Question: How did the Sunnite scholars explain the Qur’anic verses below?
The explanations for these verses are as follows:
(Allah leaves to stray whom He wills, and He guides whom He wills.) [Ibrahim 4, Fatir 8]
People who say, “Since Allah leaves to stray whom He wills, evil is not from Allah,” are on a wrong way. On the basis of this verse, the Jabriyyah (one of the deviant sects) claims that Allah forces us to commit sins. This claim is false, too. Allahu ta’ala does not wrong anyone. Nor does He force anyone to sin. Everybody does evil or good by his own partial will (iradah al-juz’iyyah).
(Your Lord creates whatever He wills and chooses whatever He wills. They do not have the right to choose.) [Al-Qasas 68]
It is stated that total will belongs to Allahu ta’ala. Humans only have partial free will bestowed by Him. No one can create anything. Allahu ta’ala is the sole Creator. It is He who creates good and evil.
(Allah forgives whomever He wills and torments whomever He wills.) [Al-Baqarah 284]
That “He torments whomever He wills” means He inflicts torment on whoever deserves it. Allahu ta’ala does not do an atom’s weight of injustice. (An-Nisa’ 40, Al-Kahf 49)
(Allah supports with His aid whomever He wills.) [Al-i Imran 13]
He supports with His aid those who are worthy of it.
(Say: “O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty! You give sovereignty to whomever You will and You take it back from whomever You will. You exalt whomever You will, and You abase whomever You will.”) [Al-i Imran 26]
He abases or exalts those who deserve it.
(Verily, Allah gives sustenance to whomever He wills without reckoning.) [Al-i Imran 37]
He gives it to those who are worthy of it.
(The earth belongs to Allah. He makes whomever He wills of His servants inherit it.) [Al-A’raf 128]
He gives it to whoever deserves it.
(He sends thunderbolts and strikes with them whomever He wills.) [Ar-Ra’d 13]
He does so to whoever deserves it.
(Whomever Allah disgraces, there is no one to give him honor.) [Al-Hajj 18]
He disgraces those who deserve it.
(Allah guides whomever He wills to His nur [the Islamic religion].) [An-Nur 35]
He guides those who deserve it.
(Allah creates whatever He wills. He bestows daughters upon whom He wills, and He bestows sons upon whom He wills.) [Ash-Shura 49]
Whichever of them is better for the good people, He bestows it upon them.
(Stop them! They will be questioned.) [As-Saffat 24]
This verse proves the falsity of the doctrines of the Jabriyyah. Those who commit sins by their own partial will are going to be called to account. If Allahu ta’ala forced humans to commit sins, would He ever call them to account?
(We will question everybody.) [Al-Hijr 92]
Everybody will be punished or rewarded for what he did.
(Whoever does an atom’s weight of good or evil will receive the requital for it.) [Az-Zilzal 7, 8]
It is clearly stated in this verse that Allahu ta’ala does not compel humans to commit sins and that they commit both evil and good by their own will.
(Everybody will see what he brought [good or evil].) [At-Takwir 14]
It is explained in this verse that everybody does good or evil deeds by their own will.
If man did not choose belief or disbelief or did not do evil and good deeds by his will, then prophets, Paradise, and Hell would be unnecessary (never!). It would also be improper for Allahu ta’ala to question His servants on their actions.