|Cases That Break and Do Not Break the Fast|
Question: Why doesn’t a medicine that is put on a decayed tooth break the fast but a sublingual pill breaks it? Medicines that are applied on healthy skin do not break the fast, even if they are absorbed. But why do medicines that are put on healthy skin in the mouth break the fast because they are absorbed, too?
The skin under the tongue is not like the skin covering the exterior of the body. It is soft and slippery tissue, which is termed mucosa in medical science. It has entirely distinct properties. The two can never be compared with each other. In the same way, the structure of a tooth is different from the structure of mucosa.Our physician states the following on this issue:
When a medicine is placed under the tongue, a message is sent to the brain rapidly through the stimulus of the nervous system. The brain, in turn, automatically activates the reflexes under the tongue. Then the salivary secretory system starts functioning and produces saliva, thus dissolving the medicine. After it is dissolved, capillaries, stimulated by reflexes, take action, and it is quickly absorbed into bloodstream. But for saliva, the medicine could not diffuse into bloodstream by means of capillaries alone because it must go to capillaries after being converted into a watery state. Even though the skin of the body is as thin as mucosa, the medicine, for lack of saliva secretion, cannot be absorbed from the skin as it is absorbed under the tongue. Salivary secretion is like a car; a medicine is like a driver; capillaries under mucosa are like roads. In the body, there is a car and roads, but not a driver. If the driver comes, the car moves.Medically, neither teeth nor gums are mucosa. Teeth and the parts under teeth are like two different organs with different properties.It is permissible to apply masah on an ankle boot, a boot, or a mast. However, it is not permissible to apply masah on a sock, which is considerably thinner than a mast. Both are worn on a foot but their qualities are different. Likewise, soft tissue under the tongue is quite different from the skin of the body.To place medicines or pills under the tongue and to cause them to be absorbed by capillaries, as the process has been mentioned above, is like to inject medicines into the skin and to convey them to capillaries. Hence, it breaks the fast.
Question: When my nose is congested, I feel very disturbed. It disrupts my work. Putting liquid medicine into the nose invalidates the fast. If I apply solid medicine, will it invalidate my fast, too?
Question: Swallowing the blood in the mouth or nose breaks the fast. Does swallowing the discharge flowing from the head to the nose break the fast, too?
Question: The oily medicine that I dripped into my ear went out through my mouth and nose. Did it break my fast?
Question: I am writing from France. My Christian wife gets up at night to prepare pre-dawn meal (sahur) for me. Last night I ate the pre-dawn meal and went to bed at dawn. I was half asleep. Stroking and fondling me, she engaged in foreplay with me without me saying anything. In the end I ejaculated, but I had not done any actions. Was my fast broken?
Question: Does vomiting a mouthful involuntarily break the fast?
Question: If one rubs hematite to stop bleeding from shaving, does it render the fast void?
Question: Is the fast still broken even if an injection is given because of an illness?
Question: If one has a nocturnal emission while sleeping in the daytime, does it break one’s fast?
Performing a ghusl does not break one’s fast, either. But one must take extra care that no water goes into the body while performing aghusl. If water enters the body, the fast is broken.
Question: When we are fasting, is it appropriate to use mouthwash for an oral sore?
Question: In my workplace there is dust because of my work. There are also those who smoke. Do such things harm my fast?
Question: If a woman is examined by a female gynecologist, is her fast broken? If it is broken, does she have to offer kaffarah(expiation)?
Question: The doctor told me that I must be administered an injection for the pain in my shoulders. Do injections and ointment break the fast?
Question: Does effusion of blood from gums during the performance of an ablution invalidate the ablution and the fast?
Question: Is the fast of a person broken if he ejaculates while watching a pornographic movie?
Question: If semen is emitted because of gonorrhea, is the fast broken?
Question: Because I caught a cold, I sniffed back the discharge that came to my nose and swallowed it. Was my fast broken?
Question: Phlegm comes into my mouth, and I swallow it. Does it invalidate my fast?
Question: I eat much at pre-dawn meal. After dawn, I experience regurgitation of food substances into my mouth, and I swallow them. Is my fast broken?
Question: While we are fasting, if the water that we sniff up into our noses goes out through our mouths, does it invalidate our fasts?
Question: When our saliva hangs down from our lips, are our fasts broken if we lick and swallow it?
Question: If a man puts a piece of cotton into his urethra to prevent drops of urine from coming out, does it break his fast?
Question: Does inhaling the steam that forms in the bathroom invalidate the fast?
Question: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife after night prayer in Ramadan and if they sleep late planning that they will make a ghusl soon and if the sun has risen when they wake up, does it necessitate kaffarah (expiation)? ANSWER
Question: Do eye drops invalidate the fast? Does a contact lens invalidate the fast if it is worn wet?
Question: In Ramadan, we are brushing our teeth after pre-dawn meal (sahur) before we sleep. Though we wash our mouths, we feel its taste in our mouths. Does it break our fasts?
Question: According to the Hanafi Madhhab, when we spit, does blood in our saliva break our ablution if the blood is less than the saliva? Does it break the fast if it is swallowed?
Question: When a nicotine patch or a diet patch is stuck on the arm, the substance in the patch is absorbed by the skin. Does this absorption invalidate the fast?
Question: Is there a religious obstacle to inserting a cotton bud into the ear while one is fasting?
Question: Does using hair gel, ointment, or deodorant break the fast?
Question: Does chewing gum break the fast?
Question: Is the fast broken if artificial air is given with an oxygen tube?
Question: Is the fast of a man who kisses his wife broken?
Question: If soapy water goes into the ear while one is having a bath, is the fast broken?
Question: Does swimming break the fast?
Question: While I was sleeping in the early hours of the day, I felt that I was thirsty. I looked at my watch, and I saw it as 5:10 am. I am sure that I looked at it carefully. I drank water and involuntarily looked at the watch again that it was 6:10 am. I was very upset. The imsak time was at 5:30 am. Was my fast broken?
Question: If an asthma sufferer takes medicine when there is a need, does it invalidate the fast?
Question: Do asthma relief medicines that are sprayed into the mouth, such as Ventolin and Salbutol, invalidate the fast?
Question: Does inhaling the gas of asthma medication pills invalidate the fast?
Question: I applied insecticide to my home. Does inhaling it break the fast?
Question: For gynecological diseases, pills and suppositories are administered into the uterus with an instrument. Does it necessitateghusl? Does it break the fast?
Question: If the piles of a hemorrhoids sufferer go into the back passage as being wet after cleaning himself/herself following defecation, does it break the fast?
Question: Does swallowing another person’s saliva break the fast?
Question: While I am fasting, I am licking my lipstick out of habit. Is my fast broken?
Question: If one forgets that one is fasting and goes to extremes to clean oneself after defecating and if water goes into the anus, does it harm one’s fast?
Question: While I was cleaning the fish tank, water went into my throat unintentionally. Was my fast broken?
Question: I have a wound on my toenail. During the day, yellow water, pus, and sometimes blood are oozing from this wound. They are accumulating between my toenail. If they go back into the wound, do they break my fast?
Question: If rain goes into our throats, does it break our fasts?
Question: I am a diabetic. If I draw blood and put it on the glucometer, does it break my fast?
Question: Does a bee sting break the fast?
Question: If one accidentally pricks one’s finger with a needle and a piece of it remains inside, does it break the fast?
Question: If I take trinitrine when I have a pain in my heart while fasting, does it require the fast to be made up?
Question: Does sniffing up saline water into the nose invalidate the fast, just as a medicine does?
Question: Does a cardiovascular drug that is placed under the tongue and absorbed by tissues break the fast?
Question: If a patient frequently puts water into his/her mouth, does it break his/her fast?
Swallowing the wetness in the mouth
Question: Do suppositories that women and men use as medication break the fast and necessitate ghusl?
Question: I had a nosebleed. I swallowed the blood flowing into my nasal passage. Did it break my fast?
Question: Does sniffing up liquid medicine or saline water into the nose render the fast invalid?
Question: Does receiving ear irrigation with antiseptic solution invalidate the fast?
Question: Does putting medicine on a painful tooth or eye or ear invalidate the fast?
Question: Does a medicine that is put on a wound invalidate the fast?
Question: Does epilation break the fast?
Question: Does smelling a fragrance break the fast?
Question: Does performing a ghusl while one is fasting break the fast?
Question: If one swallows the wetness on one’s lip, does it break the fast?
Question: If a piece of cotton is put into the anus and some part of it remains outside, does it break the fast?
Question: If liquid medicine that is put on an injury just before imsaktime starts to be absorbed in the daytime, does it invalidate the fast?
Question: I suffer from heart trouble. I sometimes take a pill when pain intensifies. If I take a pill when pain recurs while fasting in Ramadan, do I have to offer kaffarah (expiation)? Does medicine that heart sufferers rub on their chests break the fast?
Question: Does having a tooth removal break the fast?
Question: Some people say that an intravenous drip breaks the fast only according to Imam-i A’zam. Does it not break the fast according to other madhahib? Nutritional or medicinal substances can be given by means of intravenous drips. Is the fast of a person not broken who receives water, nutrition, and medicine he/she needs by means of an intravenous drip? Since the purpose of fasting is to leave eating and drinking, why is the fast of a person not broken who eats or drinks not orally but intravenously?
In the Shafi’i Madhhab, the ear is considered a natural orifice. Everything, liquid or solid, that is put into the ear renders the fast void as if it entered the stomach. In the Shafi’i Madhhab, urethra is considered a natural orifice, too. If a medicine or even a piece of cotton is inserted into it, the fast breaks.
According to the four madhahib and all mujtahid scholars, if a medicine that is put on a wound penetrates into jawf [interior of the body], the fast is broken. In the Shafi’i Madhhab, the dimagh [the brain], the abdomen, the intestines, and the bladder are a jawf each. For instance, if the skull is cracked open, since a medicine that is put on a wound on the skull will go into jawf, that is, the brain, the fast will have been broken.
In the Shafi’i Madhhab, if a knife is pushed into the abdomen, the fast is broken because the point of the knife has entered the stomach, that is, jawf. Just as a knife’s entering jawf through healthy skin invalidates the fast, so medicines injected by a syringe or by tearing muscles or vessels invalidate the fast when they reach jawf. In the Hanafi Madhhab, the fast is broken only if the knife enters the stomach completely.
It is known for certain in medical science today that fluids that are injected through intravenous drips reach the brain and every part of the body. Then fluids that are received via intravenous drips invalidate the fast and require the fast only to be made up. Saying “The medicines administered through a syringe or through an intravenous drip do not go into jawf [that is, such places as the brain or bladder]” would be very wrong and contrary to science.
All doctors state that medicinal fluids that are injected into vessels or muscles go to the brain and the bladder. Then we must not be taken in by those who do not know the truth of the matter and must not spoil our fasts.
[In these passages, pieces of information about Hanafi Madhhab have been quoted from the books Tahtawi, Mabsut, Badayi, and the like. Pieces of information about Shafi’is have been quoted from such dependable works as Majmu, Mughni al-muhtaj, Tuhfa, Anwar,Kummasra, Bajuri, Sharh-i Ibn-i Bajuri.]
Question: Is it allowed for sinusitis sufferers to put liquid medicine into their noses while they are fasting?
Question: Does flow of pus from the ear during fasting invalidate the fast?
In a fast, the things that enter the body generally invalidate the fast. For example, blood transfusion by injection breaks the fast.
Question: Does brushing teeth with or without toothpaste in a state of fasting break the fast?
Question: There was a cold sore on my lip. I applied ointment on it lest it might break open. Unfortunately, it broke toward the evening. Was my fast rendered invalid?
Question: I cut my finger while I was preparing food for iftar meal. A few drops of blood oozed. Was my fast broken?
Question: Because of inflammation in my elbow, they cut two pieces of flesh that are a centimeter in length each from the top and bottom of my elbow. Inserting a tube into the inflammation to drain it, they put its two ends out. During yesterday’s examination, they injected ointment from one end of the tube and sent it out from the other end. I was doubtful about the validity of my fast. Was my fast broken?
Question: My gums are constantly bleeding because of a improper tooth filling. I sleep after pre-dawn meal. When I wake up in the morning, my mouth is filled with blood. Most of blood has already passed my throat until this time. I sometimes feel the flow of blood when I am awake. If I spit it out, my ablution will be broken. If I swallow it, my fast will be broken. Surely I swallowed blood. Were my fasts rendered void?
Question: When we are having a blood sample taken for testing in the hospital, they are wiping the skin with alcohol before inserting a syringe. After taking the syringe out, they put a cotton swab containing alcohol on the pinhole. Does it have any effect on the fast?
Question: Does a smallpox vaccination that is administered by pricking the skin break the fast?
Question: Does swallowing bits of food that are left in between teeth invalidate the fast?
Question: If madhi (white sticky fluid that is emitted as a result of engaging in foreplay, having a lustful thought and so on) comes out from a man when he kisses his wife, does it break his fast?
Question: If one, forgetting the fast, rubs cologne on a shaving cut, does it break the fast?
Question: If I go into a room where people are smoking cigarettes and I stay there for a long time, is my fast broken?
Question: I am keeping the fasts of Shawwal. Today, when I was sniffing up water into my nose for ablution, I think I forgetfully and involuntarily caused water to slip down my throat. Was my fast broken?
Question: Is the fast broken if one vomits a mouthful because of an illness?
Question: I had a blood sample taken before going on a pilgrimage. My blood was taken into the syringe, but it did not come out of my body. Then it was injected into my vessel again. Was my ablution broken? Did it harm my fast?
Question: Does applying ointment, cream, or cologne to a chapped lip or a slash on a hand invalidate the fast?
Question: If an instrument is inserted into the stomach and the end of it remains outside, does it break the fast?
Question: I mistakenly delayed pre-dawn meal (sahur) until ten minutes later than the time written on Türkiye Calendar. Was my fast valid?
Question: Does the tuberculosis test done under the skin break the fast?
Question: If a piece of cotton goes in through a ruptured eardrum, does it break the fast?
Question: If saliva comes to the throat, does it break the fast to expel it by vomiting?
Question: A local writer says:
The writer does not know what fasting is and what invalidates it that he can say, “One cannot write about whether the things that enter the body break the fast or not.” To begin with, let us explain briefly what fasting is and what invalidates it:
Fasting is to leave eating and drinking and the other things that invalidate the fast from breaking of dawn to sunset. What are the other things that invalidate the fast? Just as things that enter the body through natural orifices invalidate the fast, so it invalidates the fast if medicines that are put on wounds on the body penetrate into the alimentary canal. Injections and drips invalidate the fast because they reach the alimentary canal. (Tahtawi)
Suppositories that are used for diseases are administered through natural orifices. In addition to analgesic, antipyretic suppositories, there are antirheumatic, antifungal, hemorrhoidal, and laxative suppositories. Nutritive or medicinal substances can be given by means of intravenous drips as well. If substances that are not medicines enter the body through natural orifices, the fast is broken, too. What can be more natural than asking and answering them?
Question: An ENT physician says:
In the Shafi’i Madhhab, medicines that are dripped into the eye do not invalidate the fast, even if their taste is felt in the throat. But everything that is put into the ear invalidates the fast. Liquid medicine that is put into the nose invalidates the fast, too.
In the Hanafi and Shafi’i Madhhabs, medicines that are rubbed on healthy skin do not invalidate the fast, even if they are absorbed and they penetrate into the body. For example, a medicine containing nitro-derm [TTN] is put on the chest for a heart disease. It is absorbed into the body from the skin. Because it penetrates into the body through healthy skin, it does not invalidate the fast according to both the Hanafi and Shafi’i Madhhabs.
A hadith-i sharif says, “Things that go into [the body] invalidate the fast.” According to the Shafi’i Madhhab, the ear is a natural orifice (manfaz). Therefore, everything, solid or liquid, that is put into the ear invalidates the fast as if it entered the stomach. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, solid substances or water that goes into the ear does not invalidate the fast, but oil and medicine invalidate the fast. Oil and medicine invalidate the fast, no matter whether they are absorbed or not and no matter whether they reach the alimentary canal or not.
Since the eye is not considered a natural orifice (manfaz) and since it comes under the same ruling as healthy skin, medicines that are put into the eye do not break the fast in any of the madhahib even if they reach the alimentary canal via various passages, as is the case with medicines that are rubbed on healthy skin, However, the fast breaks in both the Hanafi and Shafi’i Madhhabs if medicine is administered into a wound that opens into the throat, the brain, or the bladder.
What is the aim of the reformist group? They should know the legal maxim that one ijtihad cannot be revoked by another ijtihad, even if they were mujtahids. Reformers do not have the right to say, “The word of Hanafis on this matter is true. Putting sand into the ear does not break the fast. The ijtihad of the Shafi’i Madhhab is wrong.”
Question: Could you provide us with information about the rules and regulations in our madhahib about fasting?
In the Shafi’i Madhhab, the ear is considered a natural orifice. Everything, solid or liquid, that is put into the ear breaks the fast as if it entered the stomach. According to the other three madhahib, the fast breaks only when medicine is put into the ear. In the Shafi’i Madhhab, the urethra is a natural orifice as well, so the fast breaks even if a piece of cotton is inserted into it. It does not break the fast in the other three madhahib.
Having an injection invalidates the fast in all four madhahib.
Swallowing bits of food that are left in between teeth does not invalidate the fast in the Hanafi Madhhab, but it invalidates the fast in the other three madhahib.
Having an enema does not break the fast in the Maliki Madhhab, but it breaks the fast in the other three madhahib.
Eating or drinking forgetfully does not invalidate the fast in the other three madhahib. It invalidates the fast in the Maliki Madhhab.
In the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs, kaffarah (expiation) becomes necessary upon one who eats or drinks while one is fasting. In theShafi’i and Hanbali Madhhabs, only a make-up (qada) fast becomes necessary upon the relevant person. If a person has sexual intercourse with his wife, kaffarah becomes necessary upon such a person in all four madhahib.
Getting blood drawn breaks the fast in the Hanbali Madhhab, but it does not break the fast in the other three madhahib. If water goes into one’s throat unintentionally while one is performing an ablution without taking it to extremes, the fast is not broken in the Shafi’i and HanbaliMadhhabs. It is broken in the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs.
If a husband and a wife have sexual intercourse in Ramadan, kaffarahbecomes obligatory upon the husband in the Shafi’i and HanbaliMadhhabs. But according to the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs, it makes both of them liable to kaffarah.
In the Maliki Madhhab, it is haram for a man to kiss his wife while he is fasting. It is not haram in the other three madhahib, but it is makruhto kiss her when there is the danger of ejaculating. If madhi (white sticky fluid that is emitted as a result of engaging in foreplay, having a lustful thought and so on) comes out when a man kisses her wife, the fast is not broken in the three madhahib. It is broken in the Hanbali Madhhab.
In the Shafi’i and Hanbali Madhhabs, when a person begins performing a voluntary fast or a voluntary namaz, if he/she breaks it before completing it, it is not wajib to make up for it; however, it iswajib to make up for it in the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs.
In the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs, it is permissible to fast only on Friday whereas it is makruh in the Shafi’i and Hanbali Madhhabs. Imam-i Abu Yusuf also said that it is makruh. Therefore, Hanafisshould not single out Friday for fasting.
In the Hanafi Madhhab, sadaqa al-fitr (a small amount of alms given in Ramadan by those who meet the conditions to do so; it is a wajibduty) is given in holy Ramadan. Though it is permissible to give it before Ramadan or after Eid, it is more reward-deserving to give it before the Eid namaz. It cannot be given before Ramadan in theShafi’i Madhhab and before Eid in the Madhhabs of Maliki and Hanbali. In the Hanafi Madhhab, it is wajib to give sadaqa al-fitr upon a person who has property or money as much as the amount of nisab. In the other three madhahib, it is fard to give sadaqa al-fitr upon a person who has a day’s food. In the Hanafi Madhhab, a husband does not give the sadaqa al-fitr of his wife while it is necessary for a husband to pay it on behalf of his wife in the other three madhahib.
Question: If a male or a female gynecologist or a midwife assist a woman in childbirth in Ramadan when they have an ablution, is their fast, ghusl, or ablution nullified?
Question: Does it break the fast if a woman has an ultrasound tube inserted into the vagina for a medical examination?
Secondly, if the woman is sexually aroused during the examination and ejaculates sexual vaginal discharge, her fast is broken. If she is not sexually aroused, her fast is not broken.
Question: It is written in the book Endless Bliss: “If something is inserted and taken out wholly, it breaks both an ablution and a fast.” If a man inserts a suppository into his back passage or if a woman inserts a suppository into her front or back passage, does it break the ablution and the fast? Additionally, there are pills that are inserted with an instrument. Are they different?
Question: Does swallowing the blood in the mouth nullify the ablution and the fast?
In some cases the mouth is thought of as an internal part of the body. Hence, if a fasting person swallows his/her saliva, his/her fast will not break. It is like something dirty inside the body passing from stomach to intestines. Bleeding from an injury in the mouth or blood coming from the stomach to the mouth doesn’t break the fast or an ablution. When one spits out or swallows this blood, if the saliva is greater than the blood, that is, if it is yellow in color, they are still not broken. It is the same when other things come to the mouth from the stomach, in which case neither the ablution nor the fast is broken. If a mouthful (comes to the mouth and) goes out of the mouth, both are broken. The inside of the mouth is sometimes considered to be an outer part of the body. The fast is not broken when water is taken into the mouth.(Bahr-ur-raiq, Jawhara)
This means to say that when one spits the blood in one’s mouth, one’s fast is not broken. If one swallows it, one’s ablution is not broken. If one swallows the blood, one’s fast is broken. If one spits it out, one’s ablution is broken.
Asthma inhalers break the fast
An asthma inhaler does not contain only oxygen. It contains medication, which in turn breaks the fast. That medicines break the fast is written in all books that deal with Islamic laws.
Also, that dripping oil or medicine into the ear invalidates the fast is written in all books that deal with Islamic laws.
Dripping medicine into the nose invalidates the fast, too. Application of solid ointment does not invalidate the fast.
A sublingual pill is a medicine. Because it is absorbed from the soft tissue called mucosa, it comes under the same ruling as a subcutaneous injection. It breaks the fast.
The instrument (transducer) of ultrasound is lubricated with a slippery substance like ointment, that is, a gel. The fast is broken when this gel goes into the body. When a gynecologist examines the uterus by wearing a glove, if he or she lubricates the glove with medicine or a gel, such an examination breaks the fast, too.
Technology has improved, and excellent devices have been made. Forms of treatment have been developed. However, the human body has not changed. Nothing has been added to or removed from it. Fasting is an act of worship. Virtues of this act of worship and requirements for the validity of it are written in our religious books. They are valid until the end of the world.
It is ignorance to say that these were not known in the past or to find other pretexts. Weren’t there things that went into the body or went out of the body in those days? That is, didn’t anything use to go into the body or go out of the body in those times? To change the acts of worship according to time means to change the religion.
Natural orifices and the fast
Some people, as they do not know the above-mentioned rule well, think that having an injection does not break the fast. They say that injections are not administered through natural orifices. Medicines that are absorbed from healthy skin do not break the fast, but medicines that go into the body through injured skin and reach the alimentary canal break the fast. Injections and intravenous drips, as they reach the alimentary canal, break the fast according to all four madhahib.
Question: If one faints in Ramadan, does it break one’s fast to drip water into one’s mouth to bring one round?
Question: If ointment or cologne or tincture of iodine or hydrogen peroxide is applied on an open wound, does it break the fast?
If it is known that the medicine put on an open wound penetrates into one’s brain or alimentary canal, one’s fast breaks. If it is not known well that it has penetrated in, the fast does not break according to Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf. If the medicine is liquid, one’s fast breaks according to Imam-i A’zam. All three imams agree that the fast does not break if the medicine which is not known for certain to have penetrated in is solid. (Annotation to Maraq-il-falah)
Question: It is said that during a fast it is permissible to put medicine on a painful tooth but it is makruh to brush teeth with toothpaste. What is the reason for this?
Therefore, one must strive to refrain from things that are makruh for a fasting person.
Question: Does getting blood drawn or having an injection break the fast and ablution?
There are exceptions to this rule:
Exceptions in terms of ablution are as follows:
Exceptions in terms of the fast are as follows:
Inhaling oxygen gas, smelling fragrance, and swallowing the discharge that comes to the nose do not invalidate the fast. Heart disease medications that are put on the chest do not break the fast, though they enter the body from healthy skin. So is the case with nicotine patches that are stuck on an arm. Medicines that are put into the eye do not break the fast, but they break the fast if they are put into the ear.
Water’s slipping down the throat