SECOND VOLUME, 58th LETTER

This letter, written as a response to Muhammad Taqiy, gives information about the ’Âlam-i mithâl and states that metempsychosis is not true and that human souls do not transmigrate; it also explains what kumûn and burûz mean:

Praise be to Allâhu ta’âlâ, who is the Creator and the Owner of all classes of beings, and salâms to Hadrat Muhammad, who is the highest of His Prophets, and to all his absolutely pure relatives and Ashâb! We have been honoured with reading your valuable letter, a work of your good thoughts and beautiful moral character. May Allâhu ta’âlâ protect you against all faults and defects! You ask about Shaikh Muhyiddîn-i Arabî’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ quoting a hadîth in his book Futuhât-i Makkiyya. Our Prophet ‘sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ says in this hadîth: “Allâhu ta’âlâ created a hundred thousand Âdams.” Muhyiddîn-i ’Arabî ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ writes a few things which he has seen in the ’Âlam-i mithâl and says: “As I was making a tawaf around the Kâ’ba, there were some people by my side. I did not know them at all. While performing tawaf they recited two Arabic couplets. The meaning of one of the couplets was:

As you do now, we for years

All visited this residence.

“Upon hearing the couplet, it occurred to me that those people might be from the ’Âlam-i mithâl. As I was thinking so, one of them looked at me and said, ‘I am one of your grandfathers.’ I said, “How long has it been since you died?’ ‘More than forty thousand years,’ he replied. Being astonished at these words of his, I said, ‘Historians say that not even seven thousand years have passed since Âdam, the first father of human beings’. He said, ‘Which Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ are you talking about? I am one of the sons of Âdam, who lived at a time very much earlier than seven thousand years ago’. When hearing this, I remembered the hadîthi- sherîf mentioned above.”

[An important note: Ancient astronomers said that the age of the globe, i.e., the duration of time from its creation until its end, was equal to the number of planets around the sun in terms of thousands, that is, the earth was seven thousand years old; for they thought that the number of planets was seven. The seven thousand years that is written in many history books and that has been transferred into some religious books originates from this. Some of them said that the earth’s age was equal to the number of constellations, twelve thousand years, and others said it equalled three hundred and sixty (360, the number of meridians) thousand years; these three estimations are no more than suppositions and theories.

Hadrat Idris (a Prophet) said, “We did not know the world’s age though we were Prophets.”

The earth’s age is written as (360000×360000), that is, a hundred and twenty-nine billion and six hundred million years, in the book entitled Mukhtasar, which ’Abd-ul-Wahhâb-i Sha’ranî ‘quddisa sirruh’ outlined from Tazkira by Abû ’Abdullah-i Qurtûbî, a great Andalusian savant.

Today’s scientists estimate that the age of the earth is not less than four billion and five hundred million years, through a method called ‘radioactive age dating’ (or ‘radiometric dating’); scientists make such estimations by comparing the amounts of lead and uranium minerals existing in the ore of pitch-blende in strata now and estimating the time which is necessary for the formation of so much lead out of the amount of uranium that has decayed into lead and the existing amount of uranium, by means of the decay constant of Uranium1.]

My dear son! The information which Allâhu ta’âlâ has bestowed upon the lot of this faqîr [Imâm-i Rabbânî refers to himself] is as follows: The Âdams who lived before Hadrat Âdam, who is the first man and the first Prophet, were all in the ’Âlam-imithâl. They were not in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat. There was only one Âdam in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, i.e., in this world of matter which we see, and he was a Prophet. Angles prostrated themselves before him. Allâhu ta’âlâ had made a man’s statue from sticky mud and had changed it into flesh and bones.

[As we know today, Allâhu ta’âlâ changes earthen substances, nitrates and phosphates, into proteins in the factory of plants, and changes these vegetable proteins into flesh and bones and limbs in an animal’s body. Not only can science realize this today, but also with the help of substances which we call catalysts, we can conduct chemical reactions quickly, in a second, that normally takes years. While men can do thousands of years of work in a moment, and as we know that Allâhu ta’âlâ changes earthen substances into substances of flesh and bones in a few years, it is easy to realize through science that He can do it in a moment as well. Just as Allâhu ta’âlâ changed earthen substances into organs in a moment, attached the soul to the body and created Âdam, the first man, so on the Day of Rising He will re-gather these elements in a moment, will make men’s bodies, and will give these bodies the souls that existed. A person’s dying means the soul’s leaving the body. The soul does not die. On the Day of Rising, together with everything else, the souls will be annihilated and then they will be recreated. Today, an intelligent person who can realize Allah’s power well through the branches of science, such as physics, chemistry, physiology and astronomy, can also realize easily as a scientific fact that Hadrat Âdam and all men and animals will be brought out of the soil on the Day of Rising. A century ago, Muslims believed this without any understanding. But today, we see it as a simple scientific fact and believe it without needing further proof.[1]

Allâhu ta’âlâ created Paradise and Hell and declared that He would fill both of them with people. For this reason, since Hadrat Âdam, who was the first man, the earth has always had on itself Believers and disbelievers, who have quarreled with each other. The irreligious have worshipped the things which they have invented, but the Believers have adapted themselves to the Prophets and Books revealed by Allâhu ta’âlâ. Contrary to what some historians suppose and what is seen in some motion pictures prepared by enemies of Islam, our ancient predecessors were not uncouth, wild and naked people lacking knowledge and science. Yes, among the ancient peoples there were those who lived ignorantly and simply, as they do today in the deserts of Asia and Africa. Even in the forests of America savage people live like those of the Bronze Age. But neither all of today’s people nor all of the earlier people can be said to be savages only for this reason. Hadrat Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’ and those who followed him lived in cities. They knew how to read and write. They had such crafts as blacksmithing, making threads, weaving clothes, farming and making bread. Hadrat Âdam, whose age and stature could not be known exactly, lived for a thousand years and became a Prophet when he was five hundred years old according to a report. Allâhu ta’âlâ sent him ten books. Hadrat Jabrâil ‘’alaihis-salâm’ came to him twelve times. In these books, the things to be believed, dictionaries in different languages, to perform salât once a day, [morning salât, as is written in the book entitled Ibni ’Âbidîn,] to make a ghusl, to fast, not to eat lesh, blood, pork; many branches of crafts, knowledge of medicine, medicinal substances, arithmetics and geometry were included. In fact, they minted gold money, operated mines and made tools. The Qur’ân al-kerîm communicates clearly that Hadrat Noah’s ship moved with the force of the steam from its boiler that was heated by means of fire. Not based on any document or observation but for the sheer purpose of denying religions and belittling Prophets, some historians say that the people of ancient civilizations were savages and that they did not know anything. Thereby, they try to misrepresent each of the Prophets, such as Âdam, Shist [Shît] and Idris ‘’alaihimussalâm’ as if they were from a silly tale or a superstition, and thus to train Muslim children as irreligious and faithless people.

Another group of the enemies of religion pretend to be scientists, and broadcast their corrupt thoughts in the disguise of science. For example, they say such things as, “The cell, which is the building stone of all living things, happened incidentally by itself, and then in the process of time there came into being small plants and animals in the sea, then those on land, and finally it evolved into man.” Thus, they mean to say that Hadrat Âdam was not created from the soil, that the Qur’ân al-kerîm and other heavenly books are fairy tales [May Allah protect us against such belief!] , and that it would be contrary to science to believe in the existence of the Supreme Power, who created the first living thing. These kinds of disbelievers are called Dahrî. Those Dahrîs who present themselves as Muslims are called Zindiqs and Science fanatics.

How wretched these sham scientists are! Yes, the physiologist Haldene suggested the probability that “Millions of years ago, in hot seas, affected by the ultraviolet rays coming from the sun, inorganic gases turned into organic compounds and, at the same time, the first molecule with an equiproductive quality, that is, the cellular molecule that changes food substances into living forms like itself, was constructed incidentally by itself.” But, this is a hypothesis, not an experiment, not even a theory. Today there is no information or even a theory showing how a molecule with an equiproductive quality is constructed. Scientific knowledge is the knowledge of observation and examination. A scientific fact is first observed with organs of perception or with the tools which enhance them, and the causes of this fact are conjectured. Then, this fact is experimented on again, and the effects and roles of these causes are confirmed. If the cause of an event and the way it has happened are known, we believe it. But there are also events the causes of which cannot be understood through experimentation. Many ideas are  put forth as their causes. These ideas are not certain. Also, different people may interpret a single event differently.

A hypothesis is a general idea which is suggested as a possible explanation of various known events that share the same starting point. A theory is a hypothesis that is determined to be seemingly the most appropriate explanation of certain events among various hypotheses after a process whereby a number of events and thence new events are arrived at, and those new events are studied on the basis of experience. Perfection of a theory is assessed by how few hypotheses it relies on and at the same time how many events it can explain. Haldene’s idea is a hypothesis after all, and is very far from being a theory. If people do not remain in that grade and acquire correct knowledge about how the first living creatures were created, it will be useful for Islam, not harmful. All living beings as well as lifeless ones were nonexistent and were created later. Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: “Research how I created everything and see the order, the delicacy in My work! Thus believe in Me and in the fact that My Power and Knowledge are infinite!” Yes, the enemies of religion not only say that the first living things came into existence by themselves, but they also proclaim that the solar system, stars, and various physical, chemical and biological events all came into existence by themselves. Ahl-as Sunnat savants gave them the necessary answers in thousands of their books, thus silencing them all. They proved with evidence that they are wrong. Our religion declares that Hadrat Âdam was created from sticky mud. It does not explain in what manner other animals and plants were created. How can Haldene’s hypothesis harm the religion then? Allâhu ta’âlâ, alone, moves, makes, and creates everything, and it makes no difference who says so, Haldene or Darwin or Ibni Sînâ (Avicenna) being no exception. All forms of energy are manifestations of His Power.

What undermines the îmân is to hold the belief that events happened by themselves and to say that animals evolved from one another, initially from one-celled organisms to higher structures and finally to man; science does not prove it true, nor do scientists say so.

A passage from the book Tahâfut-ul-Falâsifa by Imâm-i Ghazâlî has been translated from Arabic into Turkish and has been written in the forty-fifth page of the book Ma’rifatnâma. It is stated in Ma’rifatnâma: “Scientists’ words are of three types. Their words of the first type explain the facts which scientific experiments have discovered. Though these words of theirs agree  with Islam, their wording is wrong. For instance, they say, ‘Nothing can move by itself. There is a power which makes everything move. This power is a natural force. Everything is made by nature.’ Islam, however, says, ‘Nothing can move by itself. There is a power that makes every object move. This power is Allah’s power. Everything is made by Allâhu ta’âlâ.’ It can be understood that Islam and science agree on the same thing; there is only one difference: appellations. We do not object to these words of theirs. Only, we admit them only after altering the names. Their words of the second type are about things which Islam does not explain, but commands: ‘Research and find out!’ Whether we believe their words of this type or not, it does not cause the îmân to be lost. For example, they say that a lunar eclipse is a result of our earth coming between the sun and the moon, and they can predict its time, for the moon looks very bright when it is facing the sun. When the earth’s shadow is cast on the moon, it becomes obscure and indistinct, being unable to receive any light from the sun. And a solar eclipse is caused by the moon coming in between the earth and the sun, and thereby obstructing the sun from being seen from the earth. They say that a lunar eclipse takes place in the middle of the Arabic months, and a solar eclipse happens on the first or the last night of a month. [The sun, earth and moon are sphericalshaped, like a water melon, and they all move in the first heaven. Ancient physicists said that each of the seven planets was in one heaven. On the other hand, it is declared in Sûrat-ul-Mulk that all the stars are in the first heaven, which contains the earth, too.] We will not contradict the scientists in this second group of their views, either. A person who objects to them by saying that Muslims should not believe such words as these will have striven to harm the religion and to demolish Islam. If a person says that they do not agree with Islam, while the rules and experiments of arithmetics, physics and chemistry prove that these words are correct, scientists will doubt the correctness of Islam, thinking that Islam disagrees with science, instead of doubting that person’s words. It has been experienced that the harm done by an ignorant person who attempts to support Islam by way of silly argumentation is worse than the harm done by those who attack Islam systematically.” [Also, Muhammad ’Uthmân Efendi of Medina, in his book Basîrat-us-sâlikîn, printed in 1341 (1923 A.D.) in Istanbul, rejected the rotation of the earth by rejecting some sahîh hadîths on the surmise that they were mawdû’. He misguided younger generations. In contrast, in many books, Islamic scholars, for    instance Abû Bakr Râzî in his books Kûriyat-ul-Ard (Kûriyet-ül- Erd) and Sharh-i Mawâqif, proves that the earth is a rotating spherical globe. Fiqh scholars have established rules on this fact. The sacred meaning of the 22nd âyat of Sûra Baqara is: ‘Your Rabb has made the earth just like a bed for you.’ Tafsîr-i Azîzî says: ‘ He made it calm and motionless for you to sit and to sleep on.’ The sacred meaning of the fifteenth âyat of Sûra Nahl is: ‘I put the mountains on the earth lest it would shake you.’ Tafsîr Sâwî explains this as follows: ‘He created the mountains lest the earth could move and cause you trouble.’ And the book Baidâwî says: ‘Before the creation of the mountains, the earth was a globe without any rocky areas on its surface. While rotating or during any other movement it would shake. When the mountains were created, they prevented it from moving, trembling, and shaking.’ 64th âyat of sûra Mumin purports: ‘Allah is He who made the earth a resting-place[2] for you.’ Shaikhzâda says: ‘Abdullah ibni ’Abbâs said that a resting-place means a halting place, a station.’ It is seen that the âyats of Qur’ân al-kerîm and the tafsîr books inform us that the surface of the earth is like a saddle, a mattress, motionless and comfortable. It will not be true to deduct that the earth is motionless and, therefore it does not rotate on its axis or that it does not move around the sun. Today, these two movements of the earth are known for certain and calculation of prayer times are based on those two movements, (i.e. rotation and revolution.) Please see the twenty-third chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss.] Imâm-i Ghazâlî goes on and says: “When met with events that are understood to be certain and true through calculation and experimentation, it is necessary to interpret âyats and hadîths, that is, to adapt their meanings according to them. Many interpretations have been done in this way.” Let us mention also that it is not a job for the ignorant, such as ourselves, to give meanings to âyats and hadîths. To be a religious savant, that is, to have a say in the religion, it is necessary to have attained the grade of ijtihâd. There is no such exalted savant in the world today. Now the non-savants write religious books for various purposes, and by giving âyats and hadîths meanings at random, they say that Allâhu ta’âlâ says so, or that the Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ commands so. They change Islam into a game. We should not buy or read religious books of this sort. We should find and read books hat contain the unchanged words of religious savants. But, it is a shame, such religious books are almost nonexistent today. On the other hand, it is deplorably seen that most of the books that carry the names of great Islamic savants and which are sold as translations from them contain harmful additions, deletions and changes. What is even more pathetic to realize about these existing books, some of which are quite well-known, is that a number of ignorant people have been carrying on this business of writing books for centuries, adapting some âyats and hadîths to the wrong scientific teachings of their times and thereby giving them wrong and funny meanings. What pleases the enemies of the religion most is to see Muslims deny (because of some ignorant dogooders) facts that are proven through science and which are evident. For this will help them mislead younger generations. If scientists say that matter, the cell, the living and the lifeless came to being later while they had been nonexistent, it does not harm Islam whether they came to existence incidentally in the sea or through some other way; for it is Allâhu ta’âlâ who makes everything.

“Their ideas of the third type are those which disagree with what is declared clearly by Islam. All of these things are hypotheses, that is, suppositions or fabrications under the curtain of science, fruits of sheer bigotry and ignorance. That everything was created out of nothing, that Hadrat Âdam’s body, which was made from sticky mud, came to life by changing into flesh and bones, that Allâhu ta’âlâ exists with His Attributes, the things that will happen at the end of the world, and the Rising after death are all within the principles of îmân. One should not believe thoughts that disagree with these facts or that will ruin the belief in these realities. A real scientist will not utter words disagreeing with these beliefs because they are not things contrary to science. It is necessary to persuade everybody to believe them and to refute those who contradict them.” Hadrat Âdam’s children multiplied and spread over Arabia, Egypt, Anatolia and India. During the time of Hadrat Noah (Nûh) ‘’alaihis-salâm’, they were all drowned in the Flood; only those on board the ship were saved. People multiplied from these survivers. As a result of their numbers increasing in the course of time, they spread over Asia, Africa, Europe, America and Oceania, that is all over the world. This migration was both by land and by sea on large ships. Perhaps there were roads from Asia to America and to the Oceanic Islands in those times.

As science makes progress, facts which Muslims have believed without seeing or comprehending are being understood one by one through science. Today, for example, the following theories are being taught in schools in Europe and in America: “It has been admitted that there were roads between the southern continents during ancient geological ages. The famous meteorologist Alfred Wegener established the theory of “Kontinentenverschiebung’ (the sliding of continents) and said that the five [six today] continents had been attached to one another formerly, and later they parted. By relying on zoogeographic experiments, another professor claimed that there used to be pieces of land between continents like bridges. According to Wegener, continents were adjacent to one another in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Until the end of the Paleozoicum, animals travelled by land between south America and Africa, between Asia (directly from India) and Australia; animals that lived in Africa after the Eocene passed over to south America by land.”

It can be understood scientifically as well that Hadrat Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’ was created from soil, and that people migrated over the earth from Syria, Iraq and central Asia. While some historians, whose purpose is not to write about facts but to engage in progaganda, and who run not towards the truth but towards political advantages, are still obstinate in slandering Islam and Islamic superiors blindly, scientists and scientific knowledge can see and understand the greatness, the correctness of Islam more closely day by day.]

Allâhu ta’âlâ created a sample of everything in Hadrat Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’. He has many latîfas, forces. Long before creating him, Allâhu ta’âlâ created one of his lâtîfas, attributes, in his shape so as to keep it, (i.e. that latîfa,) for a long time in the ’Âlam-i mithâl and revealed all his deeds and all his descendants that will come until the end of the world together with their names. They all lived when their time came. When their end came, they were called to account, and they went either into Paradise or into Hell. After a very long time, as Allâhu ta’âlâ wished, another one of Hadrat Âdam’s attributes was created in the ’Âlam-i mithâl like before, and when its time was over, there began the term of the third one. And when its time was over, the fourth attribute was created in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. When all his attributes and latîfas were finished, finally, Hadrat Âdam, who had accumulated all the attributes and latîfas within himself, was created in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, that is, in the world of matter. Allâhu ta’âlâ made him  valuable. The hundreds of Âdams that had come before were all archetypes of Hadrat Âdam. [It can be compared with the rays of the sun coming before the actual sunrise. Its rays, attributes, gradually become visible.].

Muhyiddîn’i ’Arabî’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ grandfather, who had died forty thousand years before, had been the existence in the ’Âlam-i mithâl of one of the lâtîfas, attributes, of his grandfather, (who in turn had lived) in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat (long after his archetype in the ’Âlam-i-mithâl). He was visiting the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama in the ’Âlam-i mithâl, for the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama has a copy, an archetype in the ’Âlam-i mithâl, as everything does. I, the faqîr, [i.e. Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’,] think and search very deeply, but I cannot see more than one Âdam in the ’ÂlAm-i shahâdat. I can see nothing but the images in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. The person who said that he had lived forty thousand years before and that he was one of Muhyiddîn-i ’Arabî’s grandfathers was indicating that the Âdams existing before Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’ were the images (archetypes) of Âdam’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ lâtîfas and attributes. They are not beings other than Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’ himself. For another Âdam’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ son cannot be the grandfather of this son of Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’.

Upon hearing of this event and the like, people with sick hearts and little knowledge suppose that it is metempsychosis. So, they say that beings were eternal in the past, that they were not created later, and they reject the fact that they will be annihilated again and the end of the world will come. Some irreligious people, who count themselves as shaikhs and murshids, believe in metempsychosis. They say that when a soul leaves its body before reaching perfection it transmigrates into another body. They believe that souls will not pass through another body any further after reaching perfection, that they reach perfection through transmigration, and they fable many stories about metempsychosis. However, it is an act of disbelief to believe in metempsychosis, which means that a dead man’s soul passes into another child and comes to life again. He who says that there is metempsychosis will have denied the Islamic religion. In other words, he will cease to be a Muslim. They never understand; if souls reach perfection through metempsychosis, who is Hell for, and who will be tormented? To believe it means to deny Hell; nay, it means to reject the rising after death. For, according to their belief the soul will no more need its body, which has already been a means for its maturing. Why should it be resurrected together  with the body, then? These false shaikhs’ words are identical with the words of ancient philosophers [and of today’s spiritualists and mediums]. Ancient philosophers did not believe that the dead would rise again. They said that blessings in Paradise and torments in Hell would happen only to souls. They are even worse than philosophers. For, on the pretext of metempsychosis, they deny the torment in the next world and say that it is taking place only in the world in order to perfect souls. [It has been witnessed that genies enter statues, sick people and children and talk. They suppose that those who talk in that manner are double-souled. This supposition also indicates belief in metempsychosis.]

Question: According to some reports coming from the Amîr (Hadrat Alî) ‘kerrem-Allâhu wejheh’ and from some Awliyâ ‘qaddas-Allâhu asrâra-hum-ul-’azîz’, they had done astonishing work years before coming to the world. If we state that metempsychosis is not true, how can we believe those events?

Answer: The work that was done by those great men of religion, was done only by their souls. Allâhu ta’âlâ put their souls into men’s figures and those figures did work like men. Their blessed souls did not enter other bodies. But, metempsychosis means that a man’s soul had had a connection with another body before it entered his own body. It is not an event of metempsychosis for a soul to take the shape of a body. Also, angels and genies do many things by disguising themselves as men, which is not transmigration at all. It is not reincarnation. It is not an event of transmigration into another body.

As Allâhu ta’âlâ gives angels and genies the strength to take various shapes, He also gives this strength to the souls of His born slaves whom He loves very much. There is no need for another body. [Air always contains an amount of invisible moisture. The white steam coming out of boiling water or out of the pipe of a cauldron is not moisture. It is only tiny drops of water. Colourless gases are not visible. As colourless atmospheric moisture condenses into drops in cold weather, which we call dew, in a similar way souls can take various shapes.] According to what we hear and read, most Awliyâ have been seen at various places at the same time and have participated in different activities. Here also, their souls and other latîfas disguise themselves as men and take the shapes of different bodies. Likewise, for instance, some hadjis said that they had seen a Walî at the Kâ’ba and had talked with him, others said that they had seen him in Baghdad the same day, and some other people said that they had met the same Walî in Istanbul the same day. But that particular Walî lived, let us say, in India and never left his hometown. It was that Walî’s latîfas that took various shapes. Sometimes that Walî does not know of these events. When they tell him that they have seen him, he answers them, “You are wrong; I was at home at that time; I did not go to those countries; I do not know those cities, and I do not know who you are, either.” Likewise, some people asked for help from a few Awlîyâ against trouble and danger. They would see that those great people were there immediately and had come to rescue them. Sometimes these Awliyâ ‘qaddas-Allâhu asrârahum-ul- ’azîz’ know of the aid they have given, and sometimes they do not know of it. [This fact has been witnessed especially in battles.] It is the souls and latîfas of those great men of the religion that did those useful deeds. Their latîfas take shapes sometimes in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, and sometimes in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. As a matter of fact, thousands of people at the same time every night dream of our Prophet and get something valuable from him. All of what they see are his lâtîfas and attributes taking shapes in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. Likewise, in the past, devotees received help from their murshîd’s appearances in the ’Âlam-i mithâl; with their help they got rid of their problems.

Ahî-zâda ’Abdulhalîm Efendi, in his book Riyâdussâdât fî ithbât-il-karâmât lil-Awliyâ-i hâl-al-hayât wa ba’dal-mamât, proves that the Awliyâ have karâmats[3] even after their deaths.

It is not metempsychosis for a Walî to do kumûn and burûz[4]. For, in metempsychosis the soul connects with another body to enliven it, to make it sensitive and active. But in burûz a soul’s connecting with another body is not intended to do this, but it is to perfect that body and exalt its grade. As a matter of fact, a genie can also connect with a man’s body and appear in him. But this type of connection is not intended to enliven that person, for that person is alive and is able to hear and move before the genie connects with him. After the connection, some of that person’s actions and words are the appearances of the attributes and actions of that genie. By saying nothing about kumûn and burûz, great shaikhs avoided causing ignorant people to be dragged into wrong beliefs.

According to this faqîr, (i.e. Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’,) kumûn and burûz are unnecessary. For treating and training those who are ignorant, a Walî can make his own high qualities be reflected on that person with the strength given to him by Allâhu ta’âlâ, without superimposing his will on him (burûz). Through tawajjuh and iltifât, he can place those high qualities in him. Thus, that low-grade person will become exalted and will reach perfection. Getting rid of base attributes, he will attain good attributes. Doing this does not require kumûn and burûz at all. This is such a great blessing which Allâhu ta’âlâ endows upon people whom He chooses. His blessings and gifts are so many.

Some people say that souls transmigrate. They say that when a soul reaches perfection, it can leave its own body and pass into another body. They give the following story as an example: A young man died who was the neighbour of a person who had reached perfection and who had acquired this power. That person’s soul left its own body, which was old, and passed into the young man’s dead body. The old man’s body died and the young man came back to life. These words are untrue. They are stories about metempsychosis. A soul’s entering a dead body in order to enliven it is metempsychosis. The difference between transmigration and metempsychosis is that those who believe in metempsychosis suppose that the soul is defective and it reaches perfection through metempsychosis, while the former considers the soul perfect and says that it can transmigrate into another body after reaching perfection. According to this faqîr, belief in the transmigration of a soul is worse than believing in metempsychosis. This is so because they say that metempsychosis is for perfecting the soul. These words of theirs are wrong. Moreover, why should the soul pass into another body after reaching perfection? Why should a person who has reached perfection pass into young bodies for watching and enjoying the world? The soul that has reached perfection would not want to enter a body; on the contrary, such a soul would avoid another incarnation: the purpose of a soul’s entering a body has been achieved and perfection has been attained. Moreover, in the soul’s transmigration the first body dies and the second body comes to life. However, the first body has to be rewarded or tormented in the grave. If the second body comes back to life it means that for that body the end of the world has come as it is still in the world and it has been judged in the world. I do not know if those who believe in transmigration believe in torment in the grave and the day of the Last Judgment? It is a shame that those disbelievers have counted themselves among religious men and have attempted to teach Islam to people through their books and magazines. They are trying to make youngsters irreligious like themselves. O our Allah, protect us from believing such writings and from going wrong! Do not separate us from our dear religion, from our valuable îmân! Thou alone can protect one from disbelief and aberration!

Appendix: By the way, let me give some information about the ’Âlam-i mithâl. The ’Âlam-i mithâl is the largest of all the ’âlams. Each of all the things in all the ’âlams (worlds of beings) has a copy, an appearance, in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. Also, each of the things, meanings, and thoughts that occur to mind and imagination has a copy in that ’Âlam. Our savants said that Allâhu ta’âlâ does not have an equivalent, a likeness, but He has an example. As I, the faqîr, have written in my letters, as He does not have a mithl in the rank of perfect tenzîh, the Divine Person (Allah Himself) does not have an example, either. The âyat-i-kerîma which purports, “Do not give examples concerning Allâhu ta’âlâ,” in Nahl Sûra, implies this rank. Man is called “’Âlam-i saghîr.” Everything in the ’Âlam-i kebîr has a copy in man. And the copy of the ’Âlam-i mithâl in the ’Âlam-i saghîr is man’s imagination. For, everything has a copy in our imagination. Also, each of the states or grades of the devotees making progress in a path of Tasawwuf has a copy in the imagination. It is the imagination which informs the devotees about their states. If it weren’t for the imagination, or if the imagination did not do its duty, men of Tasawwuf would not know of their own states. It is for this reason that those who reach the grades beyond the dhils[5] and appearances, become ignorant and bewildered about their own states, for man’s imagination can represent a copy of the dhils. The imagination cannot go beyond the dhils. We have said that the Divine Person does not have a copy in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. Can there be a divine copy in the imagination which is a copy of the ’Âlam-i mithâl? For this reason, what falls to man’s lot from the Divine Person is only ignorance and unawareness. Nothing can be said about something which is not known. Therefore, it has been said, “Those who know Allâhu  ta’âlâ are incapable of talking.” Something which is known can be explained. Therefore, many things are said when in the world of dhils. Those who go beyond dhils become speechless. So are the states of those who go up to the dhils and origins (’asls) of Allah’s Deeds, Attributes and Names. So it is understood that all the things that can exist in the imagination originate from the dhil. However, since they are the signs, the symptoms of the matlûb [the Divine Person], they make up a branch of knowledge called ’Ilmul- yaqîn. But the knowledge called ’Ayn-ul-yaqîn and the knowledge called Haqq-ul-yaqîn occurs above the dhils, beyond the imagination. To escape the knowledge of the imagination, it is necessary to pass beyond the way and grades which Tasawwuf calls Sayr-i anfusî[6] as well as the way called Sayr-i âfâqî[7], and to make progress beyond âfâq and anfus. Most Awliyâ reach there only after death. It is impossible for them to get rid of the imagination in this world. A very few selected ones from among the great ones of the Awliyâ have been blessed with this fortune when they are alive in this world. Their knowledge is not mixed with imagination, though they are in the world. They attain the matlûb without the imagination’s coming in between. Manifestations of the Divine Person, which flash like lightning for others, are permanent for these great people. They attain Wasl-i uryânî.

May it be to the good health of those who get the blessing,

Let the poor lovers be content with a few morsels!

Question: Some people dream of copies of the ’Âlam-i mithâl and fantasy, while asleep, and dream that they become very rich or that they occupy a high-ranking position. Or they dream that they become a great religious savant and all people gather around them in order to learn knowledge. On the other hand, none of these happens in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, that is when awake. Are such dreams true, or are they without a foundation?

Answer: Such dreams are not vain or without a foundation. It means that the person who dreams so has the tendency and talents to become a rank owner or a savant. But, this tendency is not so strong as to become a fact in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat. If this tendency becomes strong in the course of time, with Allâhu ta’âlâ’s blessing, it will take place in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, too. If it does not become strong enough to happen in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, it remains as it has appeared in the ’Âlam-i mithâl. It appears there as long as it is strong enough. The case is the same with the dreams of the devotees making progress along a path of Tasawwuf. They dream that they occupy high grades, the grades of Awliyâ. If this state falls to their lot in the ’Âlam-i shahâdat, it is a very great blessing. Otherwise, it remains as it has been seen in the ’Âlam-i mithâl; it is worth nothing. Dustmen and porters dream of themselves as judges or generals. But they get nothing when they wake up. Their dreams are of no avail, except that they cause sorrow and repentance. Then, we should not trust in dreams, but we should be pleased with that which we obtain while awake.

I love the sun, it is my favorite subject;

No business with night, what should I do with a dream.

 For this reason, our superiors did not attach any importance to dreams, and they considered it unnecessary to interpret the dreams of their disciples. They valued what was obtained while awake. Therefore, they respected permanent appearances and deemed the state of feeling Allah’s presence that never fades as an advantage. It was quite common for them to forget everything except Allâhu ta’âlâ and not to remember anything else. Attaining this spiritual maturity is not too difficult, and it is not too far away from those who, in the beginning, have tasted the things which can be attained in the end.

[1] Please see the book entitled the Rising and the Hereafter.

[2] ‘Qarâr’ is the (Arabic) word used the original text (of the Qur’ân alkerîm).

[3] Allâhu ta’âlâ creates everything through a law of causation (’adat-iilâhiyya). Sometimes he suspends this law of causation for the sake of His beloved slaves. When such extraordinary events take place through Prophets they are called ‘mu’jiza’. When they take place through the Awliyâ, they are termed ‘karâmat’ (pl.karâmât).

[4] The lexical meaning of kumûn is to hide somewhere, and that of burûz is to reappear from a hiding place.

[5] Images.

[6] ‘Sayr’ means ‘to go, to make progress’, ‘Anfus’ means ‘inside man’, ‘Sayr-i anfusî’ means ‘man’s progress inside himself’.

[7] ‘Âfâq’ means ‘outside man’. ‘Sayr-i âfâqî means ‘man’s making progress outside himself’. Please see the thirtieth chapter of the third fascicle, and also the thirty-second chapter of the sixth fascicle, of Endless Bliss.

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