Question: A writer claims, “The Qur’ân contains no statement saying all humans were created from Âdam and Hawwâ (Eve). Creating the first cell, Allah brought all living creatures into being from this cell. When human beings came to the phases of creation after their evolutionary developments in different continents, Allah may have created various humans with His power. If it is said that they descended from a single mother and father, then no explanation can be provided for the diversity in their blood groups and skin colors. Is it possible for the four blood groups to come into existence from only two individuals? Can only two people have black, white, and fair-skinned children? The Qur’anic verses state that the human underwent evolutionary processes and was created in this way.” By saying so, he not only denies the fact that the humankind descended from Hadrat Âdam but also talks about the theory of evolution. What answer should be given to this claim?
According to such people, it is as if our master the Prophet had not ever come into this world and had not explained any âyât (Qur’anic verses). They purposely make no mention of the clarifications of the Messenger of Allah. Does this religion not have an Owner and a Prophet? Is it normal for everyone to be talking all at once? Why on earth do they not relate the explanations of the Messenger of Allah and what the mufassîr scholars, the inheritors of him, have transmitted? Now, let us have a look at the Qur’ân al-karîm:(Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul and who created from that his mate and who created from them both many men and women.) [Sûrat-un-Nisâ’ 1]
(It is Allah who created you from a single soul [Âdam] and who created from that his mate [Hawwâ].) [Sûrat-ul-A’râf 189]
(O mankind! We created you from a male and a female. We separated you into nations and tribes so that you would meet one another.) [Sûrat-ul-Hujurât 13]
(Allah chose Âdam, Nûh, the family of Ibrâhîm, and the family of ‘Imrân, who were in the same line of descent, and exalted them over the worlds.) [Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân 33]
(O sons of Âdam! Let not Shaitân deceive you as he got your parents out of Paradise.) [Sûrat-ul-A’râf 27]
(In the sight of Allah, the case of ‘Îsâ is like the case of Âdam. Allah created him [Âdam] from soil and then said to him, “Be!” and he was.) [Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân 59]
When addressing humans, Allahu ta’âlâ says, “Yâ banî Âdama = O sons of Âdam.” [Sûrat-ul-A’râf 26, 27, 31, 35, 172] (These verses demonstrate that all humans are descendants of Hadrat Âdam.)
(Walaqad karamnâ banî Âdama = We have made the sons of Âdam honorable.) [Sûrat-ul-Isrâ’ 70] This âyah, too, shows that human beings are descendants of Hadrat Âdam.
The first human was created from mud. His descendants were created from a sperm drop. After various phases, this semen drop grew into flesh, bones, and finally a human. (Sûrat-ul-Mu’minûn 12-14, Sûrat-us-Sajdah 7-9, Sûrat-ul-Hajj 5, Sûrat-ul-Mu’min 67) The writer (mentioned above) calls these phases evolutionary processes.
A child’s blood type can be different from its parents’:
If the blood type of Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm is A and that of Hadrat Hawwâ is B or if the opposite is true, they can have children with A, B, AB, and O blood types. The reason is that A and B blood types is either homozygous (AA or BB) or heterozygous (AO or BO).
If both parents have homozygous blood types (AA or BB), they will always have children with homozygous blood types (AA or BB). If the blood types of Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm and our mother Hadrat Hawwâ had been AA and BB, then the blood types of all humans would have been only A, B or AB. If their blood types were heterozygous (AO or BO), then people with various blood groups would exist, as is the case now, because the half of genotypes of heterozygous A and B blood types are composed of the gene O. That is, the genotype of A is AO and that of B is BO. According to the Rh factor, there are two types of blood, which are Rh+ and Rh-. Similarly, Rh+ is either homozygous (RhRh) or heterozygous (Rhrh). Rh- is always homozygous (rhrh).
A father and a mother with a heterozygous Rh+ blood can have a child who is either Rh+ or Rh-. Accordingly, a father and a mother with heterozygous Rh+, heterozygous A, and heterozygous B blood types can have children who are Rh+, Rh-, A, B, AB, or O. Even if the blood types of Hadrat Âdam and our mother Hadrat Hawwâ were Rh+, A, and B, all kinds of blood groups could come into existence, which is the case today. That is, it is not necessary that one of them should be Rh+, and the other, Rh-.
In the past years, it was asked in a question of biology in an examination which pair of parents with given blood types could have children with all kinds of blood types. Today, blood types play an important role in paternity determination in forensic medicine as well.
Pregnancy, puerperium, narcosis, radiotherephy, and arsenical drugs sometimes change the blood type a person has. When a person’s blood type changes, his or her blood type may be dissimilar to the blood types of both his or her parents. Therefore, the blood types of children who are born to the same parents are not of two kinds. Blood types are examined according to systems. For example, besides ABO and Rh blood group systems, other blood typing systems are known. It is said that there are also other unknown systems. Each blood typing system works separately from other systems. In medicinal practices, that is, in blood type incompatibilities related to disorders and treatment, the well-known ABO and Rh systems, which are mentioned above, are important.
3. People with type B blood carry either the B and B (homozygous BB) genes or B and O (heterozygous BO) genes.
4. People with type AB blood carry the A and B genes (heterozygous AB).
For example, the half of total sperm number of a man with a heterozygous type A blood (AO) carries the A gene, and the other half of it carries the O gene. If he has, for instance, 500 sperms, 250 of them carry the A gene and 250 of them carry the O gene. Similarly, the half of total number of ova of a female with a heterozygous type B blood carries the B gene and the other half of it carries the O gene.When a male and a female who have these specific characteristics marry, they can have children with any of the possible blood types in the ABO system, namely, A, B, AB, and O.
Let us explain this:
2. If the B gene unites with the O gene, they will have a child or children with B (BO) blood group.
3. If the A gene unites with the B gene, they will have a child or children with AB blood group.
4. If the gene O unites with the gene O, they will have a child or children with O (OO) blood group.
According to the Rh system, likewise, if a heterozygous Rh+ person, that is, a person with + and – genes, marries a person with Rh+ blood group, they can have children with both Rh+ and Rh- blood groups. If two heterozygous Rh+ people marry, they can have both Rh+ and Rh- children.
In the system above, A, B, and (+) genes are dominant to O and (–) genes and mask (hide) their specific characteristics.
So is the case with other blood group systems.