who were present there, heard these too and greatly rejoiced. Because their greatest goal was to become martyr while spreading Allahu ta’âlâ’s religion. At that moment, the glad tidings had been given and they had heard it with their own ears. The Mujâhîds had completed their preparations; they were waiting for their commanders. Our Beloved Prophet delivered the white banner of Islam to Hadrat Zayd bin Harisa. He ordered him to go up to where Hâris bin Umayr had been martyred and to communicate Islam. He ordered him to fight the enemy if they did not accept.

Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha, while bidding farewell to his commander friends, wept. They asked him, “O son of Rawâha! Why are you crying?” Abdullah bin Rawâha, who was a poet, said:

“The reason why I am weeping,
Is not the love of living,
And I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ,
The reason is not my missing you.

The real reason is that,
In the Qur’ân al-karîm,
Our Rabb decrees,
In one of its verses:

‘Know that certainly,
There is no one among you
Who will not have
Gone through Hell…’

I had heard this âyat,
While Rasûlullah recited it,
I am in fear, if I stop by Hell,
How can I endure to be there?”

His friends invoked blessings for him, “May Allahu ta’âlâ make you one of His beloved slaves, May you be one of the Pious!” Then, Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha said, “I wish for being forgiven by Allahu ta’âlâ. In addition, I want to be martyred with a ferocious sword strike or a spear thrust which will burn my liver and intestines!…” When the army was ready to move, Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha came to our Master Rasûlullah ’alahis-salâm and after saying good bye to each other, he asked, “O Rasûlullah! Could you please ad- vise me something that I will memorize and keep in my mind?” Our Master, the Prophet commanded him, “Tomorrow, you will reach a country where sajdas are performed for Allahu ta’âlâ very seldom. Increase the amount of your sajdas and ritual prayers there.Abdullah bin Rawâha asked, “O Rasûlullah! Could you advise me more?” Our Prophet responded, “Remember Allahu ta’âlâ constantly. For, remembering Allahu ta’âlâ will help you reach your expectation.

The three thousand strong Islamic army, surrounded by the call of “Allahu Ak- bar! Allahu Akbar!”, began to march. Our beloved Prophet and the Companions, who stayed in Medina, followed the mujâhid ghâzis up to the Wadâ slope. Here, the Master of the worlds addressed the blessed Islamic army as follows, “I advise you to do Allahu ta’âlâ’s commandments, to abstain from His prohibitions, to be beneficent to the Muslims near you and to treat them well. Fight on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ, by saying His name. Do not commit breach of trust of the goods taken as booty. Do not renege on your promise. Do not kill the chil- dren! There, in the churches of the Christians, you will find some who live in solitude and have dedicated themselves to worshipping. Avoid harming these persons! Except for them, you will encounter some people whose heads are nestled by the devils. Cut off their heads with your swords. Do not kill the women or the old. Do not burn or cut the trees. Do not destroy the houses!”

He told Zayd bin Hârisa, the commander-in-chief, “When you encounter your polytheist enemies, invite them to one of three alternatives!… (If they become Muslims) Invite them to migrate to the home of Muhâjirs, Medina! If they accept your invitation, tell them that they will have the same rights as the Muhâjirs have and they will have the same duties as the Muhâjirs have. If they prefer embrac- ing Islam and settling in their own countries, tell them they will be like Muslim nomad Arabs and the same divine rule will be applied on them too, nothing will be spared from the war booties for them and only those who fight along Muslims will benefit from the booty!

If they do not accept Islam, invite them to give jizya (a kind of tax)! Do not hurt anyone who accepts that! If they do not assent to giving jizya too, fight them by taking refuge to Allahu ta’âlâ’s help!…”

After this advice, he bid farewell to the mujâhids. The Army of Islam departed with calls of takbîr. The remaining people waved their hands at the departing people and prayed, “May Allahu ta’âlâ make you safe from every kind of danger, and may He make you come back safe and sound.” Until they disappeared on the horizon, they watched them with tearful eyes…

The holy banner in the hand of Zayd bin Hârisa was waving, the Mujâhids were taking an unknown and long journey to serve the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ. The Islam- ic Army was quickly advancing towards Syria. The journey was without incident. It was joyful. The mujâhids were looking forward to encountering the enemy as soon as possible. One of the most eager of those who wished martyrdom was Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha. Zayd bin Arkam narrated:

“I was an orphan who grew up under the discipline of Abdullah bin Rawâha. When he went for the Mûta expedition, he had taken me on the back of his camel too. While we went in the night for a while, he recited these couplets:

“O my camel! If you can carry me,
To the sands, till the well,
And from there,
An additional distance of four-days.

I promise, I will not,
Bring you on another trip,
Soon, you will be,
Without any owner.

I may not be able to return,
To my home,
I hope I will be a martyr,
In this battle.

O Rawâha’s son,
At the last stop, the believers,
Even your closest relatives,
Past me with speed.

By breaking the ties of brotherhood,
They passed,
They left you to Haqq ta’âlâ,
They went away.

I do not think over,
How much money I have,
Anymore I do not care,
Trees or palm dates!”

When I heard these, I wept. Abdullah bin Rawâha touched me with his lash and said, “O you naughty one! What is happening to you? What harm is done to you since I speak in this manner? If Allahu ta’âlâ grants me martyrdom, you will return on the animal and reach your land. As for me, I will be freed from all the troubles and grievances of the world and I will attain ease.” He climbed down and made a ritual prayer of two rak’ats. After he made a long supplication to Allah, he called me, “O child!” When I said, “Yes,” he said, “Inshâallah, martyrdom will be granted to me in this expedition!”

While the brave Companions approached Syria, the governor of Damascus, Shurâh- bil bin Amr had already learned that the Islamic Army was coming. He had immedi- ately informed the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and he had received many reinforce- ments. He was greatly relieved because, according to the intelligence gathered, the Muslims were only three to five thousand strong. However, his army’s number was more than one hundred thousand. As for weaponry, they were innumerable.

When the Ashâb-i kirâm alaihim-ur-ridwân reached Muân, one of the Damascene lands, they learned that Eastern Romans were marching towards them with an army of one hundred thousand soldiers. They stopped and stayed there for two nights. Hadrat Zayd bin Hârisa, their commander, gathered his friends and informed them of the sit- uation. He asked for their views about what should be done against the Roman army. Some of the sahâbîs said, “Without confronting the Roman army, let us organize sud- den raids into their country, capture their people and return to Medina”; some others said, “Let us write a letter to Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm, state the number of the enemy, and ask for his sending soldiers to us urgently or inform us what we should do.” While they were about to decide that the second view was more appropriate, Hadrat Abdul- lah bin Rawâha said:

“O my people, what is the reason, Of your hesitation?
Have we not come to fight, With the martyrdom intention?

We have never fought,
Since we were superior in numbers, In any case,
Against the disbelievers.

We fought,
With the power of religion, Granted by Allahu ta’âlâ, As if, we were a lion.
Go and fight,
Absolutely there is goodness, In the end of this business, Either martyrdom or conquest.

I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that,
In the day of Badr, two horses we had, At Uhud, we owned one horse,
And few weaponry.

If it is in our destiny,
To overcome in this battle, Already it was promised,
By Allah and His Messenger (’alaihis-salâm).

Never Haqq ta’âlâ breaks
His promise,
So, march forward, O believers!

If martyrdom is
A part of our destiny,
We will reach our brothers
In Paradise.”

These words of Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha encouraged the mujâhidîns. They said, “We swear by Allah, the son of Rawâha is telling the truth.”

Now, the decision had been taken. They would continue to fight until they became martyred. When they came to the village called Mûta, the glorious sahâbîs encoun- tered the Roman army, which had one hundred thousand soldiers. Mountains, valleys had been crowded with the enemy. On the one side, there was a three thousand strong Islamic army which came from Medina to Damascus to spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, on the other side, there were those disbelievers who gathered to eliminate Is- lam. Apparently, there was a great imbalance of powers. One Muslim would have to fight more than thirty Roman soldiers.

Both sides took battle formation. Meanwhile, pursuant to the order of our Master, the Prophet, a committee from the Islamic Army advanced towards the Roman mil- itary camp. These persons offered the Roman army to embrace Islam, otherwise, to pay jizya (a tax taken by Islamic State from its non-Muslim subjects). However, they rejected this proposal. There was no time to lose. The commander, Hadrat Zayd bin Hârisa, holding the holy banner of Islam, ordered his army to attack. The mujâhids, who were waiting for this moment, drew their swords and sprang forward towards the enemy ranks… Braying of horses, clashes of swords, cries of the wounded filled the air. Even at the beginning of the war, the battlefield turned into a blood bath. At each swing of a sword of the glorious Companions, either a head or an arm fell down.

Holding the white banner of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm, Hadrat Zayd was fighting while saying “Allah Allah”. He was completely surrounded by the enemy. By swing- ing his swords, he was making the enemy retreat their ground and sorry for having confronted him. The Companions, seeing their commander’s heroic combat, were attacking as he was. Each of the Companions were fighting thirty enemy soldiers. Meanwhile, several spears struck the blessed chest of Hadrat Zayd. Other spears fol- lowed them. The body of this glorious sahâbî was riddled. Zayd bin Hârisa fell down to the hot soil and attained the martyrdom, which he had longed for.

Hadrat Ja’far followed Zayd bin Hârisa. He grasped the banner immediately. Seeing that the banner of Islam was waving, mujâhids continued to battle with a renewed zeal. Hadrat Ja’far fought heroically like Zayd bin Hârisa. On the one hand, he was attacking the enemy; on the other hand, he was encouraging his friends. This new commander was speedily using his sword; he was not giving an opportunity to the enemy. While he was intensely fighting, Hadrat Ja’far had advanced far from his friends. He was encircled by the Romans. He was on his own. He soon realized that there was no return. The brave commander said, “My duty is to strike each disbeliever with my sword.” He was constantly saying the blessed name of Allahu ta’âlâ. He was fighting ceaselessly. Finally, an enemy soldier struck the right hand of Hadrat Ja’far with his sword. His right hand had been cut off. Hadrat Ja’far grasped the holy banner of Islam with his left hand without it falling to the ground. Then, another sword strike came. His left hand also was cut off. This time, he tried to keep the banner flying by pressing it to his chest between his arms. However, by the enemy swords, he attained the martyrdom, which he had longed for. His blessed soul flew to the highest grades in Paradise. His body had received more than ninety sword or spear wounds.294

The heroic mujâhids, who saw that their commanders became martyr, caught the banner of Islam, which fell to the ground, and handed it over to Hadrat Abdullah bin Rawâha. By waving the banner, he attacked the enemy on his horseback. On the one hand, he was killing anyone before him, on the other hand, he was saying:

“O my nafs,
You will obey me, certainly, I have sworn, in this battle, A martyr I will be.

Either you will Accept it happily, Or I will
Make you agree.

Tell me! If you are not killed
In this battle, Do you think
You will never die?

Know that it will be good
If you do what,
Ja’far bin Abî Tâlib and
Zayd bin Hârisa have done.

They have become martyr, o my nafs! Do not remain behind.
Otherwise, you will be sorry. Do not hesitate, now attack!”

With interjections of “Allahu akbar!”, Hadrat Abdullah was fighting fiercely against the enemies. At one point, a sword struck his finger which hung from his hand. This blessed commander, who was in a deep love of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger, im- mediately jumped down from his horse. He put his wounded finger, which prevented him from fighting, under his foot and cut it off, saying, “Are you not only a wounded finger? You have been hit by this incident on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ!” He jumped on his horse and started fighting again. However, he began to criticize himself because he was not able to attain the state of martyrdom despite all his efforts… He attacked the enemy repeatedly. In the end, having been speared, he fell. While he was fighting for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger, he became a martyr and his blessed soul ascended to Paradise.

At that moment, Abû’l-Yusr Ka’b Bin Umayr, who fought near Hadrat Abdullah, tried to wave the banner.

294 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 756.

He searched for an older and more mature person than he, from among the Com- panions. He saw Thâbit bin Akram. He delivered the banner to him. Hadrat Thâbit set the banner in front of the mujâhids and said, “O my brothers! Urgently, choose a commander among you and be obedient to him.” They replied, “We have chosen you.” But, Hadrat Thâbit did not accept that. He saw Hadrat Khâlid bin Walîd. He told him, “O Abû Sulaymân! Take the banner!” Hadrat Khâlid had recently become Muslim. Due to his good manners, he did not want to take the banner and said, “I can not take this banner from you! You deserve this much more than me. Because, you are older and you had been honored by fighting alongside Rasûlullah at the Badr war.”

Yet, time was valuable. The Ashâb-i kirâm around them was fighting against the enemy vehemently and trying to force a one hundred thousand strong enemy army into retreat. Hadrat Thâbit repeated his words, “O Khâlid ! Take the holy banner of Rasûlullah quickly! I swear by Allah that I had taken it to give it to you. You know the method of war better than me!” and asked the mujâhids around him, “O my brothers! What is your opinion about Khâlid’s being commander-in-chief?” They unanimously said, “We have made him our commander.”

Upon this, Hadrat Khâlid, with a great respect and decency, kissed the banner, which the Master of the worlds delivered with his own blessed hands. He jumped on his horse and attacked the enemy with his all majesty and grandeur.295

The heroic sahâbîs attacked again following their new commander. Hadrat Khâlid was fighting with an unseen bravery and skill. He was striking down anyone before him. Meanwhile, Hadrat Kutba bin Qatâda, decapitated Mâlik bin Zâfila, one of the enemy commanders. The morale of the Romans was shaken. Yet, the time was late; it was evening and getting dark. It was very dangerous to fight in darkness. Because, they could kill their friends accidentally…

For this reason, the two sides retreated to their encampments. The wounded were being treated. Hadrat Khâlid was a genius in the art of war. He wanted to meet the enemy in the morning with a new tactic and to confuse them. That night, he changed the locations of the soldiers. He took those on the right to the left, those on the left to the right, those in the front to the rear, and those in the rear to the front.

295 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 756; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 129, Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, III, 390; Tabarânî, al-Mu›ja- mu›l Kabîr, II, 105; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, IV, 130.
296 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 42; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, IV, 253; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, IV, 582; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 44.

The brave mujâhids attacked again in the morning. They started fighting with calls of “Allahu akbar.” The enemy soldiers were seeing these attacking soldiers for the first time. They were not the ones they fought the previous day. A new army must have come to help Muslims! Thinking this with a great fear, the morale of the Ro- man soldiers broke. They panicked. Hadrat Khâlid and the brave sahâbîs used this opportunity. They fought even more magnificently and sent souls of thousands of the enemys to Hell. That day, nine swords had been broken in the hands of Hadrat Khâlid bin Walîd.296 With the bestowment of Allahu ta’âlâ and the blessing of the supplication of our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, three thousand mujâhid ghâzîs routed one hundred thousand enemy soldiers. In this great battle, fifteen Mus- lims were martyred. Thus, the Byzantine Empire had been intimidated and it was prevented from raiding into Southern lands.

Our Master Rasûl-i akram, our Honorable Prophet had assembled his Companions in the masjîd to inform them of what had happened in Mu’ta. This was even before the news from the battlefield reached him. The Companions, seeing the blessed face of our beloved Prophet, understood that he was very sad. No one could ask anything. They feared of bring another cause of sorrow to him. Finally, one of the Ashâb-i kirâm said, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah! Since we saw your sorrow, we are in grief, only Janâb-i Haqq knows how much sadness we have!” Upon this, our beloved Prophet wept and said, “The reason for my grief you saw was the martyrdom of my Companions. This state continued until I saw them while they were sitting on thrones in Paradise. Zayd bin Hârisa held the banner. Eventually, he became martyred. Now, he has entered Paradise. He is hurrying around there. Then, Ja’far bin Abî Talîb held the banner. He attacked the enemy armies. He fought and he also became martyred. Then, being a martyr, he has entered Par- adise. Now, he is flying there as he wishes with two wings made from ruby. After Ja’far, Abdullah bin Rawâha held the banner. Holding it, he fought the enemy and became martyred. He has entered Paradise. They were shown to me, as they were on golden thrones in Paradise. O my Allah! Forgive Zayd!…. O my Allah! Forgive Ja’far! O my Allah! Forgive Abdullah bin Rawâha!”

Still, tears were coming down from the blessed eyes of the Master of the worlds. Weeping, he continued, “Khâlid bin Walîd has taken the banner after Abdullah bin Rawâha. Now, the battle has become intensified. O my Allah! He (Khâlid bin Walîd) is a sword, which is one of Your swords. Help him!…”297

As a miracle, with the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ, our beloved Prophet ’alai- his-salâm had seen the situation in the battlefield which was more than one thousand kilometers away and informed his Companions of it. After telling of this incident on the day when Hadrat Ja’far bin Abî Tâlib became martyred, he stood up and went to the home of Hadrat Ja’far. Hadrat Ja’far’s wife, Asmâ, had completed her housework; she had washed her children and combed their hair. Our beloved Prophet said, “O Asmâ! Where are Ja’far’s sons? Bring them to me!” When Lady Asmâ brought the children, our Master Rasûlullah embraced them. He could not stop his blessed tears. Seeing this, the wife of Hadrat Ja’far asked, “May may parents be sacrificed for you, O Rasûlullah! Why are you showing the same compassion to my children which you show to orphans? Have you received some grave news about Ja’far and his friends?!” The Master of the worlds became very sad. He replied, “Yes!… They have become martyred today!…” Our mother Hadrat Asmâ, embracing her children, started weeping. Our beloved Prophet could not endure this scene and left there.298

297 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, V, 299; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VII, 395; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 546; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 322; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VI, 150.
298 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 370; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 380; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 282; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, III, 474; IV, 251; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 126; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VI, 156.

Our Master Habîb-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam returned to his house of bliss. He told his pure wives, “Do not forget to prepare food for Ja’far’s family!” For three days, meals were sent to the families of the martyrs.

Several days had passed. Hadrat Ya’lâ bin Umayya brought the good news of vic- tory to Medina. Before he started to report what happened, our Master Rasûl-i akram told him, “If you wish, tell us what happened, if you don’t, I shall tell you.” Then, he related, in detail, what happened in the battlefield. Upon this, Ya’lâ bin Umayya said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ who has sent you with a true religion and a true book, you have not left anything untold of the events which the mujâhîds lived through.” Our Master replied, “Allahu ta’âlâ removed the distance for me so I saw the bat- tlefield with my own eyes.”

A few days later, the heralds announced that the Islamic army was approaching Medina. Our Master, the Prophet stood up with his Ashâb. They went out of Medina to welcome them. In the distance, a cloud of dust was rising; the holy banner of Islam was waving. The glitters of shields, swords brightened around like a mirror. A great excitement was seen in each Muslim. After a short while, the mujâhid ghâzîs, under the command of Khâlid bin Walîd entered Medina.

lineTHE CONQUEST OF MECCA

It was the eighth year of the Hegira. One of the articles of the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty was: “Arab tribes, other than the two parties, could accept protection of any party, they would be free to unite with Muslims or polytheists.” Accordingly, the Khuzâa tribe, the ally of our Master, the Prophet sided with Muslims and the Banî Bakr tribe sided with the polytheists. The Khuzaâ tribe and the Banî Bakr tribe were old enemies; they would attack each other whenever they found an opportunity. In ac- cordance with the Hudaybiya Peace, they had stopped their assaults for a while. How- ever, the Banî Bakr tribe could comply with this for only two years. A person from the Banî Bakr had recited a poem, insulting our beloved Prophet; a youngster from the Khuzâa tribe, who heard this, could not endure that and inflicted a wound on his head. The sons of Bakr, taking advantage of this event, attacked the Khuzâa tribe, which was safe according to the treaty. The Quraysh polytheists had assisted this assault by giving weapons and secretly sending men. They had killed more than twenty persons from the Khuzâa tribe at the Haram-i sharîf. During the fight, some Muslims from the Khuzâa tribe had requested help from our Master, the Prophet. Some people from the Khuzâa tribe had seen the Quraysh polytheists among the sons of Bakr in these raids.

That night, our beloved Prophet was in the house of our Mother Hadrat Maymûna. While he was performing ablution for ritual prayer, with the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ, as a miracle, he had heard Meccan Muslims’ calls for help. Replying to them, he said, “Labbayk! (I accept your invitation!)Our Mother Maymûna, seeing that our Master, the Prophet spoke while he was alone, she asked, “O Rasûlullah! Is there anyone with you?”

Our beloved Prophet informed her of the event which occurred in Mecca and the participation of the Quraysh there.

The Quraysh polytheists, in helping the Banî Bakr, by raiding the Huzâa tribe and killing them, had violated the conditions of the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty. Hence, they had broken the peace. However, Abû Sufyân, the leader of Quraysh was not aware of this event. He had gone to Damascus for trade. When he returned from Damascus, they told him about the incident. They said, “This is a problem which certainly must be solved. It is not possible to conceal it. If it is not solved, Muhammad will expel us from Mecca!” Abû Sufyân replied, “Although I was not aware of that event, I must urgently go to renew the peace before the news of this massacre reaches Medina.”

However, our beloved Prophet had learned of the incident instantaneously. In ad- dition, three days after the incident, Amr bin Sâlim, of the Khuzâa tribe, came with forty horsemen and told Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) what happened. Our Master, the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ said, “May I not be helped, if I do not help the sons of Khuzâa!” and he had a letter written. In this letter sent to the Quraysh polytheists, our beloved Prophet said, “…You, either will give up your alliance with the sons of Bakr and abstain from it, or you will pay blood money of those killed from the Khuzâa tribe! If you do not fulfill any of what I have mentioned, I an- nounce that I will fight you!”

The Quraysh were incapable of understanding this compassion. They sent a mes- sage, “We will neither break our alliance nor pay blood money. We can only fight.” However, they became deeply regretful for their deeds and out of their fear; they immediately sent Abû Sufyân to Medina.

Even before Abû Sufyân reached Medina, our beloved Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm, in- formed his Ashâb-i kirâm that Abû Sufyân would come. He said, “I understand that Abû Sufyân is coming to renew the peace and extend the peace period. But, he will return without attaining his goal.”

Abû Sufyân, who had not become a Muslim yet, came to Medina-i munawwara. He came to the house of his daughter, Umm-i Habîba, the mother of the believers and the blessed wife of our beloved Prophet. He wanted to sit on the bed of our beloved Prophet. Our mother Umm-i Habîba moved quickly and took away the bed. His father was so sorry and indicated his astonishment, “O my daughter! Do you spare this bed from me?” Hadrat Umm-i Habîba, mother of the believers, replied to her father, “This bed is the bed of the messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ. The polytheists cannot sit on it. You are a polytheist and unclean. It is not appropriate for you to sit on this bed.”

When his father said, “O my daughter! Something has happened to you since you left my house!” She said, “Alhamdulillâh! Allahu ta’âlâ granted Islam to me. Howev- er, you still worship idols, made of stone, which neither hear nor see! O father! How can a person who is the superior and the elder of the Quraysh, be away from Islam.” His father became very angry and replied, “You are accusing me of ignorance, with such a disesteem! So, shall I abandon my ancestors’ gods and embrace Muhammad’s religion?!”299

The leader of the Quraysh came to the presence of our beloved Prophet and said, “I have come to renew Hudaybiya Peace Treaty and to extend its period. Let us renew this treaty in writing.” Habîb-i-akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam replied, “We do not do anything contrary to the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty and we will not change it.” Although the leader of Quraysh said repeatedly, “Let us change the peace treaty! Let us renew it!”, our beloved Prophet did not give him any reply. When the leader of Quraysh saw that all his efforts failed, he returned to Mecca and told the polytheists what happened. They criticized him, “So, you have returned without doing anything, haven’t you?” There was nothing left for them except to wait.

Whoever takes refuge in Masjîd-i Haram…

When Abû Sufyân left Medina, our beloved Prophet decided to conquer Mecca. The Quraysh had not kept their promise and they had broken the treaty. He was keeping this as a secret; he wanted to take Mecca without giving an opportunity for preparations by the polytheists and without shedding blood in Haram-i sharîf. This was a war precaution. Because, when Mecca would be conquered, many people would become Muslims.

He informed of this to Hadrat Abû Bakr and some of the superiors of his com- panions. He ordered his companions to prepare for an expedition but he did not tell them where they would go. The Ashâb-i kirâm began to make preparations for jihâd. Our Master, the Prophet sent messages to the neighboring Muslim tribes Aslam, Ash- ja’, Juhayna, Husayn, Gifar, Muzayna, Sulaym, Damra and the sons of Khuzâa. It was said, “Those who believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and in the Hereafter, be present in Medina at the beginning of Ramadan.” They were invited to join the war.

Our Master, the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), as a precau- tion, entrusted Hadrat ’Umar with the duty of breaking the links of communications by blocking the roads to Mecca. At once, Hadrat ’Umar posted sentinels to mountain roads, passages and other roads and commanded them, “You will force anyone who wants to go to Mecca to return!”

Our beloved Prophet, for secretly executing this business, invoked, “O my Rabb! Until we suddenly reach their homelands, hold the spies and message bearers of the Quraysh, make them blind and deaf. May they see and hear us suddenly.”

Our Master, the Prophet, to give the impression that there would be a march against the polytheists in the North or the Byzantines, sent Hadrat Abû Katâda with troops to the North, towards the valley of Izâm.

Meanwhile, our beloved Prophet, as a miracle, reported that a letter had been sent to inform Meccans of the preparations in Medina. He sent Hadrat Ali and had it caught.

Until the second day of the Month of Ramadan, help from the neighboring tribes had come and they had gathered in the encampment around the well of Abû Inaba. The Ashâb-i kirâm were twelve thousand in number. Of them, four thousand were Ansâr, seven hundred wer