The word “Islam” in Arabic means “self-devotion, submission, salvation,” as well as “peace.” Imam A’zam Abû Hanîfa (rahmatullahi ’alaih) has defined Islam as “submission and obedience to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments.”

If the facts stated above are read carefully, it will automatically become clear how a Muslim should be. We shall repeat them once again, below.

First of all, a Muslim is clean physically and spiritually. But let us begin with physical cleanliness.

In several different places in the Qur’ân al-kerîm, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: “I like those who are clean.” Muslims do not enter mosques or houses with their shoes on. Their carpets, their floors remain spotless and clean. Every Muslim has a bathroom in his house. Their bodies, underwear and food are always clean. In this way they do not spread microbes and disease.

The Palace of Versailles, which the French boastfully announce to the world, does not have a bathroom. In the Middle Ages when a Frenchman living in Paris got up in the morning, he used to urinate and defecate into a chamber pot.

Since there was no toilet in his house, he would take that pot and a bottle used for drinking water to the river Seine. First he would take his drinking water from the river, and then pour the urine and the faeces into the river. These lines have been literally translated from a French book entitled “Drinking-Water” (L’Eau Potâble). A German priest who had come to Istanbul during the time of Sultan Sulayman the Lawgiver said the following in a book which he wrote sometime around 967 [1560]:

“I admire the cleandliness here. Everyone here washes themselves five times a day. All the shops are clean. There is no dirt on the streets. There are no stains on the clothes of the sellers.

Also, there are buildings which contain hot water called “hammâms,” wherein people take a bath. In contrast, our people are dirty; they don’t know how to wash themselves.” It was centuries later before Europeans learned how to wash themselves.

As for today, foreigners who travel in the so-called Muslim countries write in the books they publish: “When you go to an Eastern country, first, the smell of putrid fish and rubbish assaults your nostrils. There is dirt everywhere. The streets are awash with spittle and mucus. Here and there one can see heaps of rubbish and carcasses of beasts. You feel disgust as you travel through Eastern countries, and realize that the Muslims are not as clean as they claim to be.” We are afraid it is true.

Indeed, in countries bearing the name of Islam today, not only have they forgotten the knowledge of faith, but they also do not pay due attention to cleanliness. But, the fault lies with people who have forgotten that the essence of Islam is cleanliness. Poverty is no excuse at all for being dirty. A person’s spitting on the ground or dirtying the place has nothing to do with money. Such dirty people are the wretched who have forgotten Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments on cleanliness. If each Muslim knew his religion perfectly and practiced it with devotion, this uncleanliness would go away automatically. Then, foreigners who visit Muslim countries would admire their cleanliness, just as they admired medieval Muslims.

A true Muslim is clean and takes great care of his health. He never consumes alcoholic drinks, which is a kind of poison. He doesn’t eat pork, which has been prohibited on account of its various dangers and harms. It has been discovered that the virus causing the contagious and fatal disease AIDS, which is afflicting homosexuals, exist in pigs.

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) praised the science of medicine in various ways. An example is his statement: “There are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of the body and knowledge of religion.” That is, by saying that these two are the most important sciences, the religious knowledge, which protects the soul, and the knowledge of health, which protects the body, he wanted us to strive to keep our body and soul vigorous. For all kinds of good deeds can be done only with a healthy body.

Today, all universities teach that the practice of medicine consists of two parts: The first is hygiene, keeping the body healthy, and the second is therapeutics, treatment of diseases.

The first of the two has precedence. It is the primary task of medicine to protect people against diseases and to keep them healthy. Even if a sick person is cured, he may still remain invalid and defective. And now to the point: hygiene, medicine’s first task is vouchsafed by Islam. In the second part of the book

Mawâhib-ul-ladunniyya, it has been proven that the Qur’ân alkerîm promotes both aspects of medicine as expressed in some verses.

Our prophet Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had established close relations with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius.

They used to correspond with and send envoys to each other. On one occasion, Heraclius sent him many presents. One of the presents was a medical doctor. When the doctor arrived he came to our Prophet and said “Sir! His Majesty has sent me to you as a servant. I shall treat those that are ill free of charge.” Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) accepted his services.

As ordered, the doctor was given a house. Everyday, they brought delicious food and drink for him. Days and months passed. No Muslims came to see him. Consequently, the doctor, feeling ashamed, requested permission to leave, saying: “Sir! I came here to serve you. Up to now no sick person has come to me. I have been sitting idly eating and drinking comfortably. And now I’d like to go back home.” Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) responded: “It is up to you. If you would like to stay  longer, it is the Muslims’ primary duty to serve and show honour  to their guests. However, if you would like to leave now, have a good journey! But you must know that, even if you were to stay here for years, no Muslim would come to see you. It is because my Companions do not become ill. The Islamic religion has shown the way to good health. My Companions pay great attention to cleanliness. They do not eat anything unless they are hungry, and they stop eating before becoming fully sated.”

With the words above, we do not mean to say that a Muslim never becomes ill. However, a Muslim who pays attention to his health and cleanliness remains healthy for a long time. He hardly becomes ill. Death is a fact of life. It cannot be avoided. Everyone will die as a result of some illness. Yet, being able to keep one’s body healthy until the time of death is possible only by paying attention to Islam’s commandments on cleanliness.

During the Middle Ages, when Christianity was at its peak, the great scholars of medicine were only to be found among the Muslims. Europeans used to come to Andalusia to receive an education in medicine. Those who discovered a vaccine to procure an immunity from smallpox were Muslim Turks. Janner, who learned the vaccine from the Turks, took it to Europe in 1211 (1796) and was unjustly titled “The discoverer of the smallpox vaccine.” In those days, Europe was a continent of cruelty, and various diseases were annihilating the people. The King of France, Louis XV, died of smallpox in 1774. Plague and cholera played havoc in Europe for a long time. When Napoleon first besieged the fortress of AKKA in 1212 (1798), plague erupted among his army, and being quite helpless against it, he had to beg for help from the Muslim Turks, his enemies. It is written in a French book of that time as follows: “The Turks sent their doctors, accepting our request. They wore extremely clean clothes and had luminous faces. First, t ey prayed and then at length washed their hands with plenty of soap and water. They incised buboes formed on the patients’ bodies with lancets, caused the pus formed in them to flow out, and then washed the wounds neatly. Later, placing the patients in separate rooms, they instructed the healthy ones to stay away from them. They burned the patients’ clothes and dressed them in new clothes. Finally, they washed their hands again, burned aloe wood at the places where the diseased ones had been, prayed again, and left us, refusing all our offers in the name of payment and gift.”

This means to say that Westerners, who were helpless against diseases until two centuries ago, learned today’s medicine only by reading, experimenting, and working as it is dictated in the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

As for spiritual cleanliness, certainly a Muslim should have a very high morality and gentility. Islam is morality and nobility in its entirety. The degree of goodness, justice and generosity which Islam commands to be applied to enemies as well as to friends is amazingly high. The events over the last thirteen centuries have shown this fact very clearly to Islam’s adversaries as well. Of the innumerable proofs, we shall relate one which stands out.

As written in one of the two-hundred-year-old court records in the archives of the Bursa Museum, Muslims built a mosque on some land near the Jewish quarter in Alt›parmak. The Jews claimed ownership of the land and said that the Muslims could not build a mosque there. The dispute became a matter for a court of law. After the hearing, the court decided that the area belonged to the Jews, that the mosque was to be destroyed, and that the land was to be given back to the Jews. The decision was executed. Indeed, great justice!

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declared: “I have been sent down to perfect virtue and to spread beautiful morals over the world.’ Another hadîth states: “Among you, the ones with a perfect morality are the ones with an elevated faith.” Therefore, even faith is measured by morality.

Spiritual purity is essential for a Muslim. A person who lies, who cheats, deceives others, who is cruel, unjust, who shirks from helping his co-religionists, who assumes superiority, who thinks only of his advantages, is not a true Muslim, no matter how much he worships.

The exalted meaning of the first three verses in Chapter (sûra) Mâ’ûn is: “O! My Messenger! Have you seen someone who denies the Judgement, puts the orphan aside with harshness, does not give their rights, and does not encourage others to feed the needy?” The worships of such people are not accepted. In Islam, keeping away from the prohibitions (harâm) takes precedence over doing the commandments (fards). A true Muslim is, first of all, a perfect and mature person. He has a smiling face. He is a honey-tongued man who tells the truth. He never knows what it is “to be angry.” Rasûlullah (Hadrat Muhammad [sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam]) declared: “The person given mildness is the one endowed with the goodness of this world and the Hereafter.” A Muslim is extremely modest. He listens to everyone who consults him and helps them as far as possible.

A Muslim is dignified and polite. He loves his family and his country. Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declares: “Your love of country originates from your fatih.” That is why, when the government fights against aggressors, a Muslim does his military service willingly. It says as follows in a work written by a German priest in 1560, which has been mentioned above: “Now I’ve understood why the Muslim Turks overcame us in all our expeditions. Whenever there is a holy war here, the Muslims immediately take up their arms, fight and die willingly for the sake of their country and religion. They believe that those who die in a holy war will go to Paradise. In contrast, in our country, when there is a likelihood of war, everyone looks for a hiding place lest they should be enrolled in the army. And those who are recruited by force fight reluctantly.”

How Allâhu ta’âlâ likes His slaves to be is explained very well in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. The exalted meanings of verses 63-69 in Chapter Furqan are: “[The virtuous] slaves of the Rahmân (Allâhu ta’âlâ’, who has much compassion for His slaves) walk on the earth modestly and with dignity. When ignorant people try to annoy them, they respond with kind words, such as: ‘peace and safety be on you!’ They spend the nights standing and prostrating [performing namâz] before their Lord. [They offer their thanks and praise to Him]. They entreat Allah, ‘O my Allah, take the Hell torment away from us. Indeed, His torment is eternal and bitter, and that place is no doubt an evil and horrible residence.’ In their spending, they are neither prodigal nor miserly; they follow a moderate way between these two extremes, and they do not deduct from anyone’s rights. They do not attribute partners to Allah. They do not kill anyone, which is prohibited by Allah. [They only punish the guilty.] They do not commit fornication.”

In verses 72-74 of the same chapter: “[Those virtuous human slaves whom Allâhu ta’âlâ likes] they do not bear false witness. They abstain from things… useless and harmful. If they are accidentally involved in something useless or which can be done with great difficulty, they pass by in a dignified manner. They do not turn a blind eye and a deaf ear to the revelations of their Lord when they are reminded of them. They implore saying, ‘O my Allah! Bestow such wives and children as may be a source of comfort to our eyes. Make us examples for those who fear You.”

Moreover, the sacred meaning of the second and third âyats (verses) in Sûra (chapter) Sâff: “Believers! Why do you profess what you never did? Allah feels a strong distaste for you when you say something you cannot practice,” shows that a person’s vowing or promising what he cannot perform makes him a bad person in Allahu ta’âlâ’s view.

A true Muslim is extremely respectful to his parents, teachers, commanders, the laws, and to the leading authorities of his country. He is not concerned with something insignificant. He is busy only with something useful. He doesn’t gamble. He doesn’t kill his time.

A true Muslim does his worships perfectly. He offers gratitude to Allâhu ta’âlâ. Worship should not be performed unwillingly or unconsciously. Worship must be performed willingly and with great love for Allâhu ta’âlâ. To fear Allâhu ta’âlâ means to love Him very much. You do not want the person you love much to be displeased and you are afraid lest you might cause him to be disturbed. In this way, worship for Allâhu ta’âlâ should be performed in such a manner as to prove our love for Him. The blessings which Allâhu ta’âlâ has given us are so great that our debt of gratitude to Him can be paid only by loving Him much and by worshipping Him with profound sincerity. There are different kinds of worship. Some kinds of worship, as we have said above, are between Allâhu ta’âlâ and His slave. Maybe Allâhu ta’âlâ will forgive those who worship insufficiently. It is worship to respect others’ rights, too. But He will never forgive those who abused others and have the rights of others’ on them, unless the owners of those rights forgive them.

The following traditions (the Hadîth ash-sherif) are found in the fourth volume of the book Ashi’at-ul Lamaât, which is in Persian and is a commentary to the well-known book Mishqât-ul-Masâbih.[1] ([1] The author of Mishqât is Valiyyuddîn Muhammad, who passed away in 749 (1348 A.D.))

1. He who does not have mercy on people is not treated with mercy by Allâhu ta’âlâ.

2. You will have helped both the oppressor and the oppressed by preventing cruelty.

3. If nine-tenths of the money given for buying a shirt is halâl and one-tenth is harâm, Allâhu ta’âlâ doesn’t accept the prayer done with that shirt on.

4. A Muslim is another Muslim’s brother. He doesn’t torment his brother. He runs to help him. He does not abhor him or think of him as inferior to himself. It is harâm (forbidden) for him to harm his blood, property, chastity or honour.

5. I swear by Allâhu ta’âlâ that unless a person loves for his Muslim brother what he loves for himself, his îman will not be perfect.

6. I swear by Allâhu ta’âlâ that a man who is not trusted by his neighbour doesn’t have îman (belief). [That is, he is not a genuine Muslim.]

7. A person without mercy in his heart does not have îman.

8. Allâhu ta’âlâ pities the person who pities others.

9. He who does not pity our young or respect our old is not one of us.

10. If a person respects and helps the old, Allâhu ta’âlâ will send him helpers when he gets old.

11. The house that Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best is the one which houses an orphan and in which an orphan is served kindly.

12. In this world and in the Hereafter Allâhu ta’âlâ will help the person who silences a backbiter. If he does not silence the backbiter while he has enough power to do so, Allâhu ta’âlâ will punish him in this world and in the Hereafter.

13. A person who sees a defect, a shortcoming in a Muslim brother of his, but covers and conceals it, has acted as if he saved the life of a girl buried alive, as practised by the pre-Islamic Arabs, by taking her out of the grave.

14. In Allâhu ta’âlâ’s view, the better one of two friends is the one who has done more good for the other one.

15. Whether a person is good or bad is judged by observing whether or not his [Muslim] neighbours like him.

16. The destination of a man who hurts his neighbours with his speech is Hell, even if he prays much, fasts much, gives alms much. But, if he doesn’t hurt his neighbours with his speech, the place for him to be sent will be Paradise, though he may pray little, fast little, and give little alms.

17. Allâhu ta’âlâ has given valuable things both to His beloved ones and to His enemies. But he has given beautiful morals only to His beloved ones. [Now, it is understood that the words, “It is hoped that the disbelievers with excellent manners will have îmân immediately before they pass away” is right.]

18. The thawâbs (rewards for a pious act) of a man who violated other’s chastity or property will be given to the man oppressed. If the violator’s worships or pious deeds are not enough, then the latter’s sins are given to him.

19. One of the worst of the mortal sins in Allâhu ta’âlâ’s view is to be a man with a bad character.

20. If someone is happy to see that the man he dislikes is in trouble, Allâhu ta’âlâ will send the same nuisance upon him.

21. Two people went to the mosque and prayed there. Something was offered to them. They said they were fasting. After talking for a while, when they were about to leave, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said to them: “Do your prayers again, and perform your fasting again! For you have backbitten someone in your conversation. [That is, you have mentioned one of his faults.] Backbiting removes the thawâb (blessings) of worships.”

22. Do not have jealousy. As a fire destroys wood, feeling jealousy annihilates the blessings of a person, too.” Having jealousy means being jealous of a person, that is, to wish the blessings given to him by Allâhu ta’âlâ were taken away from him. It is not called jealousy to wish to have the same blessings for yourself without wishing them to be taken away from others. This is called “qipta” which means “longing,” in other words, “good will.” Wishing something evil and harmful to be removed from someone is called “qairat” which means “perseverance”, or called “khamiyyat” which means “zealousness.”

23. Someone who is good-tempered will attain goodness both in this world and in the Hereafter.

24. Allâhu ta’âlâ does not put his slave whom He endowed with a beautiful face and a good character into Hell in the Hereafter.

25. Abû Huraira was told: “Be good-tempered!” by the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). He asked: “What is it to be good-tempered?” the Prophet answered: “Approach a person who stays away from you and give him advice; forgive him who torments you; if a person is loath to give you from his property, knowledge or help, give him plenty of these!”

26. Paradise is the destination of a person who dies purged from arrogance, treachery and debts.

27. The Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) did not want to perform the janâza prayer[1] ([1] Janâza Prayer: When a Muslim dies, other Muslims assemble together in front of his coffin and perform a certain prayer called salât-uljanâza.

Thereby, they pray so that his sins will be forgiven, and he will be given many blessings, etc.) for a person who had died indebted. A Sahabî (companion of the Prophet) named Abû Qatâda (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) took his debts upon himself by remittance. So, the Prophet accepted performing the janâza prayer for him.

28. Do not beat your wives! They are not your slaves.

29. In the view of Allâhu ta’âlâ, the best of you is the one who is the best towards his wife. I am the best among you in the treatment of his wife.

30. The best among you in îman (faith) is the one with the best character and the one who is the mildest to his wife.

Most of the Hadith ash-sherîfs written above exist in the book Zawâjir by the profound Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar[2] ([2] Ibn Hajar, passed away, 974 (1566 A.D.) ) immediately before the part entitled ‘Ihtiqâr.’ They are the source for beautiful Islamic morals. Islamic scholars have derived rules from these hadith-i sherîfs. Some of them are as follows.

1. It is harâm (forbidden) for a Muslim who is in a country of disbelievers to violate their property, life, chastity or to steal. He should not disobey their laws and should not cheat or be treacherous when shopping and so on.

2. Usurping a disbeliever’s property or hurting his heart is worse than usurping a Muslim’s property. Cruelty to animals is worse than cruelty to men, and cruelty to disbelievers is worse than cruelty to animals.

3. It is harâm to take and use someone else’s property without his permission even if you return it undamaged.

4. If a person postpones the payment of his debt for one hour while he has the means, he will be considered cruel and disobedient. He will remain accursed continuously. Not paying one’s debt is such a continuous sin that it is recorded (in one’s deed-book) even when one is asleep. If one pays his debts with money of low value or with useless property, or if the creditor takes it back unwillingly, this too makes one sinful. One will not escape being sinful unless one pleases or satisfies the creditor.

For fourteen hundred years, Islamic scholars have always taught in their lectures and books the beautiful morals commanded by Islam. In this way, they have tried to inculcate the beautiful habits taught by Islam into the minds and hearts of the young. The below-mentioned book is a sample of the innumerable books promulgating these beautiful morals.

The book Maktûbât by the profound Islamic scholar Imâm-i Rabbânî Ahmad Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), who was a great Walî and was the mujaddid of the second millennium (of Islam), is very valuable. Sayyid Abdulhakim Arwâsî[1] [1] Abdulhakîm Effendi, passed away in Ankara in 1362 (1943 A.D.) who was a professor of theology in the Madrasat-ul-Mutahhassisîn, the highest of the madrasas (schools) during the time of the Ottoman Empire, often said, “Another book as valuable as Maktûbât has not been written on Islam,” and, “The most valuable and the highest book is Imâm-i Rabbânî’s book Maktûbât, except of course, for the Qur’ân al-kerîm and our Prophet’s (sall-Allâh ’alaihi wa sallam) hadith sherîfs. “Imam-i Rabbânî was born in the city of Serhend in India in 971 (1563), and passed away there in 1034 (1624). Abdulhakîm Effendi was born in Van, an eastern city in Turkey, in 1281 (1874) and passed away in the city of Ankara, the capital, in 1362 (1943). It is written in the 76th letter of Maktûbât: The sacred meaning of the 7th verse of Hashr Sûra is; “…Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back…”

As it is seen, two things are necessary for escaping perdition in the world and Hell’s torment in the next world: to hold fast to the commands, and to abstain from the prohibitions! Of these two, the greatest one, the one more necessary, is the second one, which is called wara’ and taqwâ. In the presence of Rasûlullah they mentioned a person that worshipped and struggled a lot. But when they said that another person abstained from what is prohibited, he declared, “Nothing can be comparable with wara’.” That is, he said that it was more valuable to abstain from the prohibitions. In a hadîth-i sherif he declared, “Wara’ is the pillar of your religion.” Men becoming superior to angels is due to wara’, and their progress or becoming exalted, is, again, due to wara’. Angels also obey the commands. But angels cannot make progress. Then, holding fast to wara’ and having taqwâ is more important than anything else. In Islam the most valuable thing is taqwâ. The basis of the religion is taqwâ. Wara’ and taqwâ mean to abstain from the harâms. To abstain from the harâms entirely, it is necessary to abstain from more than the necessary mubâhs.

We should utilize the mubâhs only as much as necessary. If a person uses the mubâhs as he likes, that is, of those things which the Sharî’at has permitted, or uses the mubâhs exceedingly, he will begin to do what is doubtful. And the doubtful is close to those things which are harâm. Man’s nafs, like a beast, is greedy.

He who walks around an abyss may fall down into it. To maintain wara’ and taqwâ precisely, one should use the mubâhs only as much as necessary, and should not exceed the necessary amount.

When using this amount, one should intend to use them in order to do one’s duties as a born slave of Allah. It is a sin also to use them a little without intending so. It is harmful whether it is little or much. It is next to impossible to abstain entirely from more than the necessary mubâhs always, especially in this time. At least, one must abstain from the harâms and do one’s best to abstain from more than the necessary mubâhs.

When the mubâhs are done in excess of what is necessary, one must repent
and ask for pardon. One should know these deeds as the beginning of committing harâms. One must consign oneself to Allâhu teâlâ and beg Him. This repentance, asking for pardon and begging, may stand for abstaining from more than the necessary mubâhs entirely, thus protecting one against the harm and bane of such deeds. One of our superiors says, “Sinners’ hanging their heads seems to me better than worshippers’ swelling their chests.”

There are two ways of abstaining from the harâms: Firstly, to abstain from those sins which only disturb the rights of Allâhu taâlâ; secondly, to abstain from those sins whereby other people’s or creatures’ rights have been violated. The second kind is more important. Allahu taâlâ does not need anything, and He is very merciful. On the other hand, human beings not only need a lot of things but also are very stingy. Resûlullah said,

“He who has human beings’ rights on himself, and who has violated creatures’ property and chastity, should pay the rights back and have himself forgiven before death! For that day gold and property will have no value. That day, his blessings will be taken away until the rights have been paid, and if he does not have any blessings, the right-owner’s sins will be loaded on him.”

[İbni Âbidîn,[1] ([1] Muhammad Ibni Âbidîn passed away in Damascus in 1252 (1836A.D.).) while explaining the book Durr-ul-mukhtâr, says in the two hundred and ninety-fifth page on the subject of intending for salât, “On the Day of Judgement, if the right-owner does not waive his right, seven hundred prayers of namâz which have been performed in jamâ’at and accepted will be taken away and will be given to the right-owner in return for a right of one dank.” One dank is one-sixth of a dirham, about half a gram of silver, which is worth about twenty-five kurush.]

One day, when Rasûlullah asked the Ashâb-i kirâm, “Do you know who is called bankrupt?” They said, “The person without any money or property left.” He declared, “Among my ummat, a bankrupt is a person whose deed-book contains many thawâbs of salât, fasting and zakât on the Day of Judgement. But he has cursed a person, slandered him and taken away his property. His thawâbs will be divided and distributed to such right-owners. If his thawâbs are depleted before the rights are paid, the sins of the right-owners will be loaded upon him. Then he will be hurled into Hell.”

It is written as follows in the ninety-eighth letter of Maktûbât:

“Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Allâhu ta’âlâ is Rafîq (The Exalter). He likes mildness. He gives to mild people what he Has not given to the harsh ones or to anyone else.’ This tradition (hadith ash-sherîf) is written in the tradition book Sahîh by Imâm-i Muslim.

Again in Muslim, [the Prophet] said to Hadrat Âisha (rad-Allâhu ’anhâ) his blessed wife: ‘Behave mildly. Refrain from severity and from something repulsive! Mildness adorns a person and takes ugliness away.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [in the book Muslim] declares: ‘He who doesn’t act mildly has not done any good.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [in the book Bukhârî] declares: ‘Whom I like best among you is the one with the most beautiful temperament.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [conveyed by Imam-i Ahmad and Tirmuzî (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)][1] ([1] Muhammad Tirmuzî passed away in 279 (892 A.D.).) declares: ‘A person who is given mildness is given goodness in this and in the next world.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Imam-› Ahmad, Tirmuzî, Hâkim and Bukhârî (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘Hayâ (bashfulness) comes from îmân. A person with îmân is in Paradise. Fuhsh (an indecent act) is evil. Evildoers are in Hell.”

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Imam-i Ahmad and Tirmuzî] declares: ‘I’m describing the person for whom it is harâm (forbidden) to enter Hell and who is harâm for Hell to burn: Pay attention! This person shows easiness and mildness towards people’.

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Ahmad Tirmuzî, and Abû Dâwûd] declares: ‘Those who are mild and who provide ease for others are like a man who holds the halter of his animal. If he wants to stop the animal, it will obey him. If he wants to ride it over rocks, the animal runs towards them.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in Bukhârî] declares: ‘If a person controls his anger when he gets angry although has the power to do what he likes, on the Resurrection Day Allah will call him from among other people and will say unto him: “Go to Paradise and choose the hourî you like!” ’

As it is communicated in a hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in all hadîth books], when a person asked Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to give him some advice he said, ‘Do not get angry or nervous!’ When the man repeated the same question again and again, he gave the same response saying, ‘Do not get angry or nervous.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in Tirmuzî and Abû Dâwûd] declares: ‘Listen, I’m describing those who will go to Paradise: They are powerless, incapable. When they take an oath to do something, Allâhu ta’âlâ will certainly fulfill their oaths. Listen, I’m describing those who will go to Hell: They are severe. They decide in a hurry (without thinking). They are arrogant.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Tirmuzî and Abû Dâwûd (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘If a person gets angry when standing, he should sit down. If he cannot get over it by sitting, he should lie down!’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Tabarânî, Bayhakî and Ibni Asâkir (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ) declares: ‘As aloe decomposes honey, fury defiles îmân as well.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Bayhakî and Abû Nuaym][1] ([1] Ahmad Abû Nu’aym passed away in 430 (1039 A.D.).) declares: ‘Allah promotes a person who humbles himself for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake. He deems himself inferior, but he is superior in the eyes of others. If a person holds himself superior to others, Allâhu ta’âlâ demotes him, and he becomes inferior in everyone’s view. He is great only in his own view. In fact, he looks lower than dogs and swine.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Bayhakî (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘When Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) asked, “O my Allah! Who is the most valuable of Your human slaves?” Allâhu ta’âlâ declared, “He who forgives when he has enough power (to punish).” ’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Abû Ya’lâ] declares: ‘If a person controls his speech, Allâhu ta’âlâ will cover his shortcomings. If he controls his wrath, Allâhu ta’âlâ will withdraw His torment from him on the Resurrection Day. If a person invokes Allâhu ta’âlâ, He will accept his invocation.”

As it is written in Tirmuzî, Muâwiya (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) wrote a letter to Hadrat Um-mul-mu’minîn Âisha (radiy-Allâhu’anhâ) and asked her to write some advice for him. She wrote an

answer, saying: ‘May Allah’s salâm (greeting) be upon you! I heard from Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). He said: “If a person seeks Allâhu ta’âlâ’s approval though it will make people angry, Allâhu ta’âlâ protects him against (harm) that will come from people. If a person seeks people’s approval though it will cause Allâhu ta’âlâ’s wrath, Allâhu ta’âlâ leaves his affair to people.” ’

May Allâhu ta’âlâ honour us and you with adapting ourselves to these hadîths uttered by him, who always told the truth! Try to act compatibly with them.

Life in this world is very short. The torment in the next world is very bitter and it is endless. Far-sighted men of wisdom should make preparations in advance. We should not fall for the world’s beauty and flavour. If man’s honour and value were to be assessed with worldly things, those who have more worldly property would be more valuable and higher than others. It is stupidity, idiocy to fall for the world’s appearance. Deeming this short sojourn a great blessing, we should try to do what Allâhu ta’âlâ likes. We should do kind favours for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s human slaves.

There are two major ways to avoid the torment of the Resurrection Day: To esteem and respect Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments is the first one, the other is to treat Allâhu ta’âlâ’s human slaves and creatures with compassion and goodness. Whatever the truthful Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) has said is the very truth itself. None of his instructions is humorous, funny or delirious. How long will sleeping with open eyes like hares (rabbits) last? The end of this sleep is shame and disgrace, empty-handedness and privation.

The exalted meaning of the 115th verse (ayât) of Chapter (surâ) Mu’minûn in the Qur’ân al-kerîm is: ‘Do you think I have created you without any purpose like toys? Do you say you shall not return to us?’ I know you are not in the mood to listen to such words. You are young. You are active and exuberant. You are in the lap of worldly blessings. You are obeyed by everyone around you. You can do whatever you like. All these have been written only because we feel pity for you and want to do something of value for you. You haven’t missed anything yet. It is time to repent and to invoke Allâhu ta’âlâ.” This is the end of the translation from the 98th letter.

While describing “tasawwuf” in his book entitled Erriyâd-ut tasawwufiyya, Sayyid Abdulhakîm Arwasî stated: “Tasawwuf means to cast off human attributes and to be endowed with angel-like attributes and habits of divine morals.” And he quoted Abû Muhammad Jerîrî’s statement: “Tasawwuf is to be endowed with all the good habits and to be purged from all the bad habits.”

[Abû Muhammad Jarîrî Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Husain passed away in 311 (923 A.D.). He was one of the great disciples of Junaid-i Baghdâdî.]

Muhammad Ma’thûm (rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ), the son of Imâm-i Ahmad Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the great Islamic scholar and the mujaddid of the second thousand (Islamic) years, wrote in the 147th letter of his book Maktûbât to Mir Muhammed Hafî, one of the governors of India, the following material:

May Allah, our sublime Creator, keep us from straying from the way of Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), the most beloved by the Creator of all worlds and the most exalted one of all prophets. O my compassionate brother. Man’s life time is very short. The things which are going to happen to us in the eternal life of the next world depend upon the kind of life we lead in this world. A wise and far-sighted person, during his short life in this world, always does the things that will cause him to live well and comfortably in the next world. He prepares the things that are necessary for a traveller to the next world.

Allah has given you a post to govern many people, which renders you a means for meeting their needs. Give plenty of thanks to Allâhu ta’âlâ for having blessed you with such a valuable and profitable responsibility. Strive to serve Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves. Have the understanding that by serving Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves you will attain blessings in this world and in the next. Know that the way leading to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s love is to be mild with Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, to do good to them, to help them with a smiling, cheerful face, soft words and easiness. Do not doubt that this will cause salvation from torment in the next world and an increase in the blessings of Paradise. The exalted Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) has explained this very well in his following hadith:

‘Allâhu ta’âlâ creates and sends the things that His slaves need. Allâhu ta’âlâ’s most beloved slave is the person who serves as a means for His blessings reaching His slaves.’ Below, I’m writing a few hadîths that indicate the value of meeting Muslims’ needs, pleasing them, having a good temper, and that praise and encourage being mild, serious and patient. Understand them well. If you cannot understand some of them, learn them by asking those people who know their religion and live in accordance with their knowledge. [Our Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sacred words are called hadîth.] Read the following hadîths carefully! Try to observe them in your every word and deed!

1. Muslims are brothers. They do not hurt one another or treat one another roughly. If a person helps a Muslim brother of his, Allâhu ta’âlâ, in turn, will facilitate his work. If a person saves a Muslim from trouble and thus makes him happy, Allah will save him from trouble at the most troublesome time on the Day of Resurrection. If a person conceals a Muslim’s defect or fault, on the Day of Resurrection, Allâhu ta’âlâ will conceal his defects and faults. [Bukharî, Muslim]

2. As long as a person helps his Muslim brother, Allâhu ta’âlâ will help him. [Muslim]

3. Allâhu ta’âlâ has created some of His slaves so that they will meet others’ needs and help them. Those who are in need will resort to these (slaves). There will be no fear of torment in the next world for these (slaves). [Taberânî]

4. Allâhu ta’âlâ has given many worldly blessings to some of His slaves. He has created them so that they will be useful to His (other) slaves. If these slaves distribute the blessings to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, there will be no decrease in their wealth. If they do not convey these blessings to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, Allâhu ta’âlâ will take His blessings away from them and give them to others. [Tabarânî, and Ibn Abid-dunyâ][1] ([1] Ibni Abid-dunyâ Abdullah passed away in Baghdâd in 281 (984 A.D.))

5. Meeting the needs of a Muslim brother is more profitable than doing i’tiqâf[2] ([2] I’tiqâf means to stay in a mosque and pray day and night during the last ten days of the month of Ramadân.) for ten years. And one day of i’tiqâf for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake will place a man a very great distance away from Hell’s fire. [Tabarânî, and Hâkim]

6. If a person does some work for his Muslim brother, thousands of angels will pray for him. On his way to do that work, one of his sins will be forgiven for every step, and he will be given blessings on the Day of Resurrection. [Ibn Mâja]

7. If a person goes to help a Muslim with a business, for each step, he will be given seventy thawâbs and seventy of his sins will be forgiven. This will go on until the work is finished. When the work is done all of his sins will be forgiven. If he dies during the work, he will go into Paradise without any questioning. [Ibn Abid-dunyâ]

8. If a person goes to the state authorities and struggles with them so that his Muslim brother will be freed from trouble and attain comfort, on the Day of Resurrection when all others will slip on the bridge of Sirat, Allâhu ta’âlâ will help him pass over it quickly. [Tabarânî]

9. The act which Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best is to please a Muslim by giving him clothes or food or by meeting any other need. [Tabarânî]

10. The act which Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best after His farâid is to please a Muslim. [Tabarânî] Allah’s commands are called fard. Hence, from this hadîth-i sherif, it is understood that those who perform the worships that are fard are loved more by Allâhu ta’âlâ. The things which are harmful and evil and prohibited for people to do by Allâhu ta’âlâ are called harâm. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves those who refrain from the harâms better than those who do the farâid (pl. of fard). It is fard to have a good temperament. And it is harâm to have a bad temperament. It is more valuable and more thawâb to refrain from doing evil than to do good.

11. When a person does a good service for a Muslim, Allâhu ta’âlâ will create an angel from this good deed. This angel will worship all the time. The thawâb for his worship will be given to that person. When the person dies and is put into his grave, the angel will come to his grave, with a luminous and friendly face. Upon seeing the angel he will feel relieved and become cheerful. ‘Who are you?’ he will ask. The answer will be, ‘I’m the good which you did to so-and-so and the joy which you caused in his heart. Allâhu ta’âlâ has sent me to please you today and to intercede for you on the Day of Resurrection and to escort you to your place in Paradise.’

12. The exalted Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was asked: ‘What are the more important things which will cause one to enter Paradise?’ ‘To fear Allâhu ta’âlâ and to have a good temperament,’ he answered. And when he was asked the main reasons for us going to Hell, he said, ‘To be sorry when you lose your worldly blessings, to be happy when you attain these blessings, and to exceed the limits.’ [Tirmuzî, Ibn Hebbân, and Baihakî[1]] ([1] Ahmad Baihakî passed away in Nishapur, in 458 (1066 A.D.).) [The symptom of fearing Allâhu ta’âlâ is to refrain from His prohibitions.]

13. The man with the strongest îmân (belief) among you is the one who has the best moral character and who is the mildest with his wife! [Tirmuzî, and Hâkim]

14. Because of man’s beautiful moral character, he will attain the highest grades in Paradise. [Supererogatory] worships will not enable him to attain these grades. A bad temper will drag a man down to the lowest depths of Hell. [Tabarânî]

15. The easiest and the lightest of worships is to talk only a little and to have a good temper. Pay attention to this word I’m saying! [Ibn-Abid-Dunyâ]

16. A person asked our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam): ‘Which is the best of deeds?’ ‘To have a good temper,’ answered the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). The man stood up and left him. Then, a few minutes later he came again and approached our Prophet’s right side and asked the same question. He, again, said ‘To have a good temper.’ The man went away and soon turned back. He came near our Prophet from his left side and asked: ‘Which deed is it that Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best?’ The answer was the same: ‘To have a good temper.’ Then the person asked, approaching the Prophet from behind, ‘What is the best and most valuable act?’ The Prophet turned to him and said, ‘Can you not understand what it means to have a good temper? Do your best not to get angry with anyone.’

17. I promise you that a Muslim who does not quarrel with anyone and who does not hurt anyone with his words, though he may be right, will go to Paradise. I promise you that a person who does not lie even to make jokes or to amuse others will go to Paradise. I promise you that he who has a good temper will attain high grades in Paradise. [Abû Dâvûd, Ibn Mâja, and Tirmuzî]

18. In a hadîth-i qudsî, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: ‘I like the Islamic religion that I have sent you.’ [That is, I like those who accept this religion and who adapt themselves to its commandments. I love them.] Being in this religion is completed only by being generous and by having a good temper. Everyday make it known that you have perfected your religion with these two.’ [Tabarânî][2] ([2] Tabarânî Sulaymân, passed away in Damascus in 360 (971 A.D.).)

19. As hot water melts ice, so a good temper melts and annihilates one’s sins. As vinegar decomposes honey and makes it inedible, so a bad temper spoils and annihilates one’s worships. [Tabarânî]

20. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves and helps the soft-tempered. He doesn’t help the harsh and the hot-headed. [Tabarânî]

21. Who is the person for whom it is harâm to enter Hell and it is forbidden for the Hell-fire to burn? I’m telling you. Listen carefully! All of those who are mild and who do not get angry! [Tirmuzî. This hadîth-i sherîf is written also in the 99th letter mentioned above.]

22. It is a great endowment from Allâhu ta’âlâ for His slave to act calmly and gently. Being impatient and rash is the devil’s way. Being patient and serious is what Allâhu ta’âlâ loves. [Abu Ya’lâ]

23. Owing to his mildness and soft words, a person can attain the grades of those who fast during the day and perform namâz (prayer) at night. [Ibn Hebbân]

24. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves the person who, when he is angry, behaves mildly, overcoming his anger. [Isfahânî]

25. Pay attention, please! I’m informing you! A person who wants to attain high grades in Paradise should be mild to a man who behaves impolitely! He should forgive a man who acts unjustly! He should be generous to a man who is stingy! He should take care of his friends or relatives who never come or give a kind word to him! [Tabarânî]

26. It is not real strength to overcome someone else. To be strong or to be a hero means to overcome one’s anger. [Bukhârî, and Muslim]

27. A man greeting with a smiling face is given the blessings attained by those who give alms. [Ibn Abid-Dunyâ]

28. Smiling at your Muslim brother; teaching him good things; preventing him from doing evil things; helping strangers asking for directions; cleaning the streets of stones, thorns, bones and the like, which are disgusting, dirty and harmful; and giving drinking water to others are all forms of charity. [Tirmuzî]

29. There are such villas in Paradise that a person who is in one of them can see any place he wants to and can appear in any place he chooses. When Abû Mâlik al-Esh’arî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) asked who would be given such villas, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, ‘They will be given to those who meditate over Allâhu ta’âlâ’s existence and greatness and invoke Him.’

I have quoted the hadiths written above from the hadîth book entitled Terghîb wa Terhîb, which is one of the most valuable hadîth books. Abdul’azîm Munzîrî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the author of the book, is one of the greatest scholars of hadîth. He was born in 581 (1185) and died in Egypt in 656 (1258).

May Allâhu ta’âlâ give us the lot of living compatibly with the hadiths written above. Check yourself! If you are in accordance with them, give thanks to Allâhu ta’âlâ! If you have any manners incompatible with them, you should entreat Allâhu ta’âlâ to correct you! If a person’s actions and deeds are not compatible with them, it is still a great blessing for him to know his own faults and to entre at Allâhu ta’âlâ for their correction. A person who is neither in conformity with them nor sorry for being at odds with them has a very weak attachment to Islam. We should take refuge with Allâhu ta’âlâ to protect ourselves against such a squalid state! A couplet:

Congratulations to those who attained,
Shame upon the poor, who missed!

This translation from Maktûbât-› Ma’thûmiyya has come to an end.

The hadiths written above command Muslims to treat one another mildly, kindly and to live brotherly. A non-Mulim is called kâfir (disbeliever). The fact that Muslims have to be mild mannered with disbelievers also and avoid hurting them has been written on page thirty-three. Thus they (disbelievers) will have been shown that Islam commands being good-tempered, living brotherly and working hard. And thus sincere people will become Muslims willingly. It is fard to make jihâd (holy war). The state performs jihâd not only by cannons and swords, but also by means of cold war tactics, propaganda and publications. And every individual Muslim makes jihâd by exhibiting his good habits and by acting in a good manner. To make “jihâd” means to invite people to Islam. As it is understood, it is jihâd also to be kind to disbelievers and not to offend them. It is, therefore, fard for every Muslim.”

Hadrat Muhammad Ma’thûm[1] ([1] Muhammad Ma’thûm passed away in Serhend in 1079 (1668 A.D.).) Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the author of the long letter above, is one of the greatest Islamic scholars and one of the highest Awliyâ. He was born in the city of Serhend, India, in the year 1007 after the Hegira, and passed away there in 1079 (1668). He is in a large tomb which is a few hundred metres away from his blessed father’s grave. Through his innumerable letters, he gave advice to thousands of Muslims, to state authorities, to the time’s ruler, Sultan Âlamgir[1] ([1] Sultan Alamgir passed away in 1118 (1707 A.D.).) from all races and religions have joined the experiment, all having attained the same success, regardless of their religion or race. As it is sometimes seen in the Far East, in China and India, some Chinese soothsayers and Indian fakirs can amaze us by displaying unimaginable and unthinkable feats of skill. Some of them give the impression that they are flying, while others climb unsupported ropes thrown up in the air. On the other hand, Buddhism, the system of belief held by the Chinese, is like a system of philosophy. Buddha (563-483 B.C.), Confucius (531-479 B.C.), and Loatse were famous philosophers. The principles they taught were the rules of high morality. Buddha teaches people to give up various ambitions, to undergo ascetic austerities, to perform good actions, to be patient, to help one another and to struggle against evil. He says, “Do as you would be done by.” But he does not mention the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Though Buddha said that he was only a man, his disciples deified him after his death. They built temples for him, and thus Buddhism was turned into a kind of religion. The Indians’ original religion, fireworshipping, is a kind of idolatry. Besides idols, they worship some animals (cows, for example). Neither Buddhism nor fireworshipping is a religion. But, still it is a fact that some people belonging to them display some feats of skill that are very much like miracles. They acquire great feats of skill through a special training of self-discipline, which consists of abstinence, special physical exercises, and by working hard for a long time. Likewise, magnetism, which almost freezes a man by rendering him senseless, and hypnotism, by which a man is inspired with commands and his actions are controlled, are no more than special kinds of powers that some people have.

However, what we have seen are not miracles. They are only extraordinary talents. Today, scientists have established that all people, more or less, have talents of this sort; that some have it in a more developed form; that some people can improve their abilities through special systems; and that everybody will be able to awaken his sixth sense by new and easy methods that will be discovered in the course of time. Then if a person invested with a developed form of the “sixth sense” displays it not as a feat of skill but in the name of a miracle, it must be regarded only as a fraud.

Imam-i Ahmad Rabbâni (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) in his 293rd letter, wrote: “Wonders and miracles are of two kinds. The first is the knowledge and ma’rifat (gnosis) which belongs to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s individuality, His attributes and His actions. This knowledge cannot be obtained by thinking or with the intellect.

Allâhu ta’âlâ bestows it upon His beloved ones. The second kind of knowledge concerns worldly mysteries. This miracle may be bestowed upon disbelievers as well as His beloved ones. The first kind of miracles is valuable. They are granted to those who are on the right path and loved by Allâhu ta’âlâ. But the ignorant think that the second one is more valuable. When they hear the word “miracle” they consider only the second type. Anybody who cleans up his soul (nafs) by refraining from people and by hunger can understand the mysteries of creatures. But because most people always give more importance to worldly things, they consider the ones who have the second kind Awliyâ. They do not appreciate the truthful ones. They say that if they were real Awliyâ they would be able to inform us about our situation. Using this invalid logic they deny Allâhu ta’âlâ’s beloved slaves.”

In the 260th letter, he wrote: “Being a Walî means getting closer to Allâhu ta’âlâ. The miracles related to creatures may be endowed upon those who have attained this rank. An abundance of miracles do not prove that the owner, the Walî, has a high rank.

A Walî does not have to know that miracles are emanating from himself. Allâhu ta’âlâ may make the figure of a Walî visible in different countries at the same moment. He is seen, doing marvelous things in places quite far from one another. But he is unaware of all these things. There may be some Walîs who are aware of their state, but they will not reveal it to strangers becasue they do not attach importance to them.”

Ibni Hajar Mekkî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh), who is the darling of the Ahl-as sunna scholars and whose words are taken as a proof, conveys the following hadîths immediately before the chapter “Ihtiqâr” in his book Zawâjir: “I take an oath by Allâhu ta’âlâ that the worship performed by those who have eaten a piece of harâm food will not be accepted for forty days.” And, “Salât which has been performed with a shirt on bought with harâm money will not be accepted.” And, “The alms given from harâm money will not be accepted. His sins will not be reduced.” Sufyâni Sawrî says that doing pious deeds and establishing foundations with harâm money is like washing dirt with urine.

A true Muslim does not perform his acts of worship as a show before others. Worship is done secretly, or performed in a congregation in mosques. When a good Muslim wants to do something benevolent or give alms to a person, he does it secretly, too, and he does not hurt the feelings or affect the prestige of a person by reminding him of it. Allâhu ta’âlâ emphatically commands this to be done in this way in the Qur’ân al-kerîm again and again.

In brief, a true Muslim is a perfect human being who has all the traits of a good character, is fully equipped with high moral quality, dignified, extremely pure, both physically and in soul, and trustworthy in every respect. The great Islamic scholar Imâm Ghazâli (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) 450 (1058)-505-(1111) classifies human beings into four groups in his book Kimyâ-yi Se’âdet, which he published nearly nine hundred years ago in the Persian language: “The first group are those who know nothing except eating, drinking and enjoying worldly pleasures; the second group consists of those who use force, oppress people and are cruel; the third group consists of those who deceive others by trickery; and only the fourth group consists of the true Muslims who have the above-mentioned high morality.”

But one thing not to be forgotten is that there is a way leading from each person’s heart to Allâhu ta’âlâ. The question is how to send the light of Islam to people. The person who feels light in his heart, no matter what group he belongs to, feels penitence for his wrongdoings and finds the right way.

If all people would accept Islam, neither evil, nor deceit, nor war, nor oppression, nor cruelty, would remain on the earth. It is, therefore, a duty for us all to do our best to be perfect and true Muslims and to propagate Islam all over the world, explaining its essence and its details. It is jihâd to do so.

Always address people with a sweet speech and with understanding, even if they are of other religions. Allâhu ta’âlâ commands this in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. It is written in the books of fiqh that it is sinful to hurt a non-Muslim’s feelings or to taunt him because he is a disbeliever. A Muslim who does so will be punished. The aim is to teach everybody how lofty Islam is, and this jihâd can be done only with a sweet tongue, knowledge, patience, and îmân. He who wants to convince someone about a fact should, first of all, believe it himself. And a Muslim never loses his patience or else he will have difficulty in explaining his belief. There is no other religion which is as clear and as logical as Islam. A person who has grasped the essence of this religion can easily prove to anyone that this religion is the only correct religion.

We should not regard people of other religions as badtempered people. For sure, kufr (infidelity), that is, not to be a Muslim, is always evil. Since disbelief is a harmful and corrupt way of life that leads one to calamities in this world and the next, Allâhu ta’âlâ has sent the religion of Islam so that people will live brotherly in comfort and in peace in this world and avoid the endless torment of the Hereafter. Kâfirs (disbelievers), that is, those who are not Muslims, are wretched people devoid of this way to happiness. We should pity them and not hurt them at all. It is forbidden (harâm) even to backbite them. Whether a person is meant for Paradise or for Hell will be certain only at his final breath. All of the heavenly religions hold the belief of one Allah, except, of course, the ones that have been defiled. In the Qur’ân al-kerîm, Allâhu ta’âlâ invites all people to the right way. He promises that He will forgive all the past wrongdoings of a person who adopts this way. Those who are in other religions are poor people deceived by Satan or by those who know nothing about Islam. Most of them are unfortunate people who, while believing in one Allâhu ta’âlâ like us and trying to attain His love, have been misled into wrong ways. With patience, sweet speech, reason and logic, we should guide them to the right way.

Before they were defiled by mankind, all the heavenly religions, teaching the belief in the existence and oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ, were the same with respect to the principles of belief. The three major religions from Hadrat Mûsâ to Hadrat Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), namely, Judiasm, Christianity and Islam, professed belief in one Allah and taught that Allah’s prophets (’alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât) were human beings like us. But Jews denied Hadrat Îsâ and Muhammad (’alaihimassalâm), and Christians, who never did rescue themselves from idolatry, thought that Hadrat Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was the son of Allah, although Hadrat Îsâ had said: “I’m a human just like you”; “I’m not Allah’s son.” They still worship three different deities under the names of Father (Allâhu ta’âlâ), Son (Îsâ, ’alaihi ’ssalâm), and the Holy Spirit. There were popes like Honorius who realized that this was false and wrong, and tried to correct it. But the correction of this wrong belief has been possible only with Islam, which Allâhu ta’âlâ has revealed through His last Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). Then, no one can deny the fact that Islam, which has accumulated within itself the main principles of these three religions and which has

Evrengzîb (rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ), and caused them to attain the feelings of brotherhood, a good temper, mutual help, comfort and ease for this worldly life, and felicity in the Hereafter. Over a hundred and forty thousand people attended his conferences and lectures. They thereby attained the highest grades of tasawwuf and they each became a Walî. Besides these chosen disciples of his, the number of those who corrected their faith and morals by listening to him reaches beyond hundreds of thousands. More than four hundred of the Awliyâ educated and trained by him reached the grade termed irshâd. And each of them saved thousands of people from perdition, ignorance and aberration in the cities they were sent to. Each of his five sons was a great scholar and Walî. And their descendants have all been the same. They left many precious books which have been enlightening people.

A true Muslim does not believe in superstitions. He only laughs at such things as magic, ill-omen, fortune-telling, incantation and amulets that contain writings other than those from the Qur’ân. He also laughs at blue beads; putting candles,  wires and threads on tombstones; and at anyone who claims to perform miracles. In fact, most of such things have been conveyed to us from other religions. The great Islamic scholar Imâm Rabbânî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) answers in this way to those who expect “miracles” from men of religion: “People expect men of religion to manifest miracles. Some of them may not perform miracles, but are still closer to Allâhu ta’âlâ than the others.” The greatest miracle is to learn Islam and to lead a life compatible with Islam.

Recent research, carried out at the University of Stanford, in America, shows that some people have a “sixth sense,” which enables them to do such things as counting the items in a closed box, reading what is written in a closed envelope, contacting a person who is far away, or reading a person’s thoughts. People the only true religion. Fellowes, an Englishman who converted to Islam, says: “While attempting to correct the numerous erroneous beliefs in Christianity, Martin Luther was unaware of the fact that Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had already corrected all those faults by announcing Islam exactly 900 years before him. That is why it is necessary to accept Islam as a completely purified version of Christianity and to believe that Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is the last Prophet.