Is it blind faith? -2-
Question: What to say in return to people who say, “If Allah exists, there must be a scientifically verifiable proof. Modern people, like us, do not believe in a thing blindly. We investigate the causes of everything”?
All scientists, save for the exceptions, have declared unanimously that this universe did not come into existence by itself and that it has a Creator. No matter how much progress science makes, humans can never create an ant, a bird or a fish. When a wise and learned person observes the universe, (s)he will see that it has been created in a perfect order and harmony and understand that it did not come into existence by itself.
We come to know our surroundings through our five senses. If it were not for our sense organs, we would not know of anything. We would not even know of ourselves. We would not walk, find out anything, do anything, eat, drink, or live. We would not have parents nor would we exist. We would not understand the things pleasing to our souls, hear sweet sounds or see beautiful things. If we thank our Allah ceaselessly only for our sense organs, still we will not have adequately expressed our gratitude.
We call anything which affects our sense organs being or existence.Sand, water, the sun are all beings, for we see them. Sound is a being, too, for we hear it. Air is a being because we feel the air strike when we open our hand and wave it like a fan. Also, the wind strikes our face. Likewise, cold and hot are beings, for we feel them through our skin.
Moreover, we believe in the existence of energies [powers], such as electricity, heat, and magnetism. We perceive and comprehend that electric currents cause heat, electro-magnetism or chemical reaction; when heat occurs the temperature rises and when it decreases it gets cold. We also understand that a magnet attracts iron. We say that it is wrong to say, “I don’t believe in the existence of air, heat or electricity because I don’t see them.” Although they are not seen, we perceive them or their effects through our sense organs. Therefore, we believe in many beings that cannot be seen. We say that things are not necessarily nonexistent because they are not seen. By the same token, it is wrong to say, “I don’t believe in Allah. There are no such things as angels or genies. I would see them if they existed. Since I don’t see them, I don’t believe them.” It is a statement contrary to mind and science.
As shown by science, beings that have weight and volume are calledsubstances. Accordingly, air, water, stone and wood are substances. Light and electric currents are beings, yet they are not substances. Substances with shapes are called objects. A nail, a shovel, pincers and a pin are objects. They are all made of the same matter, iron. The cause that makes a stationary object move or that makes a moving object stop or that changes its movement is called force. Unless a force acts on a stationary object, it remains stationary; it cannot move. Unless a force acts on a moving object, its movement does not change; it never stops.
Substances, objects, and energies existing in substances, altogether, are called ‘âlam or nature. Every object in nature continuously moves, changes. This means that every object is affected by various forces every moment, thus a change takes place. The change that takes place in substances is called an event.
Have the parts of an automobile been brought together by the forces of nature?
We see that some things cease to exist while other things come into being. Our ancestors, ancient people, as well as their buildings and cities, ceased to exist. And after us, others will come into being. According to scientific knowledge, there are forces affecting these tremendous changes. Those who disbelieve Allahu ta’âlâ say, “These are all done by nature. Everything is created by the forces of nature.” If we ask them, “Have the parts of an automobile been brought together by the forces of nature? Have they been heaped together like a pile of rubbish which has been brought together by flowing water with the effects of waves striking from this and that direction? Does a car move with the exertion of the forces of nature?” Will they not smile and say, “Of course, it is impossible. A car is a work of art which a number of people have built by working together strenuously and by using all their mental abilities to design it. A car is operated by a driver who drives it carefully, using his mind while obeying the traffic laws?”
Likewise, every being in nature is also a work of art. A leaf is an astounding factory. A grain of sand or a living cell is an exhibition of fine art, which science has explored to only a small extent today. What we boast about as a scientific finding and accomplishment today is the result of being able to see and copy a few of these fine arts in nature. Even Darwin, the British scientist whom Islam’s adversaries present as their leader, had to admit: “Whenever I think of the structure of the eye, I feel as if I will go mad.” Could people who would not admit that a car is made by chance, by the forces of nature, say that nature has created this universe, which is entirely a work of art? Of course, they could not. Should they not believe that it has been made by a creator, who has calculation, design, knowledge, and infinite power? Is it not ignorance and idiocy to say, “Nature has created it” or “it has come into being by chance”?
He created everything in the best form and for the most useful purposes
Allahu ta’âlâ created everything in the best form and for the most useful purposes. For example, He created this spherical earth one hundred and fifty million kilometers away from the sun. If He had created it at a distance longer than this, there would have been no warm seasons, and we would have died from the cold. If He had created it at a distance shorter than this, it would have been very hot; hence, no living creatures would have been able to exist.
The air around us is a mixture of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 0,0003 carbon dioxide. Oxygen comes into our cells, burns the food there so that power and strength are provided for us. If the amount of oxygen in the air had been more than this, our cells would have been burned by the oxygen, too; therefore, we would have become ashes. If its percentage had been less than 21, it would not have been adequate enough to burn the food in our cells, and again there would have been no living creatures
During rainy and thunderous days, oxygen mixes with nitrogen and nitrogenous salts are formed in the sky; they fall to the earth with the rain. They feed the plants. Plants are food for animals, and animals are food for human beings. Therefore, it is understood that our sustenance is produced in the sky and rains down from there. The carbon dioxide in the air stimulates the centers of the heart and breathing in the cerebellum; that is, it makes them work. When the amount of carbon dioxide in the air becomes less, our hearts will stop, and we will not be able to breathe. On the other hand, if its percentage increases, we will choke. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air should never be changed. In order to keep it in the same consistency, He created the seas. When the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, its pressure increases, too, and the excessive amounts are dissolved in the seas. After uniting with the carbonate in the water, it is converted into bi-carbonate. This goes down under the sea and forms a layer of mud there. When the amount of carbon dioxide decreases in the air, it leaves the mud, passes in the water, and then passes from water into the air. No living creature can live without air. That is why air is given to every living creature everywhere, free of charge, without any effort, and sent into their lungs. We cannot live without water, either. He created water everywhere, too. But since it is possible to live without water for some time, it has been created in a way that forces people to look for it and then to carry it away. Aside from man’s ability to utilize those facts above, how fortunate for them to be able to see and to understand them.
Ten pebbles and innumerable kinds of orders in the universe
Statements and claims of those who say “chance existences” about these countless beings created by Allahu ta’âlâ with explicit order and harmony are ignorant and contrary to positive science. For example: Let us put ten pebbles numbered from one to ten in a bag. Let us then take them out of the bag one by one with our hand, trying to take them out successively, that is, number one first, number two second, and eventually number ten last. If any pebble taken out does not follow this numerical order, all the pebbles taken out so far will be put back into the bag and we shall have to try again beginning with number one first. The probability of taking out ten pebbles successively in numerical order is one in ten billion. Therefore, since the probability of drawing ten pebbles in numerical order is extremely weak, it is surely impossible that innumerable kinds of orders in the universe came into existence only by chance.
Is it possible to form a book by pressing on the keys arbitrarily?
If one who does not know how to type presses on the keys of a typewriter, let’s say, five times at random, to what extent would it be possible for the resulting five-letter word to express some meaning in English or any other language? If one wanted to type a sentence by pressing on the keys heedlessly, could one type a meaningful sentence? Now, if a page or a book were to be formed by pressing on the keys arbitrarily, could a person be called intelligent who expects the book or the page to have a certain topic by chance?
Matter has a beginning
If it is said, “Things cease to exist, while other things come into being as a result of them. But 105 elements do not cease to exist; changes only take place in their electronic structure,” however, radio-active events have also shown that elements, and even their atoms, cease to exist, and that matter turns into energy. The German physicist Einstein even calculated the mathematical formula for this conversion.
The fact that things and substances have been changing and issuing from one another continuously does not mean that existence itself comes from past eternity. That is, one cannot say, “So it has been, and so it will be.” These changes do have a beginning. To say that the changes have a beginning means that the substances coming into being have a beginning, which in turn means that all of them have been created from nothing while nothing existed. If the substances were not first created out of nothing and if their issuing from one another went far back into eternity, this universe would necessarily be nonexistent now. The existence of the universe in the eternal past would require the pre-existence of other beings to bring it about, and those beings, in turn, would require others to preexist so that they could come into being. The existence of the latter is dependent upon the existence of the former. If the former does not exist, the latter will not exist, either.
Eternity in the past means being without a beginning. To say that something existed in the eternal past means that the first being, that is, the beginning, did not exist. If the first being did not exist, the latter beings could not exist, and consequently nothing could exist. In other words, there could not be a series of beings, each of which requires the pre-existence of another for their own existence. Therefore, all of them would necessarily be nonexistent.
Hence, it has been understood that the present existence of the universe indicates that it has not existed since past eternity, and that there existed an original being, which had been created out of nothing. In other words, we have to accept the fact that beings have been created out of nothing and that today’s beings are the result of a succession of beings coming from those first beings.
The book Sharh-i Mawâqif proves in detail that there is a Creator who creates all classes of beings from nothing, that this Creator should be eternal, that is, should always exist, and that He should exist eternally without changing. Briefly, “to change” means to become something else. When the Creator changes, He becomes something else. His creativeness gets deranged. It is necessary that the Creator will never change and that He will always remain the same. Reasoning from what we have explained, the various classes of beings could not be eternal, and the unchanging Creator must be eternal, He must exist everlastingly. Therefore, there is a Creator who never changes and who is eternal. The name of this never changing creator is Allah.
Meditating on the order among the created beings
It is not possible for a sensible person who studies in medical and scientific universities, who observes the delicate art and balance in the creatures and who sees and understands their delicate relationships to each other, not to believe the greatness, knowledge, and power of Allahu ta’âlâ. A person who does not believe after observing and understanding all of these must be either ignorant or stubborn. Our master the Prophet declared: “Have belief in Allahu ta’âlâ by meditating on the order among the created beings.” It will solidify a person’s belief (îmân) to study astronomy and thereby to discern the systematic order in the movements of the earth, the moon, the sun and all the other heavenly bodies, in their rotations and revolutions, and in the delicate calculations in their distances from one another.
There are multifarious benefits and uses in the creation of mountains, metals, rivers, seas, animals, vegetation, and even microbes. None of them were created for a useless purpose.
Clouds, rain, lightening, thunderbolt, underground waters, energy materials and air, in short, all created beings perform certain functions and services. Mankind, so far, has been able to understand very little about these innumerable services rendered by these innumerable beings. Is it ever possible for mind, which is not capable of understanding the creatures, to comprehend the Creator? Islamic scholars who discerned His greatness and Attributes were bewildered and stated that they realized that it is not possible to understand Him.
The creation of the earth
“Billions of years ago the entire universe consisted of a single piece. Suddenly, a big explosion took place in the middle of that piece. Consequently, the big piece broke into a number of smaller pieces, and each of the smaller pieces began to move in a different direction. Finally, some of the pieces united with one another, forming the so many various planets, galaxies [milky ways], suns, and satellites [moons]. Because there was no resistance left against the initial “big bang” in space, the planets, the satellites, and the galaxies they were in continued to float in space, revolving in their orbits. The world is in a galaxy which contains the sun, too. There are innumerable galaxies in the universe. The universe is an ever-enlarging system. Other galaxies are gradually becoming farther and farther away from the world, because the universe is enlarging continuously. If their speed becomes equal with the speed of light, we will no longer see the galaxies. We have to begin making more powerful telescopes.”
When some scientists were asked when they had reached that conclusion, their answer was, “For the recent sixty years, scientists the world-over have been unanimously sharing this theory.” A period of sixty years is a rather short time within the context of worldly life. It is purported in the Qur’ân al-karîm:
(Do the unbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder?) [Sûrat-ul-Anbiyâ’, 30]
That means to say that it was fourteen hundred years ago when our religion intimated to us the creation of the earth, which scientists have been aware of only for the recent six decades.
Biologists explain the earliest life on the earth as follows: “The first earthly atmosphere contained ammonia, oxygen, and carbonic acid gas. With the effect of thunderbolts, amino-acids came into being from these substances. Billions of years ago protoplasms came into existence in water. These substances developed into the earliest amoebas, whereby the earliest life began in water. Later the living beings that came out to land from water absorbed amino acids from water, giving birth to beings containing proteins in their constructions. As is seen, water is the origin of all living beings, and the earliest living being came into existence in water.”
(It is He (Allahu ta’âlâ) Who has created man from water; then He has established relationships of lineage and marriage.) [Sûrat-ul-Furqân, 54]
(Allahu ta’âlâ is far from all sorts of fault or deficiency: He created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.) [Sûrat-u Yâsîn, 36]
In this âyat-i karîma, the expression “and other things of which they have no knowledge” makes references both to botanists and zoologists and to those scientists who will be doing research for new sources, e.g. atomic energy, which humanity will discover gradually in the course of time. As a matter of fact, it is purported:
(And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations of your languages and your colors: verily in that are Signs for those who know.) [Sûrat-ur-Rûm, 22]
How will the dead be resurrected?
Although some atheists accept the fact that the entire universe has been created from nothing, they are unable to conceive how the dead, who have been annihilated, will be resurrected. Atheists were called mushriks in the past. One day a muhsrik takes a human bone and comes to the presence of our master Rasûlullah. After breaking it into small pieces and blowing them, he asks defiantly, “You say that the dead will be resurrected and brought to the Gathering Place. How will this decomposed bone be resurrected?” Our master Rasûlullah states,“Certainly, Allahu ta’âlâ, the Creator of the universe, will resurrect it. Similarly, He takes your life, resurrects you and then puts you into Hell.” After that, the following verses were revealed:
(Does man not know that We have created him from a drop of nutfah? But he becomes an open enemy, and without ever contemplating his own creation, he presents an example to Us and says, “Who will give life to these decomposed bones?” O My Messenger, say: “He who brought those bones into existence when they were nonexistent resurrects them.) [Sûrat-u Yâsîn, 77-79]
Three verses stating the Resurrection purport as follows:
(They ask, “Who will resurrect us after we die?” Say, “Allah, who has created you the first time, gives life to you and resurrects you.” Thereupon, they shake their heads at you mockingly and ask, “When will it be?” Say, “It is near.”) [Sûrat-ul-Isrâ’, 51]
(Allah resurrects the dead, and He is fully powerful over everything. The time of Qiyâmah comes; there is certainly no doubt about it. Allah resurrects those who are in the graves and raises them up.) [Sûrat-ul-Hajj, 7]
(On that Day the earth is broken apart, and people rapidly come out of the graves. It is easy for Us to resurrect and gather them.)[Sûrat-u Qaf, 44]