56 – HILYA-I-SA’ÂDAT
[The appearance and description of Rasûlullah, ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’].
The shapes of all the visible limbs of our master, Rasûlullah, his habits, his beautiful manners, his entire life, with all their delicacies, have been very detailedly and clearly written by savants along with references and sources. These are called siyer books. Of the thousands of siyer books, the one which was written first was Ibni Is-haqq’s book entitled Sîrat-i Rasûlullah, which was elaborated upon under the same title by Ibni Hisham Humayrî and reprinted by Westenfeld, a German orientalist. Allâhu ta’âlâ bestowed upon Muhammad ‘’alaihis-salâm’ all the mu’jizas (miracles) which He had given to all His Anbiyâ (Prophets). Many of them are written in the books entitled al-Mawâhib-ul- Ladunniyya (Arabic); Madârij-un-Nubuwwa (Persian); al-Anwarul- Muhammadiyya (Arabic), which is the mukhtasar (abridged version) of Mawâhib; and Hujjatullâhi ’alal’âlamîn fî mu’jizâti Sayyid-il-mursalîn (Arabic).
In this booklet of ours, we quoted from the two-volumed book entitled al-Mawâhib-ul-ladunniya by Hadrat Imâm-› Ahmad Qastalânî, one of the great Islamic savants of Egypt. Abdulbâqî Efendî, a Muslim poet, translated this book from Arabic into Turkish. Out of the whole book, the parts considered necessary for youngsters have been written briefly as follows:
The blessed face and all the blessed limbs and the blessed voice of the Fakhr-i kâinât (Muhammad ‘sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’) were more beautiful than the faces and limbs and voices of all people. His blessed face was roundish. When he was cheerful, his blessed face would shine like the moon. It would be evident by his blessed forehead that he was pleased. Resûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ would see during the night just as well as he saw during the day. He would see what was behind him just as he saw what was before him. Hundreds of events proving this fact are related in books. Allâhu ta’âlâ, who creates vision in the eye, is powerful enough to create it in another organ as well. When he would look towards one side or look around, he would turn with all his body and then look. He would look at the earth more than he looked at the sky. His blessed eyes were large. His blessed eyelashes were long. There was a certain amount of reddish colour in the white of his blessed eyes. The iris of his blessed eye was extremely black. Fakhr-i ’âlam had a broad forehead. His blessed eye-brows were thin. His eye-brows were apart from each other. The vein between his two eyebrows would swell when he became angry. His blessed nose was extremely beautiful and was a little higher in the middle. His blessed head was large. His blessed mouth was not small. His blessed teeth were white. His blessed front teeth were amply spaced. When he expressed a word, it would sound as if radiance (nûr) was coming through his teeth. Among the creatures of Allâhu ta’âlâ, no one has been seen with a more eloquent or sweeter speech than his. His blessed words would be understood easily, pleasing hearts and attracting souls. When he spoke, his words would string like pearls. Had someone wanted to count his words, it would have been possible to count them. Sometimes, he would repeat something three times in order that it might be understood well. In Paradise everybody will speak like Hadrat Muhammad. His blessed voice could reach a distance which no one else’s could.
Fakhr-i ’âlam ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was affable. He would smile pleasantly. When he smiled, his blessed teeth would be seen. When he smiled, his blessed radiance would enlighten the walls. His weeping was easy like his smiling. As he never burst out laughing, so he never cried loudly, but his blessed eyes would shed tears and the sound of his blessed chest would be heard. He would weep when thinking of the sins of his Ummat (that is, Muslims), and he would weep out of fear of Allah. He also wept when he heard the Qur’ân al-kerîm and, sometimes, when performing namâz (ritual prayer).
Fakhr-i ’âlam’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ blessed fingers were big. His blessed arms were fleshy. His blessed palms were wide. The scent of his entire body was more odorous than the most beautiful scent. His blessed body was both soft and strong. Anas bin Mâlik says: “I served Rasûlullah for ten years. His blessed hands were softer than silk. His blessed sweat was more odorous than the most fragrant scent and than any flower. His blessed arms, feet and fingers were long. His blessed toes were big. The arch of his foot was not too high and was soft. His blessed waist was wide and his chest and his waist did not exceed each other. The bones at the points of his shoulders were big. His blessed chest was wide, his qalb-i sherîf (blessed heart) was nazargâh-î ilâhî.
Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was not too tall, nor was he short. When someone came near him, Rasûlullah would look taller than the person. When he sat, his blessed shoulders would be higher than all of those who sat with him. – 229 – His hair and the hairs of his beard were not too curly, nor too straight, but they were undulate from his creation. His blessed hair was long. Formerly he used to have ringlets of hair in front, later he parted his hair into two. Sometimes he used to grow his blessed hair long, and sometimes he used to have it cut and shortened. He didn’t use to dye his hair and beard. When he passed away the white hairs in his hair and beard were fewer than twenty. He used to trim his blessed moustache. The length and the shape of his moustache were as much as and like his blessed eye brows. He had private barbers in his service. [Also, it is a sunnat for Muslims to grow their beard as long as a small handful and to cut what is more than this and to trim their moustache.] Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ always had his miswâk and his comb with him. [A miswâk is the twig of the erâk tree that grows in Arabia. It is used for brushing the teeth.] He used to look in a mirror when he combed his blessed hair and beard. At nights he used to put kohl on his blessed eyelids.
Fakhr-i kâinat (Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’) used to walk fast, looking down at the ground before him. When he went past a place, he would be recognized by his odorous scent.
Fakhr-i ’âlam had a white complexion mixed with red, and was extremely handsome with a blessed and lovable appearance. If a person says that the Prophet was ugly, black he becomes a disbeliever.
He ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was an Arab. ‘Arab’ means ‘beautiful’ in the dictionary. For instance, ‘lisân-i arab’ means ‘beautiful language.’ In the geographical sense, ‘Arab’ means person who was born on the Arabian Peninsula and who grew up in its climate with its water and food and who is of the blood of its people. As people of Anatolian blood are called Turks, people who are born and raised in Bulgaria are called Bulgarians and people in Germany German; likewise, Rasûlullah is an Arab because he was born in Arabia. Arabs, during the time of Rasûlullah were white, light-complexioned. Especially the family of our Prophet (Muhammad) was white and very beautiful. As a matter of fact, his ancestor Hadrat Ibrâhîm had a white complexion and was the son of a Muslîm named Târuh, who was one of the inhabitants of the city of Basra. Âzer, who was a disbeliever, was not Hadrat Ibrâhim’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ father. He was his uncle and stepfather.
The fame of Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ father, ’Abdullah, had spread as far as Egypt due to his beauty and owing to the blessed light on his forehead; almost two hundred girls had come to Mecca in order to marry him. But, Hadrat Muhammad’s sacred light fell to Âmina’s lot. For a century, in Turkey and in many Islamic countries, the sacred night of Raghâib is referred to as the night on which ’Abdullah got married. It is not right to ascribe such a meaning to the Raghâib night.
It would mean that Rasûlullah honoured the world with his presence earlier than nine months, which is a deficiency, a defect. As he was superior to every man in every respect and as he was perfect in every way, so he was perfect and adequate when he enlightened our mother Âmina. A deficiency in this gestation time is considered a defect and shortcoming in medical science. The first Friday night (the night between Thursday and Friday) of Rajab-i Sherîf is called the Raghâib Night, for Allâhu ta’âlâ bestows raghîbats, that is, blessings and gifts, on His human creatures throughout that night. Any invocations pronounced on that night will not be rejected, and acts of worship, such as namâz, fasting and alms, will be rewarded a number of times better than usual. He (Allah) will forgive those who respect that night. In the early ages of Islam, and before Islam, it was harâm (forbidden) to war in the months of Rajab, Dhu’lqa’da, Dhu’lhijja and Muharram. It is written in the eighth paragraph of the second chapter of the book Riyâd-un-nâsikhîn: “It is writen in the Tafsîrs of Zâhidî and Alî Jurjânî and in all the Tafsîrs that before Islam the Arabs used to change the places of the months in order to be able to make war in the months of Rajab and Muharram by putting them forward or backward. Rasûlullah, when he performed the Farewell Hajj with ninety thousand Muslims in the tenth year of the Hegira, said: “O my Ashâb! We are performing the hajj exactly at its proper time. The sequence of months is exactly as it was when Allâhu ta’âlâ created it!” In the year when ’Abdullah got married the places of the months were wrong. The month of Rajab was in the place of Jamâ’zil’âkhir. That is, it was one month ahead. Then, the transition of the Prophet’s blessed light to our mother Âmina is in today’s month of Jamâ’zil’âkhir. It is not on the Ragâib Night.
His uncle ’Abbâs and his son ’Abdullah shared his fair complexion. Also, our Prophet’s descendants until the end of the world will be beautiful and sympathetic. For example, the Amîr of Jordan, the late ’Abdullah, who had been to Istanbul, was such a person. The virtuous Ahmad Makkî Efendî, the late mufti of Kadiköy, was a sayyid (a descendant of the Prophet), and like his ancestors, he was white with black eye-brows, big black eyes, very sympathetic and affable. Rasûlullah’s Ashâb were sympathetic and beautiful, too. Hadrat ’Uthmân was white with blond hair. Dihya-i Kelbî, the ambassador whom Rasûlullah used to send to Heraclius, the Emperor of Byzantium, was very handsome, and as he went around on the streets of Istanbul, the Byzantine girls used to rush out into the streets in order to see his face. Hadrat Jabrâil (Gabriel) usually came in the guise of Hadrat Dihya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’.
The natives of Egypt, Damascus, Africa, Sicily and Spain aren’t Arabs. But since the Arabs came to these places after having migrated from the Arabian Peninsula in order to spread Islam all over the world, there are Arabs in these lands, too. Likewise, they exist in Anatolia, India and other countries. But, today, none of the citizens of these countries can be called Arabs.
The Arabic language, the one and only language of knowledge and civilization in the Middle Ages and which is, in fact, the most advanced and sophisticated language among the seven hundred and seventy languages being spoken in the world today with its richness in grammar, eloquence and literature, entered and settled in every country along with the Islamic civilization. In those times, the French and other European people who went to Arabic universities and Muslim schools in Spain for educational purposes took with them many Arabic words, especially technical terms used in knowledge and science, to their countries and mixed them with their own languages. Today, in Western languages, Arabic words are still in use.
In “The Gospel in Many Tongues,” published by The British and Foreign Bible Society in London, in 1947, there are a few lines written as examples of each of the seven hundred and seventy languages. The people of Egypt have a light-brown complexion.
The people of Ethiopia (Habashistân, al-Habashatu) are black and are called Habashî. The people of Zanzibar (Zanjîbar) are called Zanjî (negro), and they also are black. It is an act of worship to love and respect our Prophet’s relatives, the Arabs. Every Muslim loves them. Everybody who came to Asia Minor as guests introduced themselves as Arabs to us in order to receive respect and kindness, and the credulous Anatolian Muslims believed and loved them. That was because the black and the white weren’t looked upon differently in terms of this love. A black Muslim is better, dearer, and more lovable than a white disbeliever. To be black does not diminish the value of îmân (faith) for any person. Some of Rasûlullah’s Ashâb were black even though they were Arabs. Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî and Usâma whom the Prophet loved very much were black. But such disbelievers as Abû Lahab and Abû Jahl, whose evil and baseness are known by everybody, were white. Allâhu ta’âlâ evaluates a man not with regard to his colour, but with respect to the strength of his îmân and taqwâ.
However, the enemies of Islam, the Jews, introduced blacks as if they were of a low and horrible class. They used them as slaves. They wanted to wipe out the love existing among Muslims and to break off their relation of brotherhood. On the other hand, by calling black pets such as cats and dogs ‘Arab’ and by referring to the blacks in their pictures, cartoons, magazines and newspapers as Arabs, they tried to misrepresent the Arabs to our youth as badly as they could in order to estrange Muslim children from our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’. Today, people living in Arabia, Mecca-i mukarrama, and Medina-i munawwara are the descendants of the foreigners who came in the course of centuries from Africa, Asia, and other places and settled there. Those foreigners were black and were lovers of Allah and Rasûlullah. Eyyüb Sabri Paşa, ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’, one of Sultan Abdulhamîd Khan II’s ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ admirals, writes in his five-volumed Turkish book Mir’ât-ul-harâmayn that in the entire city of Mecca there are only two Arab homes left. And today, there aren’t any. After our Prophet’s death, all his companions and then his descendants moved out of Arabia for jihâd, that is, in order to spread Islam all over the world. They spread far into Asia, Africa, Cyprus, Istanbul and, in brief, everywhere. In order to teach Allah’s religion to His human creatures, they fought, and they sacrificed their lives. These vast lands teem with those blessed martyrs. They sent their sons to the faculties of Baghdad University, which was at that time the greatest universtiy in the world –and it can be seen in its surviving artifacts today that they had experimented and discovered many new things in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography and mathematics–, in order that they might learn knowledge. When Hulâghu, the famous tyrant, – 233 – and a grandson of the disbeliever Dzenghiz [Whose real name is Timuchin] Khan’s, persecuted and killed more than eight hundred thousand Muslims, including women and children, and burned and destroyed Baghdâd in 656 (1258 A.C.), only those who hid in wells and those who fled to Anatolia were able to stay alive. Consequently, the descendants of our master, the Prophet, and his companions settled in every part of Anatolia, especially in the East. Today, the intelligent, patient, and studious people, whom we call Kurds, are all descendants of those blessed people. There are two groups of Kurds. One of them is the descendants of Yâfes (Japheth), the (third) son of Hadrat Nûh (Noah). This group consists of the rude and ignorant people who in very ancient times came to Asia Minor from Central Asia and who now lead a nomadic life. The historian Xenophon, a pupil of Socrates, writes that he has seen the Kurds in eastern Anatolia. The second group of people who are called Kurds are civilized and polite people living in cities. Almost all of them are the descendants of our Prophet and of his companions. Imâm-i Hasan’s descendants are called “Sherîf” and Imâm-i Husayn’s descendants are called “Sayyid.” Sayyids are higher than Sherîfs. During the time of the Ottomans, in Aleppo there was a great court of justice reserved for Sayyids and Sherîfs. All their descendants were registered there and liars couldn’t claim to be Sayyids. [The courts were abrogated by Mustafa Rashîd Pâsha, a freemason, during the mayhem of the political reforms called Tanzîmât.] The famous Irîsân Beghs, who lived on the land between Van and Hakkârî, were the descendants of the Abbasid Khalîfas and had multiplied out of a child who had escaped the massacre of Hulâghu. In every part of our country today, there are descendants of the Prophet’s companions and Sayyids. We should appreciate their value and spare no effort to respect them.]
All the beautiful habits were accumulated in Rasûlullah. His beautiful habits were given to him by Allâhu ta’âlâ; he did not acquire them later by striving. He never cursed a Muslim by mentioning his name, nor did he ever slap anybody with his blessed hand. He never took revenge for himself. He used to avenge for Allah’s sake. He used to treat his relatives, companions and servants well and modestly. He was very mild and affable in his home. He used to visit invalids and attend funerals. He used to help his companions with their work and take their children on his lap. Yet his heart wasn’t busy with them. His blessed soul was in the world of angels.
Fear would grasp a person who saw Rasûlullah suddenly. If he hadn’t behaved mildly, no one could have sat near him, no one could have had the strength to listen to him, owing to his manners of prophethood. However, out of embarrassment, he himself would never look at anybody in the face with his blessed eyes.
Fakhr-i ’âlam ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was the most generous of human beings. He has never been heard to say, “I don’t have,” about something asked from him. If he had the thing asked for, he would give it; if he didn’t have it, he wouldn’t answer. The Prophet had so many great attributes and had done so many favours for so many people that the Byzantine emperors and the Persian shahs could not do enough to compete with him. But he himself liked to live in inconvenience. He led such a life that he would not even remember to eat or drink. He never used words like “Bring something to eat,” or “Cook such and such food.” He used to eat when they brought the meal to him, and he used to accept whatever fruit they offered to him. Sometimes he ate very little for months, and he liked hunger. And sometimes he ate much. He used to eat with three fingers. He didn’t drink water after meals. He would drink water sitting. When he ate with others, he used to stop eating after everybody had finished. He used to accept presents from anybody. In response to someone who had brought him a present, he used to give much more.
Rasûlullah, together with twelve thousand heroes, after departing from Medina on the tenth day of Ramadân, conquered Mecca on Thursday, the twentieth of Ramadân, in the eighth year of the Hegira. On the following day, Friday, when reciting the khutbah, he had a black turban around his blessed head. After staying eighteen days in Mecca, he went to Hunayn. He used to let the end of his turban hang down. He used to say, “The turban distinguishes Muslims from disbelievers.” It was his habit to wear various clothes. When ambassadors from foreign countries came, he would adorn himself. That is, he would wear valuable and beautiful clothes and expose his beautiful face. Formerly, he used to have a gold ring, but later he wore a ring with an agate. He used his ring as a seal. “Muhammadun Rasûlullah” was written on his ring. In all four Madhhabs it is not permissible for men to wear gold rings. His bed was made of leather filled with date tree shredding. Sometimes he slept on this bed and sometimes on leather laid on the ground, on a mat and sometimes on dry soil. He laid on his right side putting his blessed palm under his right cheek.
Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ did not accept zakât, and he did not eat such things as raw onions or garlic, and he did not recite poems. Rasûl-i akram ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was born in Mecca, in the hijrî year 571, on a Monday night, (i.e. a night that was between Sunday and Monday, and) which was the night (following the eleventh and) previous to the twelfth day of the month of Rabî’ul-awwal and which coincided with the twentieth of April, towards morning. Every year, Muslims all over the world celebrate this night as the Mawlid Night. Everywhere, Rasûlullah is remembered by reciting Mawlid Qasidas [Eulogies of Mawlid]. The Sultân of Erbil, Abû Sa’îd Muzaffar-ud-dîn Kukbûrî bin Zaynaddîn Ali, used to organize festivals on mawlid nights and used to give gifts and presents. The beautiful character, benevolence and good deeds of the sultân is noted in detail in a history book by Ibni Khilligân, on the 234th page of Hujjatullâhi ’alal’âlamîn and in a pamphlet entitled Mawlid-î sherîf by Sayyid ’Abdulhakîm-i Arwâsî. ‘Mawlîd’ means ‘the time of birth.’ ‘Rabî’ul-awwal’ means ‘the Spring.’ Our Prophet, after he had become the Prophet, used to lay very much stress on this night every year. The ummat of each Prophet had made the birthday of their Prophet a feast day. And this day is the Muslims’ feast day. It is a day of pleasure and happiness. When Hadrat Âdam was between soul and body, he (Muhammad) was the Prophet. Hadrat Âdam and everything were created for his honour. His blessed name is written in Islamic letters on the Arsh, on skies and heavens. His name Muhammad was given to him by his grandfather, ’Abdulmuttalib. He had dreamt that (Muhammad’s) name would be spread over the world and that everybody would praise and laud him. ‘Muhammad’ means ‘he who is praised much.’ Hadrat Jabrâil’s first coming and informing him of his prophethood, his leaving the city of Mecca for a Hegira, his setting foot in the village of Kubâ of Medîna-i-munawwara, his leaving Medina for the conquest of Mecca, and his death all took place on Mondays. When he was born, it was discovered that his umbilical cord had been cut and that he had been circumcised. When he honoured the earth with his presence, he raised his index finger and prostrated. Angels used to cradle him. He began talking in the cradle. It is said in the annotation Zerkânî of Mawâhib: “When his parents Hadrat ’Abdullah and Hadrat Âmina married, the former was eighteen years old and the latter was fourteen years old. Hadrat Âmina passed away when she was twenty. First he was suckled by his holy mother for nine days, then by Suweyba, a jâriya – 236 – of Abû Lahab, for a few days. Then, Halîma-i Sa’diyya suckled him for two years. He stayed in the village of Banî Sa’d bin Bakr for two years; then, when he was four years old, he was brought to the city of Mecca. When he began to walk, he used to watch children play; he wouldn’t join the playing. When he was six years old, his mother Âmina passed away, and when he was eight, his grandfather ’Abdul-muttalib passed away. When he was twentyfive years old, he married Hadrat Hadîjah ‘radiy-Allâhu anhâ’. When he was forty years old, in the month of Ramadân on a Monday, as he was in a cave on a mountain that was called Jabali- hirâ and Jabal-i-nûr and which was an hour’s walk north of the city, the angel appeared to him and he was informed that he was the Prophet for all human beings and genies. First, Hadrat Jabrâil came. Then, for three years Hadrat Isrâfil kept coming to teach him. Yet, Isrâfil didn’t bring the Qur’ân al-kerîm. Then, Hadrat Jabrâil began to come and conveyed all of the Qur’ân al-kerîm in twenty years. Jabrâil ‘’alaihis-salâm’ came to him twenty-four thousand times. [By comparison, he had descended to Hadrat Âdam twelve times, to Hadrat Nûh (Noah) fifty times, to Hadrat Ibrâhim forty times, to Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) four hundred times, and to Hadrat Îsâ ten times.] He didn’t manifest his prophethood for three years, and then, with the command of Allâhu ta’âlâ, he declared it.
When he was fifty-two years old, on the twenty-seventh night of the month of Rajab, in Mecca, Hadrat Jabrâil descended and took him from Masjid-i-Harâm to Masjid-i-Aqsa in Jerusalem and thence to heavens. In this Mi’râj, he saw Allâhu ta’âlâ. On this night, the daily five prayers of namâz became fard. Please read the final page of the fifth chapter of the second fascicle of Endless Bliss!
When he was fifty-three years old, he migrated to Medina with a divine command. He left his house early in the morning, on Thursday, the twenty-seventh of the month of Safar. He came to Abû Bakr Siddîq’s house in the afternoon. After a short time, he and Abû Bakr left the latter’s house together. They went to a cave on Mount Sawr, five and a half kilometres south-east of Mecca. The way to this mount, which is 759 metres (about 2530 ft.) above sea level, was very rough. His blessed feet bled. They stayed in the cave for three nights and left it on Monday night. After a week’s travel, they arrived at Kubâ village near Medina on Monday, the eighth of Rabî’ul-awwal, which coincided with the twentieth of September. It is written in the book of Tafsîr entitled Baydâwî that – 237 – after staying here until the twenty-third of September, (the autumnal equinox,) when day and night are of equal length, they spent the day here and left for Medîna on the twelfth of Rabî’ulawwal, a Friday, arriving in the blessed city on the same day. Later, during the caliphate of ’Umar ul-Fârûq, the first day of the month of Muharram of that year, which was sixty-six days before the Hijrat, became the beginning of the Muslims’ Hijrî kamarî calendar. That first day, according to historians, was in the year 622 A.D. It is written in Ahmad Ziyâ Bey’s book Ilm-i Hey’et, printed in 1316 [1898 A.D.], that it corresponded with Friday, the sixteenth of July. The beginning of Muslim’s Hijrî shamsî year (Hegira solar calendar) is the day when he entered the village, Kubâ, which was the 20th of September. The first day of the year of 623 A.D. was in the first year of the Hegira solar calendar, and lunar calendar.
One solar year contains 365.342 days. And one lunar year contains 354.367 days, that is, 354 days plus eight hours plus 48.5 minutes.
He made war twenty-seven times, in nine times of which he attacked as a soldier, and in the other occasions he occupied the rank of commander-in-chief. He used two types of flags in his holy wars. His Râya was black. His Liwâ, which was smaller, was white. We have already explained in the twenty-ninth chapter of the current fascicle that the banner of the Ottoman State was designed by Timurtash Pâsha.
He passed away in the blessed city of Medîna before noon on Monday, Rabî’ul-awwal 12th, 11 [632 A.D.], when he was 62 or 61, depending on the calculations done by using the lunar calendar or the solar calendar, respectively. Without taking his holy shirt off, he was washed three times, was wrapped with a new white shroud folded three times, and was buried where his blessed soul was taken.
Sarwar-î ’âlam’s (Muhammad) blessed eyes would sleep, but his blessed heart would not. He would go to bed hungry, but he would feel satiated when he woke up. He never yawned. His blessed body was luminous, and he never cast a shadow on the ground. Flies would not alight on his clothes, nor would mosquitos or other insects suck his blessed blood. When he was made Rasûlullah (Allah’s Messenger) by Allâhu ta’âlâ, satans could no longer ascend to heaven or steal news, nor could soothsayers any longer make predictions.
If a person dreams of Rahmatan-lil-’âlamîn ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, this person certainly has seen him, for the devil cannot assume the Prophet’s guise.
Sarwar-i âlam ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ is now alive in a life we can not understand. His blessed body never rots. An angel stays in his tomb and informs him of the blessings which his Ummat (Muslims) invoke upon him. Between his pulpit and his blessed tomb is a place called Rawda-i-mutahhara. This place is one of the gardens of Paradise.
It is one of the greatest and most valuable acts of worship to visit his blessed shrine. He said: “My shafâ’at is certain for him who visits my shrine.”
Sarwar-i ’âlam ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ had three blessed sons and four blessed daughters, eleven blessed wives, twelve uncles and six paternal aunts.
[In order to deceive youngsters, immoral and indecent people, the enemies of religion say that the Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was fond of women and girls, and they insolently slander him by saying and writing very loathsome things which become their abominable souls, but of which we would be ashamed to write in this book of ours. Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ first marriage was when he was twenty-five years old; he married Hadrat Khadîja. She was forty years old and a widow. But she had much property, beauty, wisdom, knowledge, honour, nobility, chastity and decency. They lived together for twenty-five years, and she passed away three years before the Hegira in the month of Ramadân in Mecca. As long as she was alive, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ never entered into another marriage.
The second marriage that Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ entered into was to Hadrat ’Âisha ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anha’, Hadrat Abû Bakr’s daughter, when he was fifty-five years old. He took her under his nikâh one year after Hadrat Khadîja’s death, with the command of Allâhu ta’âlâ, and lived with her for eight years, until he died.
He married all the others after marrying Hadrat Âisha ‘radiy- Allâhu ’anhunna’ and did so for either religious or political reasons or out of mercy or as a kindness. All these women were widows. Most of them were old. For example, when the Meccan disbelievers’ persecution and harm to the Muslims had become unbearable, a group of the Prophet’s companions migrated to Ethiopia. Najashî (Negus), the Ethiopian emperor, was a Christian. He asked the Muslims several questions, and, admiring the answers he received, he embraced Islam. He did the Muslims many favours. ’Ubaydullah bin Jahsh, who had a weak belief, in order to escape poverty, submitted to the priests and became a renegade by changing his faith for the world – may Allah protect us. This accursed person, who was Rasûlullah’s aunt’s son, incited and forced his wife, Umm-i Habîba, to abandon Islam and become rich. Yet, when the woman said that she would rather die than abandon Hadrat Muhammad’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ religion, he divorced her. He waited for her to die of misery. But he himself died after a short while. Umm-i Habîba was the daughter of Abû Sufyân, who was the commander-in-chief of the Quraish disbelievers in Mecca. Meanwhile, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was busy with a very difficult armed struggle against the Quraish armies, and Abû Sufyân was fighting with his utmost power in order to annihilate Islam. Rasûlullah heard of Umm-i Habîba’s strength of faith and the dismal happenings which she had undergone. He wrote a letter to Najâshî, saying, “I will marry Umm-i Habîba, who is there; perform my nikâh! Then send her here!” Najâshî had already converted to Islam. He respected the letter very much and gave a feast inviting many Muslims from that area to his palace. The nikâh was performed in the seventh year of the Hegira, and he gave many presents and gifts. Thereby, Umm-i Habîba attained the reward of her îmân and became rich and comfortable there. Owing to her, the Muslims of that area became comfortable, too. Since women will be with their husbands in Paradise, she was given the good news of the highest grade of Paradise. All the pleasures and blessings of this world are almost nothing when compared to this good news. This nikâh was one of the reasons contributing to Abû Sufyân’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ being honoured with becoming a Muslim afterwards. As is seen here, this nikâh not only shows how wrong and worthless the disbelievers’ slanders are, but also indicates the degree of wisdom, intelligence, genius, blessing, and mercy in the Messenger of Allah.
Another example is that of Hadrat Hafsa; Hadrat ’Umar’s daughter was widowed. In the third year of the Hegira, when Hadrat ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ said to Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’, “Would you marry my daughter?” each of them said, “I’ll think about it.” One day when all three of them and others were present, Rasûlullah asked, “O ’Umar! I see you are sad. What’s the reason?” As it is easy to see the colour of ink in a bottle, so Rasûlullah used to understand everybody’s thought at first glance. He sometimes used to question the person when he deemed it necessary. Since it is fard for us to tell the truth to him and even to others, Hadrat ’Umar answered, “O Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’! I offered my daughter to Abû Bakr and to ’Uthman ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum’. They wouldn’t marry her.” Rasûlullah, because he never wanted one of his most beloved companions to be hurt, immediately said in order to please him, “O ’Umar! Would you like it if I gave your daughter to a person better than Abû Bakr and ’Uthmân ‘radiy- Allâhu ’anhum’?” ’Umar was astonished. For, he knew there was no person higher and better than hadrat Abû Bakr and ’Uthmân. He said, “Yes, O Rasûlallah.” Rasûllullah said, “O ’Umar, give your daughter to me!” Thus Hadrat Hafsa became the mother of Abû Bakr, ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum’ and of all Muslims; and they became her servants, and Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar and Hadrat ’Uthmân became closer to one another.
For a third example, let us explain briefly that in the fifth or sixth year of the Hegira, Juwayriyya, who was amongst the hundreds of slaves captured from the tribe of Banî Mustalaq, was the daughter of Hâris, the chief of the tribe. When Rasûlullah bought, emancipated, and married her, all his companions said, “We would be ashamed to use as jariyahs and servants the relatives of Rasûlullah’s wife, our mother.” They all emancipated their slaves. This nikâh caused hundreds of captives to be emancipated. Hadrat Juwayriyya often mentioned this fact boastfully. Hadrat ’Âisha used to say, “I haven’t seen a woman more auspicious than Juwayriyya.”
The fourth example is that of Zaynab-bint-Huzeyma ‘radiy- Allâhu ’anhâ’.
Our booklet is too small to allow us to write the other examples. The first three examples will certainly suffice for him who has wisdom, quick understanding and, the capacity to realize the truth. We will state also the fact that though he was the strongest of men in every respect, he lived only with his nine wives. And that lasted a few years. Besides, in those times he was always busy with wars; the days when he stayed home were very few. If it had been as priests write about it or as the dishonest, who suppose he was like themselves, describe it, in his youth he could have had as many women as he wanted by marrying young girls and divorcing them after a short while. As a matter of fact, his grandson, Hadrat Hasan, married almost a hundred pretty young girls, marrying and shortly thereafter divorcing them. One day when his father, Imâm-i ’Alî, said in a khutba of his, “O Muslims! Don’t give your daughters to my son Hasan! He divorces, drops girls in a short time.” The Muslims said, “We will gladly sacrifice our daughters to him. It will be enough for them to be honoured with his nikâh (marriage in a manner prescribed by Islam). We will give our daughters to him.” At Badr, at ’Uhud, at Handak and at Khaybar, by attacking a superior enemy with one signal from Rasûlullah, those lions sacrificed their lives for him. Wouldn’t they have given their daughters to him? Yet, he didn’t want them. On the Night of Mi’râj (his ascent to heaven), when he entered Paradise, he never turned to look at the houris of Paradise. Voltaire, one of the enemies of Islam, dramatized Rasûlullah’s marrying Hadrat Zaynab and calumniated them with vulgar and base slanders. Subsequently, he received a letter of congratulation from the Pope, who was his enemy. This fact is written in Kamûsul- a’lâm, under the entity Zaynab. In a translation of Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, on page 459, it is written: “Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ gave his aunt’s daughter Zaynab in marriage to his adopted son Zayd. After a long time, Zayd said that he wanted to divorce his wife. When he was asked ‘Why?’ he said, ‘I have not seen a bad thing in her, and I have always appreciated the useful things from her. But, she boasts about the honour of her lineage and always reminds me of it.’ Rasûlullah said to Zayd, ‘They are not important things. ‘Do not divorce her for such reasons.’ However, Allâhu ta’âlâ stopped him from preventing this divorce. So Zayd divorced Zaynab and Allâhu ta’âlâ married Zaynab to His Messenger and ordered him to ask her for marriage.” Dawûd ‘’alaihis-salâm’ had one hundred wives and three hundred jâriyas. Sulaymân ‘’alaihis-salâm’ had three hundred wives and seven hundred jâriyas. Voltaire, who does not say a single word about these great Prophets, attacks Rasûlullah for taking a wife to carry out a commandment of Allâhu ta’âlâ.
One of the important reasons why Rasûlullah married several wives was to teach Islam. Before the âyat of Hijâb was revealed, that is, before women were commanded to veil themselves, women also used to come to Rasûlullah to ask and learn what they did not know. When Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ went to the house of one of them, they used to come and sit, and listen and obtain information. But, after the âyat of Hîjâb, it was prohibited – 242 – for nâ-mahram women and men to sit together and talk, and thereafter Rasûlullah no longer allowed nâ-mahram women to come and ask questions. He ordered them to ask and to learn from his blessed wife Hadrat ’Âisha. There were too many women and too many questions for Hadrat ’Âisha to have time to answer all. In order to make this important task easy, and to reduce the weight on Hadrat ’Âisha, Rasûlullah married as many wives as necessary. Through his blessed wives he managed to convey to Muslim women hundreds of delicate pieces of information concerning women. If he had had one wife, it would have been difficult, nay impossible, for all the women to learn from her.]
Rasûlullah was ummî, that is, he hadn’t read books; he was not schooled in writing, nor had he received lessons from anyone. Born and raised in Mecca, brought up among certain people, and despite having never travelled, he conveyed information about facts and events in the Tawrât (Hadrat Mûsâ’s heavenly book), in the Injîl, and in the books written during the Grecian and Roman centuries. In order to teach Islam, he sent letters to Muslims. In the sixth year of the Hegira, he sent letters to Byzantine, Iranian, and Abyssinian rulers and to other Arabic emperors. The Iranian ruler (shâh) Husraw Pervîz tore his letter to pieces, and martyred the Sahâbî who had delivered him the letter. Shortly after that, he was slain by his son named Shîrûya. More than sixty foreign ambassadors came to his service. It is wâjib for everybody who has heard of Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ prophethood to believe him, the Qur’ân, which he brought, and Islam. He who, after having heard, dies without having îmân will go into Hell and will be eternally tormented there.
Fakhr-i ’âlam’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ names and characteristics were written in the Tawrât and in the Injîl. Jews and Christians had been awaiting his honouring the world with his presence. However, because he came not from their own race, but from the Arabs, they became jealous and denied him. However, quite a number of the learned and wise ones were reasonable enough to believe, and believe they did. Denial of his prophethood or failure to realize his greatness and superiority will not detract frm his value and honour.
Allâhu ta’âlâ says in Sûrat al-Inshirâh: “I have enhanced the dhikr of you,” so that your name will be will be uttered alongside Mine everywhere. Each longitudinal degree of westward movement adds four minutes to the beginning of a prayer time. So, Muslims all over the world call the Azân every minute of the day, and his blessed name is mentioned with esteem and love everywhere, all the time. Unless a person follows Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ in everything he does, he will not be a Muslim. Unless he loves him more than his own life, his îmân will not be perfect. He is the Prophet of all people and genies. It is wâjib for every nation living in every century to follow him. Every Muslim should help his religion, adapt himself to his habits, mention his blessed name very often, say salât and salâm for him respectfully and with love whenever he mentions or hears his blessed name. A Muslim should want with love to see his blessed beauty, and love and respect the Qur’ân and Islam, which he brought. The book Mir’âti Kâinât says: “Ignorant and lazy people write initials [such as (SAW)] instead of ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam.’ This is not advisable. We should carefully avoid this.” It is stated in the chapter about namâz in Ibni ’Âbidîn: “It is farz to say the (certain prayer) Salawât (pronounced as a benediction over our Prophet’s soul) once in one’s lifetime.
It is wâjib to say it each time one says, hears, reads or writes (his blessed name) for the first time, and it is mustahab to pronounce this blessed benediction whenever the blessed name (of the Prophet) is repeated.”
Whoever on Earth can attain by force his goals?
Whatever the divine decree is, it will certainly take place.
 Toothbrush tree, salvadora persica (or indica), galenia indica, peelu (or pilu).
 Please see the sixtieth chapter of the third fascicle of Endless Bliss.
 Rasûlullah’s blessed father.
 Marriage contract prescribed by Islam. Please see the twelfth chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for ‘nikâh’.