lineTHE EXPEDITION TO TÂIF

The Master of the worlds (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) wanted a definite resolu- tion against the enemy who ran into Tâif. This fort near Mecca was one of the last, however, the strongest fortresses of disbelief. Our Master, the Prophet had come to Tâif before the Hegira and he had advised them for a month. However, the people of Tâif had tormented him severely. Even, they had bloodied his blessed feet. For our Master and Hadrat Zayd bin Hârisa, these had been the most difficult times of their lives’. Our beloved Prophet sent Hadrat Khâlid bin Walîd in advance. With his glori- ous Companions, he then came before Tâif. The Sakîf tribe had stocked a great supply of food in their fortress. When they saw that the Ashâb-i kirâm came, they closed the gates and began their defense. They were replying with arrow shots at the mujâhids who approached the fort. The battle continued in this manner. The people of Tâif could not dare to leave the fort and fight in the field face to face.

Some of the Ashâb-i kirâm suggested hurling stones into the fortress by a catapult. Our Master, the Prophet approved of this and had catapults made. He continued the siege by hurling stones at the polytheists. The Ashâb-i kirâm strove with might and main. They tried to conquer the fortress as quickly as possible. Meanwhile, fourteen companions had attained martyrdom. The fact that the fortress was so well fortified impeded the conquest.

One night towards the twentieth day of the siege, our Master Rasûl-i akram sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam saw in his dream that a cup of butter, which was given as a gift, was pecked at and knocked over by a rooster. Interpreting this dream as a sign that Tâif could not be conquered that year, he stopped the siege.

Our beloved Prophet, the sea of mercy (’alaihis-salâm), regarding the people of Tâif who had tormented him eight years ago, had told the angel who had said, “If you allow me, I shall turn these mountains over their heads”, “I have been sent as a mercy for the worlds. The only thing I want is that Allahu ta’âlâ create a gener- ation who will worship Him by not making anything a partner to Him, from the cruelty of these polytheists.” Again, he pitied and invoked, “O my Rabb! Show the true path to the people of Sakîf! Bring them to us.”

Our Master Habîb-i akram, with his Companions, left Tâif and came to Jirâna where the captives and the booties taken away from Hunayn were gathered. In addition to six thousand captives, more than twenty thousand bovines, forty thousand sheep and goats and countless jewelry had been taken as booty. He had them distributed to the rightful-owner mujâhids. At that time, it was learned that a delegation from the Hawâzin tribe requested an audience. The permission was granted. When the dele- gation declared that all the Hawâzin tribe embraced Islam, the Master of the worlds became very pleased. Upon this, he immediately emancipated the captives, who were allotted to his share, and gave them back. The Ashâb-i kirâm followed our beloved Prophet in the same manner. A mercy of our Master Rasûlullah suddenly caused the freedom of six thousand captives. When this news was transmitted to the leader of the Hawâzin tribe, Mâlik bin Awf, who took refuge in Tâif, also went and became Mus- lim. Our Master, the Prophet gave many gifts to him too.317

There was nothing left to do there. As usual, the sultan of the worlds, with his Ashâb, returned to Mecca as victorious. He appointed Attâb bin Asîd governor to Mecca.318 He left Hadrat Muâz bin Jabal there to teach religious affairs.319 After he made tawâf around the Kâba and made his umra, he, with his glorious companions, set off for Medina again.

One year later, intending to become Muslim, the people of Tâif sent a delegation of six people to Medina, to the presence of our beloved Prophet. While he was leaving Tâif one year before, the Master of the worlds had invoked, “O my Rabb! Show the right path to the people of Saqîf, bring them to us.” Now, the people of Saqîf had come to become Muslim. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram (the Prophet) was very pleased that they became Muslim. He gave some privileges to them and sent them to Tâif. He appointed Hadrat ’Uthmân bin Abi’l- As as their governor.320

317 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 452; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, III, 925; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât,I, 312; Zahabî, Siyar, II, 207.
318 Ibn Maja, “Commerce”, 20; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 440; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 687; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, I, 498; II, 264; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 890, 960; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 137; Fâqihî, Akhbâru Macca, V, 144; Azraki, Akhbâru Macca, I, 232.
319 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, III, 959, Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 137.
320 Abû Dâwûd, “Salât”, 12, Ibn Maja, “Masâjid”, 3; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, IV, 21; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II 541; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, V, 509.

lineTHE EXPEDITION TO TABÛK

After our Master, Sarwar-i âlam ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ honored Medina-i munawwara, he sent envoys to various states and invited them to Islam. The rulers of Oman and Bahrain with their subjects were honored by becoming Muslims. In addition, delegations from many tribes came and declared their subordination to the Master of the worlds and thus they attained the bliss.

Now, Islam was spreading very quickly. In order to teach the principles of Islam and to rule surrounding tribes and states, governors were sent to them. In the ninth year of the Hegira, in Medina, teachers received many delegations which had converted to Islam.

One day in the Rajab month of the ninth year of the Hegira, our Master Rasûlullah told his Companions, “Today, one of your pious brothers has passed away. Stand up, perform his janâza prayer.” Our Master, the Prophet became the imâm and con- ducted the ritual prayer of janâza in absence of the dead person. Then he said, “We asked for forgiveness from Allahu ta’âlâ for your brother Ashama, the Negus.”

After a while, with the news from Abyssinia, it was learned that the Negus Ashama had passed away. It coincided with the day on which our Master, the Prophet conduct- ed the janâza prayer.321

In this ninth year when Islam rapidly spread over the Arabian Peninsula, Christian Arabs wrote a letter to Heraclius, the Byzantine Emperor, who was jealous of “the Islamic State” and wanted to prevent it from spreading. They said, “That person who claimed prophethood passed away. Muslims are in famine and poverty now. If you want to convert them into your religion, it is the right time.” Upon this letter, Heraclius sent an army of forty thousand strong under the command of Kubâd.

Learning of this, our Master, the Prophet gathered his Companions and ordered them to make preparations for war. Because of the drought that year, the Compan- ions were in a great economic difficulty. Only the traders had a comparatively good financial status. Our Master, the Prophet wished his Companions to offer financial assistance for the equipment of the soldiers who would join the war. This wish of our Master sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam brought the sahâbîs into action. Everyone was bringing what they had and trying to prepare for the jihad with their goods and lives.

321 Bukhârî, “Janâiz”, 52; Nasâî, “Janâiz”, 37; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, III, 183; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, III, 92.

Hadrat Abû Bakr, our Prophet’s Companion in the Cave, had brought all his goods. When Rasûl-i akram asked him, “O Abû Bakr! What have you left for your household?”, he replied, “I have left Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger.” Hadrat ’Umar had brought half of his goods. Our Master, the Prophet asked him, “O ’Umar! What have you left for your family?”, he replied, “I have left as much as I have brought.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “The difference between you two is like the difference between your words.” Upon this, Hadrat ’Umar said, “O Abû Bakr! May my parents be sacrificed for you. You surpass me in every contest in the way of goodness. Now, I well understand that I cannot surpass you in anything,” expressing his appreciation of his value.322

The Ashâb-i kirâm was trying to help as much as possible. However, the hypocrites were mocking them, saying, “You are giving these for showing off.” Our Master, the Prophet said, “He who gives charity today, his charity will act as a witness in his favor on Judgment Day.” Upon these blessed words of our Master, the Prophet, the believers started aiding even more. Hadrat ’Uthmân bin Affân equipped one third of the army. Thus, he became the most helpful person among Muslims. Hadrat ’Uthmân met the needs of the army in such a perfect manner that he did not even forget to put the packing needles which they would use to fix their water jugs, made of skin. Upon this aid of his, our Master Rasûl-i akram said, “From now on, no sin will be recorded of ’Uthmân.”323 One of the poorest sahâbîs had drawn water from a well all that night until the morning. He had brought the palm dates which he earned to our Master, the Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! I have brought what I have, to attain my Rabb’s pleasure. Please do accept them.”

While Muslim men worked to help as much as they could, women did their duties duly.

When they prepared for the Tabûk expedition, Muslims were in a great difficulty. The famine was so intense that many from the Ashâb-i kirâm who had nothing left, came to the presence of our Master, the Prophet and said, “O Rasûlullah! We have become paupers! We have nothing to eat too! We want to attain the rewards of jihâd by not leaving you in this Holy War.” Our Master, the Prophet was telling them he had no animal left for them to ride. Once, Sâlim bin Umayr, Abdullah bin Mugaffal, Abû Lai- la Mâzînî, Ulba bin Zayd, Amr bin Humâm, Haramî bin Abdullah, Irbâd bin Sâriya, came before our beloved Prophet and asked for the same thing. Our Master told them in agony, “I can not find anything for you to ride on.” They felt so sorry that they began to weep, out of the agony of being separated from our Master, the Prophet and being unable to join the jihâd. Upon this, Allahu ta’âlâ descended the âyat-i karîma, purporting, “There is also no sin for those to whom you told, ‘I can not find anything for you to ride on’ when they came before you and asked for your enjoining them to the expedition. Since they could not find the expenditure needed for this sake, they turned back weeping with broken hearts.”324. In the end, Hadrat Abbâs and Hadrat Uthmân prepared them too for the Holy War.

When the preparations were finished, our Master, the Prophet gathered the army at Saniyat-ul Wadâ.’There were few who did not participate in the war. When our Mas- ter, Rasûl-i akram, gathered the army and decided to move, he left Muhammad bin Maslama as his deputy in Medina.325 When he was about to begin the expedition, he said, “Bring spare shoes with you. As long as you have spare shoes, you will not have difficulty.”

When the army marched, Abdullah bin Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites, uttered absurd words to freighten Muslims. He even said, “I swear that it is as if I am seeing him and his Companions tied to each other…” The Ashâb-i kirâm paid no attention to these words. Their zeal for joining the jihâd was increasing. The hypocrites who saw this became frustrated.

When our Master Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) would move from Saniyyat-ul-Wadâ to Tabuk, he had the flags and the banners of the army open. He had given the largest banner to Hadrat Abû Bakr and the largest flag to Hadrat Zubayr bin Awwâm. He gave the flag of the Aws tribe to Usayd bin Hudayr and the flag of the Hazraj tribe to Abû Dujâna.326 The number of the Ashâb-i kirâm under the command of our Master, the Prophet was thirty thousand. Ten thousand of them were cavalry. Hadrat Talha bin Ubaydullah was appointed commander of the right flank and Hadrat Abdurrahmân bin Awf was appointed commander of the left flank.327

Under the command of their Prophet, the glorious companions took action in very hot weather. As long as they had the Darling of Allahu ta’âlâ in their leadership, the scarcity of food and drink could not return them from their path, the distance to the destination or the number of the enemy soldiers could not discourage them. It was possible to go anywhere in this situation.

Resting for a while at each stop, our beloved Prophet and brave Companions were advancing on their march. Their eighth stop was at Hijr where the people of Sâlih ’alaihis-salâm had been exterminated. Allahu ta’âlâ had exterminated them by a thunderous sound, due to their disobeying their Prophet. The Sultan of the worlds told his Companions, “This night, a violent storm will blow from the opposite direction. No one shall stand up unless he has a friend near him. Everyone shall tie the knees of his camel. This is a place where the torment had descended. No one shall drink from this water or perform a ritual ablution with it!…” Everyone obeyed this order. A thunderstorm began in the night and started overturning the things around them. In the meantime, a person, who had neglected to tie his camel, stood up to search for it. He had been caught by the storm and thrown away on the slopes of the Tayy mountain. Another person had to go to the toilet. Where he went, he contracted an illness called Hunak. With our Master, the Prophet’s invocation, he became well again.

322 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 990; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, II, 34.
323 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 990.
324 Sûrat at-Tawba, 9/92.
325 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 519; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 8; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, V, 294; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV,
12; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 297; Huzâî, et-Tahrîc, s, 327; Kattânî, at-Tarâtîbu’l-idâriyya, I, 485.
326 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 996; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, II, 36; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, V, 443.
327 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 1001; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, II, 36.

That morning, there was no water left in the water jugs. Everyone was about to die of thirst. The hypocrites saw this as an opportunity and tried to cause disorder by saying, “If Muhammad was really the Prophet, he would invoke and cause it to rain.” When the situation was submitted to the Master of the worlds, he raised his blessed hands and begged Allahu ta’âlâ for rain. In a hot and cloudless sky, rain clouds sud- denly appeared. A heavy rain started. Everyone filled their jugs, performed ritual ablu- tion, and watered the animals. When the rain stopped and the clouds dispersed, it was seen that it had rained only over the army. Our beloved Prophet and the Companions said takbîrs. They thanked Allahu ta’âlâ. They said to the hypocrites, “Now, there is no excuse left for you. Believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger and become a pi- ous Muslim!” But abject hypocrites replied, “So what?.. It rained and finished, while a cloud was passing!”

Hunger had reached the highest degree too. Namely, one palm date was shared by two persons. They had approached Tabûk despite the vehement heat, hunger and thirst. Our Master Habîb-i-akram (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “Inshâ’Allah (If Allahu ta’âlâ wills), you will arrive at the spring of Tabûk in the mid-morning tomorrow. Until I come, do not touch that water.” The next day, they arrived there. The spring’s water was little. Our beloved Prophet had some water from the spring poured into a container. Then, he put his hand in the container and invoked. He poured the water into the spring. The waters increased and rose suddenly. Even though all the Islamic army of thirty thousand strong drank, the water did not lessen. Later on, everywhere in the region was watered with that water which is a miracle of our Mas- ter, the Prophet. That region became a very green and a very abundant open plain.

When our Master Rasûl-i arkam, with his glorious Companions, came to Tabûk, they could not find the Roman armies, composing of the Byzantines, and Christianized Arab tribes such as Âmila, Lahm and Juzam. At Mûta, a Roman army of one hundred thousand strong had suffered a defeat against three thousand mujâhids. Now, there were thirty thousand mujâhids and their commander was the Master of the worlds. When Romans heard that our beloved Prophet gathered his heroic companions and came, they had looked for hideaways.

Having counseled with his companions, our Master Rasûlullah did not go farther than Tabûk. Meanwhile, some tribes and states in that region had heard that the Islam- ic Army had arrived. Out of their fear, they sent delegations to our Master, the Prophet and they asked for mercy by paying jizya. Our Master, the Prophet pitied them and accepted their offers. With each of them, separate agreements were made and they were told that they were in safety.

Trap…

Our Master Sarwar-i kâinat (’alaihis-salâm) waited for the enemy nearly twenty days. He spoke with his Ashâb-i kirâm at Tabûk and washed their hearts in a sea of light. He poured the blessings and superiorities emitting from his blessed heart to their

hearts. In one of his unique talks, he asked, “Shall I inform you of the best and the most honorable of mankind?” The Ashâb-i kirâm answered, “Yes, O Rasûlullah!” Upon this, he said, “The best of mankind is he who works on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ on the back of his horse or camel, or standing afoot, until his last breath. The evil of mankind is the excessive person who he reads out the Book of Allahu ta’âlâ, however, he does obtain any benefit from it.”

He told a person who asked about martyrdom, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who owns my existence in His power, that on the Day of Judgment the martyrs will come wear- ing their swords girded on their backs. They will sit on thrones of radiance.”328

During the preparations for returning from Tabûk to Medina, those Sahâbîs whose hunger reached at an unbearable level submitted the matter to our Master, the Prophet. Our Master Rasûlullah had the remaining food gathered on a leather ground cloth. These foods could not even fill a small pot. Our Master Sarwar-i âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) renewed his ablution and performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats. He outstretched his blessed hands and invoked for the foods’ abundance. Then, he or- dered his companions to bring their dishes. All the dishes were filled with the food. No dish was empty. Also, it was seen that the food from the meal did not lessen, although all the mujâhids ate until they were full.

The Mujâhids had left Tabûk and headed for Medina. One night, the hypocrites agreed among themselves to lay an ambush in the narrow passage that was ahead of the Mujâhids, in order to kill our beloved Prophet. They began to wait in the passage. Ammâr bin Yâser was holding the halters of the camel of our Master, the Prophet. Hadrat Huzayfa bin Yemân was following. Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) informed that the hypocrites conspired and plotted an assassination. When Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) came near there, this group of hypocrites, having masked their fac- es, started their assault. Hadrat Huzayfa, declaring, “O the enemies of Allahu ta’âlâ!”, started thrashing the hypocrites and their animals with his stick. Twelve hypocrites, fearing from these cries and noises, immediately dived into the ranks of the soldiers. Our Master, the Prophet advised Hadrat Huzayfa of their names and warned him not to tell others.

Having heard the incident, Hadrat Usayd bin Hudayr came forward and beseached, saying, “O Rasûlullah! May my life be sacrificed for your sake! Tell me who they are, so that I will bring their heads to you!” However, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) did not give permission.329

Masjîd-i Dirâr

Having frightened the Byzantines and broken their resistance, our beloved Prophet and his heroic Companions had approached the luminous Medina at last. The sultan of the worlds ordered his Companions to encamp at the place called Zî-Awân, which was very close to Medina. While the companions were resting, a few hypocrites came and asked for our beloved Prophet’s honoring the Dirâr Mosque.

328 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 1018.
329 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 1040.

The Dirâr Mosque was in Kubâ. It had been built by the hypocrites against the first mosque, which our Master Rasûlullah had built in Kubâ during his migration to Medina. While our beloved Prophet was going to Tabûk with his Companions, the hypocrites had come to his presence and invited him by saying, “O Rasûlullah! We have built a new mosque. Would you honor there and conduct our ritual prayer?” The Master of the worlds was in a military campaign, he replied that if it was possible he could pay a visit during his return from Tabûk.

The aim of the hypocrites was to divide the Muslim community, to use them for their own purposes, to cause anarchy and to set them against each other. They would even have invited the Byzantine soldiers to Medina and they would help them with the weapons being stored in this mosque. Ensuring our Master, the Prophet’s performing ritual prayer there would give the impression that the Dirâr Mosque was a holy place. Thus, Muslims would race with one another to perform ritual prayer at that place and -supposedly- they would fall into the trap of the hypocrites.

Our Master, Sarwar-î âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had accepted this invita- tion of the hypocrites and decided to go there. Allahu ta’âlâ descended the 107th and 108th âyats of Sûrat-ut-Tawba and conveyed the truth of the matter. Upon this, Master of the worlds commanded Mâlik bin Duhshum and Âsim bin Adiyy, “Go to that mosque of the cruel! Demolish and burn it!” Between the evening and the night prayers, they went and set the building on fire. Then, they demolished it. The hypocrites could not say anything.330

Hearing that our Master, the Prophet and his glorious Companions were coming, the people of Medina gathered immediately and went out to welcome them.

Two months after the return of our beloved Prophet from Tabûk Expedition, Abdul- lah bin Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites, died. After that, the unity of the hypocrites broke and they dispersed.331

Thus, not only the hypocrites but also the polytheists and the Jews in Arabia had been suppressed and their movements of opposition and prevention against Islam had been extinguished.

lineTHE FAREWELL HAJJ (PILGRIMAGE)

Hajj (Pilgrimage), one of the five fundamentals of Islam, was commanded in the ninth year of the Hegira. In the descended âyat-i karîma, it was purported, “There (at the Kâ’ba) are obvious signs, the station of Ibrâhim. Whoever enters there is safe from being attacked. It is one of the rights of Allahu ta’âlâ over people, one of His commands, that those who can find a way to it (those who are able to) make a hajj (and visit) that Bayt. Whoever denies that fard (should know that) certainly, Allahu ta’âlâ does not need any of His creatures.”332

Our Master, Fakhr-i Âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) announced this order of Allahu ta’âlâ to his Companions. That year, he appointed Hadrat Abû Bakr command- er to a convoy of three hundred pilgrims. The Companions, who were in this convoy, went to Mecca under the command of Hadrat Abû Bakr. Meanwhile, the first verses of Sûra Barâa had descended. In these, some verdicts were declared about the treaty. Our beloved Prophet sent Hadrat Ali to Mecca to declare those verdicts.333

At that time, according to a custom among Arabs, if a treaty was made or broken, it would be announced by either side which made the agreement or one of their relatives. Our Master, the Prophet sent Hadrat Ali for this task, after departure of the convoy of Hajj to Mecca. Hadrat Ali reached the convoy and they entered Mecca together.334

330 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 529; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 1040; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 466, 549; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-u- nuf, IV, 306.
331 Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 332; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 74.
332 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/97.
333 Kattânî, at-Tarâtîbu’l-idâriyya, I, 256.
334 Bukhârî, “Maghâzî”, 68; “Jizya”, 16; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, IV, 545-546; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 169; al-Kilâ’î, al-Iktifâ, II, 409; Kattânî, at-Tarâtîbu’l-idâriyya, I, 256.

Hadrat Abû Bakr gave a sermon and spoke about the Hajj. The Ashâb-i kirâm per- formed the Hajj according to the principles which were taught. While the worship of Hajj was being performed, Hadrat Ali gave a sermon at the location called Jamra-i Aqaba, at Minâ. In his sermon, he started to speak by saying,

“O people! I have been sent by Rasûlullah to you.” Then, he recited the first âyat-i karîma of the Sûra Barâa. After that, he said, “I am charged with informing you of four things.” These four items are:

1- No one other than Muslims can enter Paradise.

2- After this year, no polytheist shall approach the Kâ’ba.

3- No one shall circumambulate the Kâ’ba naked. (At those times, the polytheists would circumambulate the Kâ’ba in the nude.)

4- Whoever has an agreement with Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm), it is valid until its time expires. Apart from these, others are given four months. After that, there shall be no guarantee of safety or protection for any polytheist.

After that day, no polytheist came to the Kâ’ba and no one performed tawaf around the Kâ’ba naked. After these issues were announced, most of the polytheists became Muslim. After performing the commandment of Hajj, Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat Ali and those Ashâb-i kirâm with them, returned to Medina.

By the tenth year of Hegira, Islam had spread all over the Arabian Peninsula. People from every corner of Arabia would come to Medina and vied with one another to be honored by becoming Muslim and to attain endless bliss. Then, there was no power left that could resist Muslims in Arabia. Islam was dominant everywhere. There were only a few Jewish and Christian tribes which had not embraced Islam.

In the tenth year of Hegira, our beloved Prophet sent Hadrat Khâlid bin Walîd with four hundred mujâhids to the sons of Hâris bin Ka’b, in the vicinity of Yemen, to in- vite them to Islam. Upon this order of our Master Rasûlullah, Hadrat Khâlid bin Walîd invited this tribe to Islam for three successive days. They accepted this invitation and became Muslim. Again that year, our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) made a peace treaty with the Christians of Najrân. Some of them became Muslim later on. That year, Hadrat Ali was sent, with three hundred persons from the Ashâb-i kirâm, to invite Madlaj Tribe in Yemen to Islam. First, they rejected, and then they became Muslim. That year, our Master, the Prophet sent governors and au- thorized agents (âmil, sâi) to collect zakât, to all the lands where Islam had spread.335

In the tenth year of Hegira, our Master, the Prophet (’alaihis-salâm) prepared for Hajj and commanded the Muslims in Medina to make preparations for the Hajj. He notified those outside of Medina also. Upon this, thousands of Muslims gathered in Medina. When the preparations were completed, our beloved Prophet set off from Medina with a convoy of forty thousand people, following the early afternoon prayer on the 25th of the month of Zilka’da. Our Master Sarwar-i kâinât prayed, “O my Allah! Make this for me an accept- ed Hajj in which there is no show off or fame.” He wore his ihrâm (An ihrâm, like large bath towels, consists of two white pieces of cloth, one of which is wrapped around that part of the body below the waist and the other is wrapped around the shoulders). Upon the words of Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm) he started saying talbiya loudly. When the Ashâb-i kirâm joined, everywhere resonated with the sound of “Labbayk! Allahumma Labbayk! Lab- bayk! Lâ sharîka laka labbayk! Innal Hamda wanni’mata laka wal mulka lâ sharîkalak!…” Our beloved Prophet brought 100 camels for sacrifice. After a ten-day trip, they arrived in Mecca on the fourth of Zilhijja month. Joining those who came from Yemen and other lands, the number of Muslims in the Hajj exceeded 124 thousand. Our beloved Prophet went to Mina on the 8th day of Zilhijja and to Arafat on the 9th day. In the middle of Arafat valley, in the afternoon, on his camel called Kuswâ, he recited his Farewell Sermon and bid farewell with the Ashâb-i kirâm.336

335 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 974, Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 160; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XVIII, 23.
336 Bukhârî, “Hajj”, 95; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 173; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 617.

lineTHE FAREWELL KHUTBA

…O People! Listen to my words very carefully! I don’t know, perhaps after this year, I will never be able to come here together with you again.

O People! As these days of yours are sacred days, as these months are sacred months for you, as your town (Mecca) is a holy town; as are your lives, property, honor are sacred. They have been protected against every kind of assault.

O my Ashâb! You will reach to your Rabb in the near future and you will ab- solutely be asked about your current attitudes and behaviors. Beware; after me, do not go back to your old heresies and behead each other! Let those who are attending here inform of this will of mine to those who are not attending here! It may be that the one who is informed of this will, can understand and keep it better than the one who is attending here.

O my Ashâb! Let those who have a thing entrusted to them, give it to its own- er! All forms of interest (usury) have been prohibited. They are under my foot. However, you must pay your principal debts. Neither torment nor be tormented. With the commandment of Allahu ta’âlâ, usury is forbidden hence forth. Every form of this ugly custom, which is inherited from the era of nescience, is under my foot. The interest which I cancelled first is the interest of (my uncle) Abbâs, who is Abdullmuttalib’s son.

O my Ashâb! All the vendettas which had been cherished in the era of nesci- ence have been also prohibited completely. The first vendetta that I cancelled is the vendetta of Rebîa (my uncle’s son), who is Abdulmuttalib’s grandson.

O People! Replacing the months, during which fighting is forbidden, in or- der to be able to fight, is extreme infidelity. This is such a thing with which the disbelievers have fallen into heresy. They deem (a month), which they accept as permissible in a year, forbidden in the next year. They do this in order to comply with the numbers of the months that Janâb-i Haqq decreed permissible and for- bidden. They make permissible what Allahu ta’âlâ made forbidden and forbid- den what Allahu ta’âlâ made permissible.

There is no doubt that, the time has returned to the shape and regulation of the day that Allahu ta’âlâ had created it.

O People! Today, the Satan has forever lost his power of re-establishing his effect and domination on your lands. However, if you abide by him in some deeds that you deem unimportant, other than those which I have cancelled, such acts of yours shall make him pleased. In order to protect your religion, beware of these too!

O People! I recommend you to observe the rights of women and, in this respect, fear Allahu ta’âlâ. You have accepted women as a trust from Allahu ta’âlâ; you have acquired their honor and chastity, which became permissible for you, by giving promise in the name of Allahu ta’âlâ. You have a right on women and they have rights on you. The right that you have on women is their not allowing those whom you do not like, to override your family privacy. If they allow anybody whom you do not approve of into your home, you can make them abstain from this by a gentle beating. And the right which women have on you, is your provid- ing them with every kind of food and clothes through permissible ways.

O Mu’mins (Believers who fear Allahu ta’âlâ, or pious Believers)! I am leaving you such a trust that as long as you firmly adhere to it, you will never go astray. That trust is the Book of Allahu ta’âlâ, the Qur’ân al-karîm. (In some other re- ports, it was also related as “My sunnat” and “My Ahl-i bayt”.)

O Mu’mins! Listen to my words very carefully and keep them well! A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim, thus, all Muslims are brothers. It is not per- missible to infringe on the rights of your brother in religion, unless he voluntarily gives permission.

O my Ashâb! Do not torment your nafs (yourself). You have rights on yourself too. O People! Allahu ta’âlâ has given (in the Qur’ân al-karîm) the right to each holder of right. There is no need to bequeath. The child belongs to the one, the bed of whom he or she was born. There is deprivation for the adulterer. May the baseborn who claim ancestors other than his father or the ingrate who presumes to enter the service of somebody other than his master incur the wrath of Allahu ta’âlâ and be accursed by the angels and all Muslims! Janâb-i Haqq accepts nei- ther the repentance nor the just witnessing of such people.

O People! Your Rabb is one. Your father is one, too. All of you are Âdam’s (’alaihis-salâm) children. As for Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), he was created out of soil. In the sight of Allahu ta’âlâ, the most precious one among you is the one who has taqwâ (fear of Allahu ta’âlâ) the most. There is no superiority of an Arab to a non-Arab. Superiority is available only with taqwâ.

O People! In the Hereafter, you will be asked about me, what will you say?!…”

The Ashâb-i kirâm replied, “We will testify that you communicated the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, you fulfilled your duty, you bequeathed and advised us.”

There upon, our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) rose his blessed index finger and pointing toward the gathering, said, “O my Rabb, be witness! O my Rabb, be witness! O my Rabb, be witness!”

On the day that our beloved Prophet recited his farewell khutba, the third âyat-i karîma of the Mâida Sûra, which purports, “This day, I have perfected your religion for you. I have completed My favor upon you and I have consented by giving you Islam as religion…” was revealed. When our Master, the Prophet recited this âyat-i karîma to his Companions, Hadrat Abû Bakr started to weep. When the Ashâb-i kirâm asked him the reason for his weeping, he said, “This âyat-i karîma indicates that the time of Rasûlullah’s demise has approached. Therefore I am weeping.”337

Our Master Rasûlullah, staying ten days in Mecca, performed his Farewell Hajj (Pilgrimage) and after performing his Farewell Tawâf (Visiting) he returned to Medina. After the Farewell Hajj, the Ashâb-i kirâm went back to where they had come from and conveyed to the people there what Rasûlullah communicated and commanded.

Another incident which happened in the tenth year of Hegira was the appearance of liars who claimed to be prophets. One of them was Aswad-i Ansî who appeared in Yemen. By order of our beloved Prophet, he was killed by the Muslims in Yemen in his home… (The other one was Musailamat-ul Qadhdhâb. After our Master, the Prophet’s demise, Hadrat Abû Bakr sent an army under the command of Khâlid bin Walîd. Musailama was killed by Wahshi “radiyallahu anh.”) 338

He preferred poverty over wealth, and was proud of it,
that source of generosity would befriend the helpless.

He would patch his own clothing and even wear clogs,
that source of generosity would visit the ill and cure them.

He would personally serve his family.
That source of generosity would make ease of all difficulties.

Even if he were invited to a meal of only lentil soup and barley bread,
that source of generosity would accept to be a guest.

He would sometimes ride a camel or a horse, sometimes a mule or a donkey,
that source of generosity would sometimes only walk.

337 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 603; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 383.
338 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 863; Tabarânî, al-Mu›jamu›l Kabîr, XXII, 36; Safadî, al-Wâfî, V, 392; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LXII, 404.

lineHIS PASSING AWAY

It was the eleventh year of Hegira. When Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm came that year, he recited the Qur’ân al-karîm to our beloved Prophet from beginning to end two times. However, in the previous years, he had recited the Qur’ân al-karîm only once each year. After our Master Sarwar-i âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) listened to the Nasr Sûra of Qur’ân al-karîm, which purports: “When the time that the Help of Allahu ta’âlâ and victory comes and you see the people enter Allahu ta’âlâ’s religion (Islam) in crowds, celebrate the praises of your Rabb, and pray for His forgiveness! For He is Oft-Returning (in Grace and Mercy)” lastly recited by Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm, he said, “O Jabrâil! I feel that my demise is approaching.” There- upon Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm recited the âyat-i karîmas, which purport, “The Hereafter is more blessed than this world for you. Your Rabb will give to you whatever you would like until you will say that you have consented.”339

Our beloved Prophet sent news for all his Companions present in Medina on that day, to come together in the masjid at the time of early afternoon prayer. After having conducted the prayer, our Master Sarwar-i âlam delivered a khutba (sermon). It was such a khutba, that it made the hearts of listeners shiver and their eyes shed tears. Af- terwards, when he said, “O People! How did you find me as your Prophet?” they replied by saying, O Rasûlullah! From our side, May Allahu ta’âlâ bestow upon you many blessings. You were such a compassionate father and a compassionate brother who always gives advices. You have fulfilled the duty of prophethood that Allahu ta’âlâ granted to you. You have conveyed whatever was revealed to you. You have invited to the way of your Rabb, to Islam with good advices. May Allahu ta’âlâ give you the most beautiful and the highest rewards in return.”

Then our beloved Prophet said, “O Mu’mins! For the sake of Allah… Let those who have right on me, come and get the right here before the Hereafter.” However, there was nobody who came to get his or her right. Our Master Rasûlullah repeated it for the second and third times by saying, “Let those come and take their rights.” Thereupon a very old person named Uqâsha, from among the Ashâb-i kirâm, stood up. He went to the presence of Rasûlullah and said, “O Rasûlullah, may my parents be sacrificed for your sake! I was with you during the Holy War of Tabûk. When we departed from Tabûk, my camel and your camel had come side by side. I dismounted my camel and approached you. My purpose was for kissing your blessed body, how- ever you whipped my back with your whip. I do not know why you whipped me.”

339 The Duha Sûra, 93/ 4-5.

Then our Master, the Prophet said, “O Uqâsha! May Allahu ta’âlâ protect you from being whipped by His Messenger intentionally” and ordered, “O Bilâl! Go to the house of my daughter Fâtima and bring that whip to me.” Hadrat Bilâl went out of the masjid. Putting his hands on his head he was astounded by thinking, “Rasûlullah will allow retaliation to be made against him.” When he arrived at the house he knocked on the door and said, “O the daughter of Rasûlullah! Please give me Rasûlullah’s whip!” Thereupon our mother Hadrat Fâtima asked, “O Bilâl! Now is neither the time of pilgrimage nor a holy war! What will my father do with the whip?” Hadrat Bilâl replied, “O Fâtima! Don’t you know? Retaliation will be applied with it against Rasûlullah!”

Our mother Fâtima firmly admonished Hadrat Bilâl by saying, “O Bilâl! Who can consent to take his right through retaliation from Rasûlullah? Since he requested so, I will give it. However, say to Hasan and Husayn that they should let the person who will take his right to apply the retaliation against them. Let that person take his right from them. Don’t let the retaliation be made against Rasûlullah.” Then Hadrat Bilâl came to the masjid and gave the whip to our Master, Rasûlullah and he, in turn, gave it Hadrat Uqâsha.

When Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Umar saw this scene, they begged, “O Uqâ- sha! You see, we are present here, take your right from us. Please do not take your right from Rasûlullah!” Thereupon our Master, the Prophet said to Abû Bakr, “O Abû Bakr! Leave it, move aside. O ’Umar! You too move aside. Allahu ta’âlâ knows your high ranks.” Then Hadrat Ali stood up and said, “O Uqâsha! I do not consent to your whipping Rasûlullah. Here is my back and abdomen. Come and take your right from me. If you want, whip a hundred times, but do not touch Rasûlullah!” However our Master, the Prophet said, “O Ali! You too sit down. Allahu ta’âlâ also knows your high rank and situation.” This time Hadrat Hasan and Husayn stood up and said, “O Uqâsha! You also know well that we are Rasûlullah’s grandchildren. Therefore, retaliation against us is tantamount to retaliation against Rasûlullah. Take your right from us, please do not whip Rasûlullah!” Then our Master Rasûlullah said to them, “You too sit down, o the joy of my two eyes.” And then said, “O Uqâsha! Come and whip!”

When Uqâsha said, “O Rasûlullah! When you hit me, my back was bare” our beloved Prophet uncovered his blessed back. At that moment sobbing sounds were heard from the Ashâb-i kirâm and they said to Uqâsha, “O Uqâsha! Will you whip Rasûlull- ah’s blessed back?” Everybody was waiting in deep sorrow. When Hadrat Uqâsha saw the Seal of Prophethood on our Master Rasûlullah’s blessed back, he suddenly kissed it by saying, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Who could muster the strength and could dare to whip your blessed back and apply retaliation in order to take his right?” Thereupon, our Master Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “No, either whip or forgive me.” Then Hadrat Uqâsha said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! I have forgiven. I wonder if Allahu ta’âlâ will, in return, forgive me on the Day of Resurrection?”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “Whomever wishes to see my friend in Heaven should look at this old person.” Then the Ashâb-i kirâm who heard these blessed words of our Master Rasûlullah, started to kiss Hadrat Uqâsha between his two eyes. All of them were saying, “How happy you are! How happy you are! O Uqâsha! For the sake of accompanying Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm, you have attained high ranks in Paradise.”340

In the last days of the Month of Safar, the Master of the worlds (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was thinking of inviting the Byzantines (Eastern Romans) in the North to Islam once again, before becoming a great threat to Muslims. In case they did not accept that invitation, he wished to fight against them and to take them under the reign of the Islamic State. Therefore he ordered his heroic Companions to prepare to fight against the Byzantines. The Companions dispersed for the purpose of making preparation. Our Master Rasûl-i akram called Hadrat Usâma bin Zayd and said to him, “O Usâma! Go with the name and benediction of Allahu ta’âlâ to Damascus, the Balqâ border, Darum in Palestine as far as the place where your father was martyred. Make your horses trample those lands. I have appointed you as the commander-in-chief of this army. Immediately advance towards the Ubnâls and attack them like lightning. Go to your destination so fast that they cannot receive any news about you before your arrival. Take pathfinders with you and make the spies and scouts proceed in front of you. In case Allahu ta’âlâ grants you victory, stay among them for a short time.” Then he ordered him to establish his camp in Jurf and tied the banner with his blessed hands and delivered it.341

Our Prophet climbed the minbar in the masjid and said, “O my Companions! As Usâma’s father Zayd was deserving of the commandership and as he was the most beloved in my sight; likewise, his son Usâma is deserving the commander- ship after him, too. Usâma is one of the most beloved people in my sight.”

Under the command of Hadrat Usâma, there were such notable Companions as Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar, Hadrat Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah and Hadrat Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs among the people who were going to war.

However, since the Sultan of the universe suddenly became ill the next day, the advance of the army had been postponed until after the demise of our Master, the Prophet. Our beloved Prophet had contracted malaria. His fever was steadily increas- ing. The illness intensified. One night when his pains had lessened he got out of his bed. He put on his clothes and prepared for going out. When our mother Hadrat Âisha saw this, she asked our Prophet, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Where are you going?” Our Master Sarwar-i âlam replied, “I have received a command to beg for forgiveness on those who were buried in the Baqî Cemetery. Therefore I am going there.” He then proceeded there along with Abû Muwayhib and Abû Râfi. He supplicated in the cemetery for a long time and invoked Allahu ta’âlâ for the forgiveness of those who were buried there. When the Companions, who were with Rasûlullah, heard the insistent invocations of our Master, the Prophet, they said, “If only we were also buried here and honored by attaining the invocations of our Master, the Prophet!” Then, our beloved Prophet turned towards Abû Muwayhib and said, “O Abû Muwayhib! I was offered to make a choice of my free will between the worldly treasures and the blessings in the Hereafter. And I was told, ‘If you want, you can remain in the world and then go to Paradise later, or if you desire, the Liqâullah (meeting with Allahu ta’âlâ) will take place and you will then enter Paradise. I chose the Liqâullah and going to Paradise.”

340 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, III, 58; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, VIII, 318.
341 Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, III, 1117; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, II, 46; Suhaylî, Rawzu›l-unuf, IV, 384.r, al-Musnad, II, 460; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XIX, 336.

On another day, he went to invoke for forgiveness on the martyrs buried in Uhud. For a lengthy time, he invoked and prayed to Allahu ta’âlâ for those martyrs. He then came to the masjid and said to his Companions, “Among you, I will be the first to reach the Kawthar Pond and meet you there. That will be our meeting place… I am not worried about your conversion to polytheism after me, however, I am worried about your sinking into worldly desires, envying each other for them, consequently killing each other and perishing the same as your antecedents…” Then he went to his home of bliss.

His illness became worse. His blessed wives informed him that he should stay in the house of our mother Hadrat Âisha and declared that they had renounced their rights regarding this subject. Our Prophet became pleased due to that self-devotion of his blessed wives and prayed for them and thereafter started to spend his remaining days in our mother Hadrat Âisha’s house.

Our Master Rasûl-i akram’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) fever had severely in- creased. Due to the intense pain of his fever, our Prophet would turn from side to side in his bed. While he was in such a condition, his Companions were visiting him and feeling deep sorrow for him when they saw his suffering. Abû Sa’îd-i Khudrî related as follows: I had gone to the blessed presence of Rasûlullah. There was a velvet cover on him. The heat of the fever could be felt through the cover but we could not touch it due to its heat. Seeing our astonishment and sorrow against that scene, our Master Rasûlullah said,

“The worst of troubles happen to prophets. Yet, they rejoice more for these troubles then they rejoice for benevolences.”

Ummu Bishr bin Barâ related: I had visited Rasûlullah. His blessed body was so hot, it was as if it was burning. Then I said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! I had never seen such an intense illness!…” Then he said, “O Ummu Bishr! The intenseness of the fever is for my thawabs (rewards) to be more. I suffer the pain of the poisonous meat I had tasted at Khaibar. I would feel the pain of that poison all the time. Due to that poison I had eaten, my aorta almost fails to function now.”342

342 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 337; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 678; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, II, 303; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 399.Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 337; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 678; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, II, 303; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 399.

Our beloved Prophet said to Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud, “There is no Muslim that becomes ill, whose mistakes and sins would not to be forgiven by Allahu ta’âlâ, like a tree sheds its leaves!”343

The illness was becoming worse over time. The Ashâb-i kirâm were in grief and could not feel at ease in their homes. They gathered in the masjid. In order to obtain information about the state of our Master, the Prophet, they sent Hadrat Ali to the presence of our Prophet. Then the Master of the worlds, expressing himself by making signs, asked, “What are my Companions saying?”

Hadrat Ali said, “They are in a deep sorrow and dither fearing that Rasûlullah will leave us!…” Then our beloved Prophet, who pities his Companions so much, rose, en- during the intensity of his illness, and came to the masjid by leaning on Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fadl bin Abbâs. He mounted the minbar and after praising Allahu ta’âlâ, he said to the Ashâb-i kirâm, “O my Ashâb! I have heard that you are worried about my death. Has any Prophet remained with his ummat eternally, so that you ex- pect me to remain with you till eternity? Be it known that I am going to attain my Rabb (Allah). I advise you to respect the notables of Muhâjirs. O Muhâjirs! My advice to you is this: Do good to the Ansâr! They were good towards you. They granted you asylum in their homes. Although they had difficulty in making their living, they gave you preference over themselves. They shared their property with you. If any one of you takes command over them, let him take care of them and forgive them their faults.” Then he gave them some beautiful, effective advice and stated, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has granted a born slave of His the choice between stay- ing in this world or attaining his Rabb (Allah). That born slave has preferred to attain his Rabb.” This statement of his showed that he was going to pass away soon. Abû Bakr as-Siddîq ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ understood what this statement meant and began to weep, saying, “May our lives be sacrificed for your sake, O the Messenger of Allah!” Rasûl-i akram‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam,’ by saying “Don’t cry O Abâ Bakr,” ordered him that he must endure and be patient. Tears were falling from his blessed eyes. He declared, “O my Ashâb! I am pleased with Abû Bakr, who sac- rificed his property faithfully and with ikhlâs for the sake of Dîn-i Islam. Were it possible to acquire a friend on one’s way to the next world, I would choose him.” Then he ordered that those Sahâbîs whose doors opened into the Masjîd-i sherîf should close their doors, with the exception of Abû Bakr ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’.

Then he dismounted the minbar (pulpit) and went back to the room of our mother, Hadrat Âisha. The Ashâb-i kirâm started to weep. Thereupon, by leaning on Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fadl bin Abbâs, our Master, the Prophet came to the masjid once again and said to the Ashâb-i kirâm by standing on the lower step of the minbar:

343 Ibn Hibbân, as-Sahih, VII, 189; Bazzâr, al-Musnad, II, 460; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XIX, 336.

“O Muhâjirs, O Ansâr! When the time for something is known, there is no use for hurrying to attain it. Allahu ta’âlâ does not hurry in regard to any of His slaves. If a person attempts to change the qadhâ and qadar (fate and destiny) of Allahu ta’âlâ and overpower His Will, He will subdue him with His Wrath and ruin him. If a person tries to trick and deceive Allahu ta’âlâ, he will deceive himself and lose control of his own affairs. Be it known that I am compassionate and merciful towards you. You will attain the blessing of meeting me again. The place you will meet me is by the pond (called) Kawthar. He, who wishes to enter Paradise and attain the blessing of being with me there, should not talk idly. O Muslims! Disbelief and committing sins will cause change in the blessings and decrease one’s sustenance. If people obey the commandments of Allahu ta’âlâ; their governmental leaders, commanders, governors will be merciful and benign towards them. If they are wicked, indecent, inordinate and sinful, they will not attain merciful leaders. As my life has been useful to you, so my death will bring you goodness and compassion, too. If I unjustly beat or insulted any one of you, I am ready for him to take his due by retaliation; or if I seized anyone’s property unjustly, I am ready for his demanding the return of it, I am ready to return their rights. For, worldly punishment is far less vehement than that which will be inflicted in the Hereafter. It is easier to endure.” As he expressed his pleasure about Hadrat Abû Bakr previously, this time he expressed his pleasure about Hadrat ’Umar in his sermon and said, “’Umar is with me and I am with him. After me, justice will be with ’Umar.”

After the sermon, he dismounted the minbar. Having then performed the namâz, he mounted the minbar again, expressed his last will and testament, and gave some more advice. Finally he stated, “I entrust you to Allahu ta’âlâ,” and honored his room with his blessed presence.

One day, while under intensive pain, the Master of the worlds sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam, in order to settle the rights of the rightful owners among the Ashâb and to be able to go to the Hereafter having settled other people’s rights on himself, summoned Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî. He ordered him, “Call the people! Gather them in the mas- jid. I would like to declare my last will and testament to them!…”

Hadrat Bilâl gathered all the Ashâb in the masjid. Leaning on Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fadl bin Abbâs, our Master, the Prophet came to the masjid. Sitting on the minbar, after praising Allahu ta’âlâ, he said, “O my Ashâb! Be informed that the time of my passing away has approached. Let he who has right on me come and demand it. Let those who are beloved to me, obtain your rights or make your rights ha- lal on me so that I can reach my Rabb and His Mercy free from them.” He then dismounted the minbar and conducted the early afternoon prayer. After the prayer, he mounted the minbar once again and repeated what he had said before the prayer.

When there were three days before the passing of our beloved Prophet, his illness became worse. He could not go to the masjid and conduct the prayer. The first prayer which he could not perform in congregation was the night prayer. As usual, Hadrat Bilâl came to the door at that time and said, “O Rasûlullah! As-salât!” Our beloved Prophet had no strength left for going to the masjid due to his infirmity. He said, “Tell Abû Bakr that he should be the imam and conduct the prayer for my Ashâb.” Then our mother Hadrat Âisha said to our Prophet, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! My father is softhearted and doleful. If he stands in your stead and he does not see you there, he cannot recite and conduct the prayer due to his crying. Would you mind ordering ’Umar to conduct the prayer?” Our Master, the Prophet said again, “Tell Abû Bakr that he should be the imam and conduct the prayer for my Ashâb.” Then Hadrat Bilâl informed Hadrat Abû Bakr of the situation. When Hadrat Abû Bakr did not see our Master Rasûlullah on the mihrâb (niche in a mosque which shows the direction of qibla and where the imam stands to conduct the namâz in jamâ’at, that is congregation) he became heart-stricken, he was almost los- ing his mind. He wept!… and wept!… The Ashâb-i kirâm started weeping too. When our Master Habîbullah asked about what was the wail heard from the masjid, our mother Hadrat Fâtima replied, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Your Companions are weeping since they cannot endure your separation.”344

Our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), the sea of compassion, had be- come so grieved. Despite the intenseness of his illness, with great difficulty he stood, in order to go to console his Companions. He came to the masjid by the help of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Abbâs. After the prayer he said, “O my Ashâb! You are under the protection of Allahu ta’âlâ and I have trusted you to Allahu ta’âlâ! Be on the way of piety. Fear Allahu ta’âlâ. Obey and carry out the commands of Allahu ta’âlâ. I will soon leave this world.

Hadrat Abû Bakr conducted the prayer as imam for the Companions seventeen times. Once, as he was conducting the early afternoon prayer, at that moment, the Master of the universe felt a easiness on his blessed body and came to the masjid with the help of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Abbâs. Hadrat Abû Bakr Siddîq understood that our beloved Prophet had honored there, and attempted to step backwards. However our Master signaled him to stay in his place. Our beloved Prophet, standing on the left side of Hadrat Abû Bakr, conducted the namâz as imam for his Companions for the last time.345

It was three days before the passing away of our beloved Prophet. Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ (Archangel Gabriel) came to visit our Master Rasûlullah and said, “O Rasûlullah! Allahu ta’âlâ has sent His greetings to you. Even as He is aware of your situation, He is asking how you are, how do you feel.” The master of the worlds said, “I am sad!”

Sunday, the angel Jabrâil (Gabriel) ‘alaihis-salâm’ visited him again, and asked him how he was. Our Master, the Prophet gave the same reply. Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm gave him the good news that Aswad-i Anasî, who had been claiming to be a Prophet in Yemen, was killed. And Rasûl-i akram, in turn, gave the good news to his Ashâb. He gave some of the gold, which had come to him before his illness, to the poor and some of them to Hadrat Âisha. On Sunday, Rasûlullah’s illness became heavier. Hadrat Usâma, who had been appointed Commander of the Army by the Messenger of Allah, arrived. He did not say anything to Usâma. However, he raised his blessed arms and rubbed them gently on him. This meant that he asked a blessing on him.

344 Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 198; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 386-387.
345 Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 4; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, XIII, 428.

It was a Monday on which our beloved Prophet both honored the world by his birth, and passed away. It was the thirteenth and the last day of his illness… On Monday the Ashâb-i kirâm were performing the morning prayer in lines behind Hadrat Abû Bakr as-Siddîq in the Masjîd-i sharîf, when Hadrat Fakhr-i ’Âlam came to the Masjîd-i sharîf. He saw his Ummat (companions) worshipping in lines. He was pleased. He smiled. He, too, adapted himself to Hadrat Abû Bakr and performed the namâz be- hind him. When the Ashâb-i kirâm saw Rasûlullah in the Masjîd they thought he had recovered from his illness and rejoiced. Rasûl-i akram ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ honored Hadrat Âisha’s room with his presence and went to bed. Then he said, “I want to enter the presence of Allahu ta’âlâ without leaving any worldly property behind myself. Give the gold you have to the poor, all of them!” Then his fever increased. After a while, he opened his eyes again and asked Hadrat Âisha ‘radiy- Allâhu ta’âlâ anhâ wa an Ebîhâ’ if she had dispensed of the gold. She said she would. He ordered her again and again to distribute them immediately. When they were all dealt out immediately, he stated, “I am now relaxed.”

After he took a rest on his bed for a while, he called Hadrat Ali to his presence. Then he put his blessed head on his lap. His blessed forearm had sweat and his blessed color had altered. When our mother Hadrat Fâtima saw her blessed father in such a circumstance she could not endure to look at him and went next to her sons Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn. Holding their hands, she started to weep, “O my father! Who will take care of your daughter? To whom are you entrusting your grandchildren Hasan and Husayn? O my father! May my life be sacrificed for your sake! How will my situation be after you? At whom shall my eyes look upon after you?”

When our Master Rasûlullah heard those heart-wrenching words of his daughter, he opened his blessed eyes and called her next to him and said, “O my Rabb! Grant her patience.” When he said, “O Fâtima! O the light of my eyes! Your father is at the state of death-agony!” With his touching, her weeping and wailing increased all the more. When Hadrat Ali said, “O Fâtima! Please be quite! Do not sadden Rasûlullah anymore!”, our beloved Prophet said, “Do not cause her more pain. O Ali! Let her weep for her father!…” Then he closed his blessed eyes as if he lost his consciousness.

Then Hadrat Hasan came to the presence of his blessed grandfather, and when he said while weeping, “O my blessed grandfather! Who can endure your separation? To whom can we submit the misery of our heart? Who can cherish my mother, my father and my brother after you? Where can your wives and Companions find your beautiful morals?…” the blessed wives of our Master, the Prophet could not stand it any longer and altogether started to weep.

When the Companions, who were dolefully waiting outside, heard that the illness of our Master, the Prophet had increased so, their hearts were wounded. They started to weep. They were begging, “Please open the door! Let us see the blessed face of Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ once more!…” in order to see their beloved Prophet’s blessed face once more. When the beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ, who was sent as a mercy for the worlds, heard those entreaties of his Companions, showed mercy and said, “Open the door!”

Then the notables of the Ashâb went in.

After our beloved Prophet had advised them patience, he said, “O my Ashâb! You are the most superior and most honorable of the human beings. No matter who- ever will come after you, you will enter Paradise before all of them. Stand firm about keeping up the religion and make the Qur’ân al-azîm your imam (guide). Don’t be remiss about the commands of religion.” Then he said, “O my Rabb! Have I conveyed?” and closed his blessed eyes. His blessed face was sweating. Had- rat Ali made a sign for the Companions to go out.

After they went out, Hadrat Âisha came to his presence and requested advice. After he said to her, “O Âisha! Protect yourself by sitting in the corner of your house!” He started to shed tears from his blessed eyes. The Master of the worlds was weeping… The hearts of people who were present there, were wounded and those people suffered great hardship. Our mother Hadrat Ummu Salama asked, “My life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Why are you weeping?” He said, “I am weeping for my community to be shown mercy.”

The sun was rising towards the zenith. The time had approached… Our beloved Prophet’s blessed head had been leaning on our mother Hadrat Âisha’s chest. The Master of the worlds was having his last moments and the following words were uttered from his blessed mouth: “For mercy sake! Behave well towards the slaves un- der you! Clothe them and feed them. Speak with them gently. Namâz, continue to perform your namâz. Fear Allahu ta’âlâ regarding your wives and slaves!… O my Allah! Forgive me. Bestow Your Mercy upon me!… Make me attain the grade of Rafîq-i â’lâ!…” Our mother Hadrat Fâtima’s tears were flowing and her wailing was hurting other’s feelings. Our beloved Prophet, making her sit next to him, said, “My daughter, be patient for a while and do not weep. For, the (angels of) Hama- la-i Arsh are weeping upon your weeping.” He wiped our mother Hadrat Fâtima’s tears. He consoled her and invoked Allahu ta’âlâ for patience and told her, “O my daughter, my soul will be taken. Say, ‘Innâlillahi wa innâ ilaihi râjî’ûn.’ O Fâtima! There will be a reward given for each tribulation.” He closed his blessed eyes for a while and then said, “There will be no more sadness and sorrow for your father. For, he is being saved from the mortal world and the place of suffering.” Then he said to Hadrat Ali, “O Ali! There is a property of so-and-so, a Jewish man under my responsibility. I had taken it for the preparation of soldiers. Do not forget to pay for it. You will pay my debt for sure and you will be the first of those who will meet me at the side of the Kawthar Pond. After me, you will suffer too much. Be patient. Choose the Hereafter when others desire this world.”

Usâma ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ came back. The Messenger of Allah said, “May Allahu ta’âlâ help you! Go out for war.” So Usâma went out to his army and immediately gave the order to move.346

346 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 650; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 474; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 434.

The Master of the worlds was drawing his last breaths… The time was quite close… Allahu ta’âlâ revealed to Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm,’ “Go to my beloved in your most beautiful appearance! If he allows, take his soul very leniently and gently. If he does not allow, turn back!” Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ came to the door of our beloved Prophet’s home of bliss in the most beautiful appearance and in human disguise. He said, “Assalâmu alaikum O the owner of the house of prophethood! Do you allow my entering? May Allahu ta’âlâ show mercy upon you!”

Sitting next to our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), our mother Had- rat Âisha said to Hadrat Fâtima, “Reply to the person who is at the door.” Upon this, Hadrat Fâtima went to the door and said with a very sad voice, “O the slave of Allahu ta’âlâ! Rasûlullah is preoccupied with his concerns. Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked for permission once again. The same answer was given. When he repeated his greeting for the third time and declared that he really had to enter; our Master, the Prophet be- came aware of his presence and said, “O Fâtima! Who is at the door?”

Hadrat Fâtima replied, “O Rasûlullah! Someone at the door is asking for permission to enter. I have replied to him a couple of times. However, upon the third time I shuddered.” Thereupon our Master Rasûlullah said, “O Fâtima! Do you know who the person at the door is? He is the Angel of Death, Azrâil, who demolishes pleasures, disperses gatherings, makes women widows and the children orphans, destroys homes and prepares the graves. O Azrâil, come in!” At that moment our mother Hadrat Fâtima fell into an indefinable grief and the following words came out from her blessed mouth, “Oh Medina, you have been ruined!”

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm held Hadrat Fâtima’s hand and put it on his blessed chest. He closed his blessed eyes. Those who were present thought that his blessed soul had been taken. Our mother Hadrat Fâtima could not stand it, she leaned towards his ear and said the following words with a heart-wrenching voice, “O my father!…” As she could not get any answer she said, “May my life be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! Please open your blessed eyes and say something to me…” Then the Master of worlds opened his blessed eyes, wiped his daughter’s tears and whispered in her ear that he would die. Thereupon Hadrat Fâtima started to weep. Then our Prophet said to her, “Of my Ahl-i bayt, you will be the first one to join me (in the Hereafter).” She rejoiced at the good news and she felt solace.

Our mother Hadrat Fâtima asked, “O my father! Is this the day of separation! When will I join you again?” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “O my daughter! You will find me near the pond on the Day of Judgment. I will deliver water to those of my Community who will come to the pond.” When Hadrat Fâtima asked, “If I cannot find you there, what shall I do?” our Master, the Prophet said, “You will find me near the Mîzân (In the Hereafter, there will be a Mîzân, “scale”, for weighing deeds and conduct. It does not resemble worldly scales.). There, I will intercede for my Community.”

When our mother Hadrat Fâtima asked, “If I cannot find you there, either?” our Master, the Prophet said, “Then you will find me next to the Sirât Bridge. There, I will invoke my Rabb saying, ‘O my Rabb! Protect my Community from fire’.”

After that, Hadrat Ali asked with a mournful voice, “O Rasûlullah! After you deliver your soul, who will wash you and with what will we enshroud you, who will conduct your prayer and who will settle you into the grave?”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “O Ali, you wash my body and let Fadl bin Abbâs pour the water. Jabrâil will be the third of you. After my ghasl (washing) you will do the enshrouding. Jabrâil will brings scent from Paradise. Then take me to the masjid and leave. For, Jabrâil first, then Mikâil and Isrâfil and then all the angels in groups will perform my prayer. Afterwards all shall enter and gather in ranks. Let nobody be ahead of me.”347

Then he asked of Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ who was waiting, “O Azrâil! Have you come to visit or to take my soul?” Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ replied, “I have come both as a guest and on duty. Allahu ta’âlâ commanded me to enter your presence with per- mission. I can take your soul only with your permission. O Rasûlullah! If you allow me, I will obey and take your soul. Otherwise I will go back to my Rabb.”

Our Master, the Prophet asked, “O Azrâil! Where have you left Jabrâil?” Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ replied, “I have left Jabrâil at the firmament of this world. Angels are expressing their condolences to him due to your demise.” While they were talking so, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ arrived. Our Master Rasûlullah said, “O my brother Jabrâil! It is time to migrate from this world. What is there for me in the firmament of Allahu ta’âlâ? Give me its glad tidings so that I will deliver this trust to its Owner with peace of mind.” Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “O the beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ! I have left the gate of the sky open. Angels in ranks are fondly waiting for your soul.” Our beloved Prophet said, “Praise is reserved for Allahu ta’âlâ. You, give me glad tidings! What is there for me in the presence of Allahu ta’âlâ?” Jabrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ said, “O Rasûlullah! Due to the honor of your arrival, the gates of Paradise have opened, the rivers in Paradise are flowing, the trees of Paradise have bowed and the houris of Paradise have adorned themselves.

Our Master, the Prophet said again, “Praise is reserved for Allahu ta’âlâ. Give me other glad tidings O Jabrâil!” Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “O Rasûlullah! You are the first of the intercessors and the first of those whose intercessions are accepted on the Day of Judgment.” When our Master, the Prophet said again, “Praise is reserved for Allahu ta’âlâ. Give me other glad tidings O Jabrâil!” Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “O Rasûlullah! What are you requesting?” Thereupon our Master, the Prophet said, “All my worry, sadness and grief are for my Community whom I left af- ter me.” Hadrat Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, “O the beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ! Allahu ta’âlâ will forgive your Community until you have consented on the Day of Judgment. He will put you into Paradise before all other prophets and your Community before all other communities.” Our beloved Prophet said to Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’, “I have three wishes from Allahu ta’âlâ: One of them is to allow me to be intercessor for the sinners of my Community, the second is to not torment them due to the sins they have committed in the world and the third is for me to be informed about the deeds of my Community on every Thursday and Monday (If their deeds are good then I shall pray and Allahu ta’âlâ accepts. If they are evil deeds then I intercede and invoke for their being erased from the book of deeds.).” Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ informed him that Allahu ta’âlâ accepted his three wishes. Thereupon our beloved Prophet felt relief.

347 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 258; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, VIII, 329; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XII, 264.

Allahu ta’âlâ revealed, “O My Habîb! Who inspired your blessed heart to love and show so much mercy to your Community?” Our Master, the Prophet replied, “My Rabb ta’âlâ who created and edified me.” Then Janâb-i Haqq decreed, “To your Community, My Compassion, My Mercy is one thousand times more than yours. Leave them to me.” Our beloved Prophet said, “Now I am feeling relieved. O Azrâil! Perform your duty that you have been ordered!”

In order to perform his duty, Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ approached the Master of the worlds, for the sake of whom he was created. Our beloved Prophet dipped his blessed hands into the water container staying next to him and wiped his wet hands onto his blessed face. He said, “Lâ ilâha illallah! O my Allah! Rafîq-i âlâ!…” Azrâil ‘alai- his-salâm’ started to take the soul of the Master of the worlds. The color of the face of our Master Rasûlullah was sometimes becoming red and sometimes turning yellow. When he said to Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm,’ “Do you take also the souls of my Commu- nity so vehemently and strongly?” Azrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ replied, “O Rasûlullah! Thus far, I have not taken anybody else’s soul so easily.” Our beloved Prophet who did not forget his Community even at his last moments said, “O Azrâil! Use the vi- olence that you will show my Community on me! For, they are weak and cannot endure…” Then he said, “Lâ ilâha illallah! Rafîq-i âlâ!” His soul was taken and reached to âlâ-i illiyyîn…

Assalâtu wassalâmu Alaika O Rasûlullah! Assalâtu wassalâmu Alaika O Habîballah! Assalâtu wassalâmu Alaika O Sayyidal Awwali-na wal-âkhirîn! Intercede O Rasûlullah! Dahiylaq O Rasûlullah!

Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm’ bid farewell to our Master, the Prophet, saying, “Assalâmu alaikum O the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ! You were my purpose and desire. I will not come to the earth’s surface anymore!”

As the blessed soul of our Master Rasûl-i akram ascended to the world above, our mother Hadrat Fâtima and the blessed wives of our Prophet “radiy-Allâhu anhunna” started to cry loudly.348

At that moment, there was a sound from an unknown source, “Assalâmu alaikum O the Ahl-i bayt! Wa Rahmatullahi wa barakâtuhu,” and recited the 185th âyat-i karîma of the Âl-i Imrân Sûra, which purports, “Know that every living being shall taste death. And on the Day of Judgment, you shall be compensated for your deeds.” Then extended condolences by saying, “Trust in the benevolences and blessings of Allahu ta’âlâ. Entreat Him and hope for help from Him. Do not wail! The real victims of disaster are those deprived of it’s rewards.”

All those present, heard of those words and replied to the greeting. It was Hizir ‘alaihis-salâm, that had said those words.’

When signs of death were seen on Rasûl-i akram, Hadrat Umm-i Ayman ‘radiy- Allâhu anh’ sent a message to his son Usâma. Upon receiving this bitter news, Usâma and Hadrat ’Umar and Abû Ubayda left the army and came back to the Masjîd-i Nabawî. When Âisha-i Siddîqa and the other women began to weep, the Ashâb-i kirâm in the Masjîd-i sherîf were confused, confounded, and paralyzed. Hadrat Ali was mo- tionless as if he were dead. Hadrat ’Uthman was speechless. Hadrat Abû Bakr was in his home at that moment. When he arrived at the place, running, he entered the Hujra-i sa’âdat. He opened the veil on the face of Fakhr-i ’âlam, and saw that the Prophet had passed away. The blessed face and all the limbs of the Messenger of Allah were elegant, clean, and luminous like a halo. He kissed him, saying, “O Rasûlullah! You are so beautiful, dead or living!” He wept bitterly. He put the veil back on the Prophet’s blessed face. He consoled the people in the house. He went to the Masjîd-i sherîf. Mounting the pulpit, he delivered a homily to the Ashâb-i kirâm. He praised Allahu ta’âlâ and after reciting salât to our Master, Rasûl-i akram (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) he said, “Whoever believed in Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ should know that Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ passed away. Whoever worships Allahu ta’âlâ, know that Allahu ta’âlâ is Hayy (Ever-living) and Bâqî (He does not die, He is eternal)” and then he recited the 144th âyat-i karîma of the Âl-i Imrân Sûra, which purports, “Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) is a Messenger. There were also messengers who had come before him. He shall also die. Will you apostatize, if he passes away or he is killed? If one of you abandons the religion, it does no harm to Allahu ta’âlâ but it does harm to himself. Allahu ta’âlâ gives rewards to those who are constant in their religion.” Advising the Ashâb-i kirâm, all was restored to normal.349 Thus they all believed that Rasûlallah had died. Sorrow and grief struck the hearts of the Com- panions like a poisonous dagger. Eyes were weeping, tears were flowing and the fire of separation deeply wounded all hearts.

348 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 262.
349 Bukhârî, “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 5; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 655; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 271; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 323; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 443; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 480.

The Ashâb-i kirâm ‘alaihim-ur-ridwân,’ firstly elected Hadrat Abû Bakr as Khalîfa (Caliph) for maintaining order and managing all affairs. Then they paid homage to him and began to obey according to his orders.350

Our Master Rasûl-i akram passed away in the 11th year of Hegira (632 A.D.), on the 12th of the month of Rabi-ul awwal, on Monday forenoon. At that time, he was 63 years old according to the Lunar Year and 61 years old according to the solar year.351

Hadrat Ali, Hadrat Abbâs, Hadrat Fadl bin Abbâs, Hadrat Qusam bin Abbâs, Had- rat Usâma bin Zayd and Hadrat Salih washed our Master, the Prophet.352 During the washing, there was such a scent of musk that had permeated from the blessed body of our Prophet, there were none who had ever smelt such a scent up to that time. Then, they enshrouded him. His body was carried on a couch to the masjid. As our belov- ed Prophet had previously commanded, everybody went out of the masjid. Angels came in groups and performed his prayer. After the angels’ prayer were completed, a sound from an unknown source said, “Go in! Perform the prayer of your Prophet!” Thereupon the Companions entered the Mesjid. They performed our Prophet’s prayer without an imam. They were only able to complete the performance of the prayers by Wednesday evening.

Regarding the digging of the blessed grave of our beloved Prophet, the Ashâb-i kirâm abided by the following hadîth-i sherîf which they were reminded of by Hadrat Abû Bakr: “Prophets are buried wherever they pass away.” Our Prophet was prop- erly interred halfway through Wednesday night in the grave, the tomb of which was dug by Hadrat Abû Talha-i Ansârî. Hadrat Abbâs’s son Qusam was the last to com- plete the duties in the grave and was the last out of the grave. He said, “I am the last one who saw the blessed face of Rasûlullah. His blessed lips were moving. I leaned over and gave ear to him. He was invoking, “O my Rabb! My Ummat (Communi- ty)!… O my Rabb! My Ummat (Community)!…”353

On the day that our beloved Prophet passed away, Hadrat Abdullah bin Zayd prayed by saying, “O my Rabb! I would need my eyes to look at the blessed shining face of your beloved Prophet. As he is invisible now, I will not need them any longer! O my Rabb, take my eyes!” and lost his sight…

The movements of abjuration

After the passing away of our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm, apostasy began. These activities expanded significantly. Hadrat Abû Bakr contributed significantly to- ward the struggle against them. If there had not been such an able person, that danger would have spread all over Arabia. Thereupon Hadrat Âisha-i Siddîqa ‘radiy-Allâhu anhâ’, the mother of Muslims, stated, “When Rasûl-i akram ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallâm’ passed away, the hypocrites rose in rebellion. The Arabs became renegades, that is, they abandoned Islam. The disasters that befell my father would have crushed mountains had they befallen them.”354

And Hadrat Abû Hurayra said, “If Abû Bakr had not been there, the Ummat-i Mu- hammad (Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm’s Community) would have perished after the passing away of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm!”355

He also said, “I swear by Allah, other than He, there is no ilah, if Abû Bakr had not undertaken the Caliphat, there would not have been anyone who would worship Almighty Allah!” and repeated it three times.

Abû Raja’ul’Utaridi said, “When I entered Medina I saw people were gathering and one man kissed another man’s forehead by saying: May myself be sacrificed for your sake! I swear by Allah that if you had not been, we would have perished for sure!”

I asked, “Who are the kissing and the kissed?” They replied, “Because of his war against the apostates, ’Umar is kissing Abû Bakr’s head.”356

350 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 655; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 444; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 442.
351 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 272; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, II, 341; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 441.
352 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 396.
353 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 298.
354 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 665; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 474; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXX, 312.
355 Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 467.
356 Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXXXIII, 502; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XXV, 300.

Hadrat Âisha said, “During the days of the abjuration of Arabs, when my father unsheathed his sword and mounted his camel, Hadrat Ali came next to him, held the bridle of his camel and said, “I am saying to you the same words what Rasûlullah

’alaihis-salâm had said on the day of the Holy Battle of Uhud: Sheathe your sword, do not endanger yourself and do not cause us to be in agony! I swear by Allah that if something befalls you, for certain, Islam will never improve again after you!”.” (If Hadrat Ali had been against his caliphate, he would have let him go and die. Thus, he would have paved the way for his own caliphate.)

Again Hadrat Âisha related, “After the passing away of Rasûlullah, many people from the Arab tribes apostatized. Judaism, Christianity and hypocrisy started to appear.

Muslims were like sheep dispersed after being caught in the rain on a winter night. Moreover, most of the Meccans were prepared to abandon Islam. Suhayl bin Amr, standing at the gate of the Kâ’ba, spoke to the Meccans. He made an impressive speech and removed their doubts and prevented their apostatizing.

In the history of Islam, after those incidents, in place of the terms “irtijâ (reaction) and murtaji (reactionist)” in the meaning of renunciation of religion, apostatizing started to be used.

After the passing away of our Prophet, apostatizing in groups started, due to the provocations of the hypocrites, Jews and Christians.

Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr, standing at the gate of the Kâ’ba, spoke to the Meccans as follows:

“O Meccans! You were the last ones among those who became Muslims. Do not be the first of those who apostatize! I swear by Allah that, Almighty Allah will complete this affair as Rasûl (‘alaihis-salâm) declared! I had heard him say, while standing alone where I am now standing, “Say La ilâha illallah with me, so that, Arabs may become Muslims by taking you as an example and the non-Arabs will pay jizya (tax imposed on non-Muslims living in an Islamic country) to you! I swear by Allah that the treasuries of Iranian Shah Kisrâ will be spent for the sake of Allah!”

You have seen that the mockers became the collectors of zakat and alms. I swear by Allah that the rest will occur, too! I swear by Allah that, I know well that, as long as the sun continues to rise and set, this religion will continue. Do not let those people among you deceive you! Those people too, know this reality that I know.

However, their jealousy towards the sons of Hâshim has sealed their hearts.

O People! I am the one who owns the most means of transport on the land and sea among the Quraysh. Obey the orders of your leader and pay your zakat to him.

If Islam does not continue to it’s conclusion, I guarantee to pay back your zakat!” He then wept.

Upon this, the people calmed down.

When Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr managed to dissuade Meccans from abjuration by means of his impressive speech, the governor of Mecca, Attab bin Asid appeared.

When Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr was captured during the Battle of Badr, in which he had joined with polytheists, our Prophet said to Hadrat ’Umar, in regard to him, “It is expected that he shall speak while standing on a place which you do not disparage!” It was understood that, by mentioning Hadrat Suhayl’s speech while he was standing on a revered place in this hadith, our Prophet had indicated this last speech of Hadrat Suhayl.

When Hadrat ’Umar heard of this speech of Hadrat Suhayl, he remembered our Prophet’s mentioning Hadrat Suhayl and could not refrain himself from saying, in our Prophet’s absence, “I testify that you are certainly the Messenger of Allah!”357

lineLIFE IN THE GRAVE

His being alive in his grave

The prophets are alive in their graves with a life that we do not know. Awliyâ (saints, those whom Allah loves) and martyrs are alive in their graves, too. This aliveness is not fictive. They are completely alive. It is declared in the 169th âyat-i karîma of the Imran Sûra, which purports, “Don’t suppose that those people, who are killed for the sake of Allah, are dead! They are alive next to their Rabb and being nourished.”

The above âyat-i karîma shows that the martyrs are alive. The prophets are certainly ahead of and much superior to the martyrs. According to the scholars of Islam, each prophet had died as a martyr. At his last illness, our Master Rasûlullah said, “I always suffered the pain of the poisonous meat I ate at Khaibar.”358 This hadîth-i sherîf shows that our Master Rasûlullah had died as a martyr.

Therefore, it is understood also from the above hadîth that our Master Rasûlullah is alive in his grave like all other martyrs are. In the hadîth-i sherîf which is stated in “Bukhârî” and “Muslîm”, it was declared that, “During the night of Miraj, I passed the grave of Musa (’alaihis-salâm). He was performing namâz, standing in his grave.”359

In another hadîth-i sherîf, it was declared that, “Allahu ta’âlâ has forbidden the soil to decompose the prophets’ body.”360 The scholars are unanimously attesting that, this is true. It is written in “Bukhârî” and “Muslîm”, “Allahu ta’âlâ sent all prophets to our Prophet during the night of Miraj. He conducted the namâz by being the imam for them.”

357 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VIII, 484; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, III, 100.
358 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 337; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, II, 678; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 303; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 399.
359 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XII, 355.
360 Nasâî, “Juma”, 5; Ibn Maja, “Iqamat-us-Salât”, 79; Dârimî, “Salât”, 206.

Performing namâz is possible by making rukû’ (bowing) and sajda (prostrating). The above report indicates that they perform the namâz bodily and alive. Mûsâ ’alai- his-salâm’s performing namâz in his grave indicates this too. It was declared in the hadîth-i sherîf, which is at the end of the first section of the Miraj chapter in the book of “Mishqât” and reported by Abû Hurayra taken from the book of Muslîm, “Allahu ta’âlâ showed me. Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) was performing namâz while standing. He was thin. His hair was not straggly. He was like a young man from the tribe of Shan’a. Isâ (’alaihis-salâm) resembled Urwa bin Mas’ud Sakafi.” 361

Shan’a is the name of two tribes in Yemen. The above hadîth-i sherîfs show that the prophets are alive next to Allahu ta’âlâ. Their corpses (bodies) have become ethereal like their souls. They are not dense nor solid. They can be seen in the material and spiritual worlds.

Therefore, prophets can be seen with their soul and body. In the hadîth-i sherîf, it is declared that Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) and Isâ (’alaihis-salâm) were performing namâz. Performing namâz means doing certain movements and these movements are done by body not by soul. Our Prophet’s saying, “I saw that he was of middle height, thin and his hair was tidy,” indicates that he saw his body not his soul.

Imâm-i Bayhakî said, “After the prophets are settled in their graves, their souls are given back to their bodies. We cannot see them. They become invisible like angels. Only those chosen people to whom Allahu ta’âlâ grants karâmat [Phenomena which happen beyond the laws of causation through the awliyâ of the ummats of prophets are called karâmat] can see them.” Also Imâm-i Suyûti had also said so.

Many people heard many times that greetings are replied to from the grave of our Master, the Prophet. People also heard many times that their greetings are replied to from other graves.

In a hadîth sherîf, it is said, “When a person greets me, Allahu ta’âlâ gives my soul back to my body. I reply to his greeting.”362

Hadrat Imâm-i Suyûti said, “Rasûlullah is engrossed in seeing the Beauty of Allahu ta’âlâ. He forgot the sensations of body. When a Muslim greets him, our Prophet’s blessed soul leaves that state and takes the senses of the body. There are a good num- ber of people in a similar state in this world, as well. A person who is immersed in thought about this world or the Hereafter does not hear whatever is spoken next to him. Is it possible for a person who is engrossed in the Beauty of Allahu ta’âlâ to hear a sound?”

Hadrat Qadi Iyâd reported in his book “Shifâ” taken from Sulayman bin Suhaym, “One night I saw in my dream our Master Fakhr-i kâinat and asked him, ‘O Rasûlull- ah! Do you become aware of the greetings of those who come and greet you?’ He said,

‘Yes I do. I receive their greetings and reply to them’.”

There are so many hadîth-i sherîfs stating that the prophets (’alaihimu’s-salawâtu wa ’t-taslîmât) are alive in their graves that they affirm one another. One of them is the hadîth-i sherîf, “I will hear the salawat recited at my grave. I will be informed about the salawât recited at a distance.”

Abû Bakr bin Abi Shayba related the above hadîth-i sherîf. This hadîth-i sherîf and many others like this one are available in the books of the six notable hadîth scholars.

In the hadîth-i sherîf which was reported by Ibn-i Abi’d-dunya from Hadrat Ab- dullah bin Abbas, our beloved Prophet said, “If a person visits the grave of one of his acquaintances and greets him, the deceased person in the grave recognizes him and replies. If he greets a deceased person who he did not know, then the deceased person rejoices and replies.”

If it is asked how Rasûlullah replies separately to each greeting, of those who send their greetings from every corner of the world, it is responded to by saying, it is like the sun’s rays spreading over thousands of cities in an instant at noon.

Hadrat Ibrahim bin Bishar said, “After I completed the pilgrimage I went to Medina to visit the blessed grave of our Prophet. I greeted from in front of the Hujra-i sa’âdat (the blessed grave of our Prophet). Then I heard the reply, Wa alaikas-salâm.”

Our Master Rasûlullah said, “After my demise, I will hear and understand the same as I could when I was alive.” In another hadîth-i sherîf, he said, “The prophets are alive in their graves and they perform the ritual prayer there.” 363

It is written in very reliable books that Sayyid Ahmad ar-Rifâ’î, one of the prom- inent awliyâ’, and many other awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) heard the reply when they greeted Rasûlullâh (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) and that Ahmad ar-Rifâ’î attained the honor of kissing Rasûlullah’s blessed hand.

Al-Imâm as-Suyûtî wrote in his book, “Awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) of high status can see the prophets (’alaihumus-salawâtu wa’t-taslîmât) as if they had not died. Our Master’s seeing Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) alive in his grave was a mu’jiza, and a walî’s seeing in the same way is a karâma. Disbelief in karâma originates from ignorance.”

A hadîth sharîf reported by Ibn Habbân, Ibn Mâja and Abu Dâwûd (rahima- hum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) says, “On Fridays recite the salawât for me repeatedly! The salawât will be conveyed to me.” When he was asked, “Are they also conveyed to you after your demise?”

He said, “Soil does not rot prophets’ bodies. Whenever a Muslim says the salawât for me, an angel informs me of it and says, ‘So-and-so’s son, so-and-so of your umma sent his salâm and prayed for you’.”

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) is a great favor for the whole Umma after his death, as he was a mercy and a great blessing of Allahu ta’âlâ for his companions in his life. He is cause of all goodnesses.

In a hadîth-i sherîf, narrated by Bakir bin Abdullah Muzani, Rasûl-i akram said, “My life is beneficial for you; you talk to me, and I talk to you. [The time after] my death, too, will be beneficial for you after I die; your deeds will be shown to me. I will thank Allahu ta’âlâ when I see your good deeds. And I will ask for par- don and forgiveness for you when I see your bad deeds.”364

361 Muslim, “Iman”, 346, Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 215; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 243; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XVII, 428.
362 Abû Dâwûd, “Manâsiq”, 100; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 527; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 245; “Shu’ab-ul-Iman”, IV, 101.
363 Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XIII, 326; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 89; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XI, 43.
364 Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XIII, 313; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, IV, 547; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 194.

Hadrat Qusam bin Abbas was honored by being in the service of our Master Rasû- lullah’s burial. After completing his duty he came out from the grave last of all. Then he said,

“I am the last one who saw the blessed face of Rasûlullah. His blessed lips were moving in his grave. I leaned over and gave ear to him. He was saying, O my Rabb! My Ummat (Community)!… O my Rabb! My Ummat (Community)!…365

To see our Master Rasûlullah

Can one see our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) when one is asleep or awake? If he can be seen, is it him who is seen, or an image resembling him? Our ’ulamâ’ (scholars) have given various answers to these questions.

In addition to the unanimity that he is alive in his grave, most of them said that he himself can be seen. This is also understood from hadîth-i sherîfs. A hadîth-i sherîf declares, “The one who sees me in his dream sees me as he would see me when he is awake.”366

This is why al-Imâm an-Nawawî said, “Seeing him in a dream is really seeing him.” As a matter of fact, it was declared in a hadîth-i sherîf, “Anyone who has seen me in his dream has really seen me, for the devil cannot appear in my shape.”367

Ibrâhîm al-Lâqânî wrote, “It has been reported unanimously by the ’ulamâ’ of hadîth that Rasûlullah can be seen both when one is awake and in one’s dreams. Many examples can be given for both states. Let’s tell some of them:

Hadrat Mu’inuddin-i Chashtî would visit the graves in every place that he visited and would stay for a while. When he became well known in that place he would not stay there and would leave quietly without notice. One of his visits was to Mecca. He went to Mecca-i mukarrama and visited the Kâ’ba-i mu’azzama. He stayed in Mecca for a while and then went to Medina-i munawwara. One day when he visited the blessed grave of our Prophet, a voice saying, “Call Mu’inuddin” was heard from the tomb.

Thereupon the tomb keeper called to “Mu’inuddin!” Then several voices saying “Yes!” were heard from several places and those people asked, “Which Mu’inuddin are you looking for? There are many men named Mu’inuddin here.”

Then the tomb keeper turned back and stood at the door of Rawda-i mutahhara. He heard a voice saying, “Call Mu’inuddin-i Chashtî” two times. Upon that order, the tomb keeper called out to the people there saying, “Mu’inuddin-i Chashtî is summoned.”

365 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 298.
366 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 409.
367 Bukhârî, “Tabir”, 10; Muslim, “Ruya”, 22; Abû Dâwûd, “Adab”, 96; Tirmidhî, “Ruya”, 4; Ibn Maja, “Tabir-ur- Ruya”, 4; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 400; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 232.

When Hadrat Mu’inuddin-i Chashtî heard that he fell into a very different state of mind. Then he approached the tomb of our beloved Prophet weeping and reciting salawâts and stood respectfully. At that moment he heard a voice saying, “O the Qutb-i mashayih! Come in!”

Our Prophet said, “You are a helper of my religion. You have to go to India. Go to India. There is a town named Ajmir. There is someone whose name is Sayyid Husayn who is one of my descendants (grandchildren). He had gone there for the purpose of jihad and holy war. Now, he has been martyred. Ajmir is to fall into the hands of disbelievers. Due to your going there and with blessings, Islam will spread and disbelievers will become servile, incapable and inefficacious.” Then he gave him a pomegranate and said, “Look at this pomegranate carefully, then see and understand to where you will go.”

Hadrat Mu’inuddin-i Chashtî took the pomegranate, which was given by our Mas- ter, the Prophet and looked at it carefully as he was ordered and saw between the East and the West entirely.

Hadrat Ahmad Rifai had gone on pilgrimage. On the way back, when he visited the blessed tomb of our Master, Rasûl-i akram in Medina-i munawwara, he recited a poem meaning:

“I was far away, To kiss your land. Therefore, I would send, My soul, in place of myself. Now I am granted with

The blessing of visiting you. Give me your blessed hand,

Let me kiss it, O the Beloved!”

When the recitation of the poem was completed, the blessed hands of our Prophet were seen through his grave. Then Sayyid Ahmad Rifai kissed our Master, the Prophet’s hands with extreme respect. People who were there witnessed that incident in astonishment.

After kissing the blessed hands of our Master, the Prophet, he lied down at a door- way of the Rawda-i mutahhara. Then he begged the people, who were there, tearingly, “Step over me!” The scholars had to go out through other doors. This is a well-known karâmat that has been told about, mouth to mouth, until today.

It was well known that Hadrat Ibn-i Abidin was a pious scholar and had a lot of karâmats and anecdotes. He would see our Master Rasûlullah with his eyes while he was reciting the tahiyyat (the prayer, which is recited during the last sitting posture in the namâz) in the five times of namâz (ritual prayer) every day. In case he could not see our Prophet, he would perform that namâz again.

One of the greatest Islamic scholars, Imâm-i Rabbânî Ahmad Faruqî Sarhandî, who was theamujaddid (strengthener, renewer of Islam) of the second millennium (of Islam), said, “Within the last ten days of Ramadan, today, a very beautiful state appeared. I was lying on my bed. My eyes were closed. Then I felt that somebody else came and sat on my bed. What was I seeing! The most exalted of all the former and the latter sayyeds, the Master of the world, our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam).

He said, ‘I have come here to write an ijâzat (authorization) for you. Till now, I have never written such an ijâzat for anybody else.’ I saw that great favors regard- ing this world were written in the text and blessings about the Hereafter were written at the back of that ijâzat.”

Hadrat Abdulqâdir-i Geylânî relates in his book Gunya by conveying from Hadrat Ibrahim Tamimi:

Hizir (’alaihis-salâm) said to me, “If you would like to see Rasûlullah in your dream, you should stand up after performing the evening prayer and without speaking to anybody, you should perform the prayer of awwâbîn. You should make the salâm at the end of every two rak’ats.

You should recite Hamd, that is, Fâtiha Sûra one time and Ikhlâs Sûra seven times in every rak’at. After performing the night prayer in congregation, you should go to your house and perform the witr prayer. Before going to bed, you should perform a namâz of two rak’ats and recite the Ikhlâs Sûra seven times in every rak’at. After that namâz, you should prostrate yourself and ask Allahu ta’âlâ for forgiveness seven times [that is, you should say istighfâr] and say ‘Subhânallâhi walhamdu lillâhi walâ quwwata illâ billâhil aliyyil azîm’ seven times. Then you should raise your head from prostra- tion posture and raise your hands while in the sitting position, and say, ‘Ya hayyu, ya qayyûm, ya zal jalâli wal ikrâm, ya ilâhal awwalîna wal âkhirîn wa ya Rahmân-ad- dunya wal âkhirati wa rahimahuma, ya Rabbî, ya Rabbî, ya Rabbî, ya Allah, ya Allah, ya Allah.’

Then you should stand up and recite the same prayer. And then prostrate yourself and recite the same prayer, too. After that, you should raise your head from prostration and turn towards the qibla (Kâ’ba) and lie down how you would like and sleep. Until you fall asleep, you should say and send salawât-i sherîfa to our Master, the Prophet.”

I said, “I wish for you tell me the person from whom you learned this invocation.” Hadrat Hizir said, “Do you not believe me?” I said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, who sent Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) as a true prophet, I believe you!”

Hizir (’alaihis-salâm) said, “I was present in the gathering where Rasûlullah taught and advised this prayer. I had learned this prayer from the person to whom our Prophet taught.”

Then I performed all which Hizir (’alaihis-salâm) said. I started to recite and send salawât-i sherîfa to our Master, the Prophet. Due to my joy from the anticipation of seeing our Master, the Prophet; I lost my sleep and could not sleep until morning.

I performed the morning prayer and sat down until sunrise. I performed the ritual prayer known as Duha prayer. I told myself, “If I am still alive this evening, I will do the same as the previous night.” Meanwhile, I fell asleep. In my dream, angels came and brought me to Paradise. There I saw mansions and palaces made of ruby, emerald and pearl; rivers made of honey, milk and drinks unique to Paradise.

I asked of the angels who brought me to Paradise, “For whom is that mansion?” They said, “It is for those who perform the deeds you have done.” They did not let me go before they made me eat the foods of Paradise and drink the beverages of Paradise. Afterwards, they took me out of Paradise and brought to the place where I had been.

Then our Master Rasûlullah came to me with seventy prophets and seventy ranks (the distance between each rank was as far as the distance between the east and the west) of angels and greeted me and held my hand. At that moment I said, “O Rasûlullah! Hizir ’alaihis-salâm told me that he had heard this hadîth from you.” Then our Master, the Prophet said, “Hizir told the truth. What he told is true. He is the most learned among those on earth. He is the leader of the ebdâl (mass name of a group of Awliyâ). He is one of the soldiers of Allah on earth.”

Then I asked, “O Rasûlullah! Is there any reward other than what I see here to be given to the one who performs this deed?” He said, “Which reward can be superior to the one you have seen and have been given? You have seen your place and rank in Paradise. You have eaten the fruits of Paradise and drunk the beverages of Paradise. You have seen the angels and prophets with me. You have seen houris.”

I said, “O Rasûlullah? Will the person who makes the same things that I made, with- out seeing what I had seen, be given what I have been granted?” He said, “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, Who sent me as a true Prophet that that person’s grave sins will be forgiven. Allahu ta’âlâ’s wrath on that person will be removed. I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, Who sent me as a true Prophet that the one who performs the same deeds you performed, and though they cannot see in dreams what you saw, they will be given what you have been given. A voice from the sky will say that Allahu ta’âlâ has forgiven the one who performed this deed and all the Community of Muhammad ’alaihissalâm who are present from the East to the West.”

I asked, “O Rasûlullah! Will that person also have such fortune as me, as I have seen your face and Paradise?” He said, “Yes, everything will be granted to that person.” When I asked, “O Rasûlullah! Is it acceptable to teach this prayer and inform of its rewards to all male and female Muslims?” “I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ, Who sent me as a true Prophet, that other than those whom Allahu ta’âlâ created as blessed people, no others will perform this deed.”

He who sees our Prophet Muhammad ’alaihissalâm in his real appearance, in his dream, he has certainly seen him. For the devil cannot disguise himself as our Prophet. However the devil can disguise himself and appear in another form. It is not easily to distinguishable for the one who does not recognize Rasûlullah.

Some of the scholars said, “Seeing our Prophet in a dream, in another appearance, is again seeing him. However this indicates that the one who had this dream is defective in religion. Everyone who dreams our Prophet Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm in his real appearance and dies as Muslim, shall go to Paradise.”

Abû Hurayra informed of the below hadîth-i sherîf of our Prophet, “A person who performs a namâz of two rak’ats by reciting the Fâtiha Sûra and the Âyat-al- Kursî one time and the Ikhlâs Sûra fifteen times in every rak’at of that namâz and says ‘Allahumma salli alâ Muhammadin nabiyyilummîyi’ one thousand times after the namâz on a Friday night, shall see me in his dream before the next Friday occurs. All past and future sins of that person shall be forgiven. Paradise is for those who see me.”

To visit our Master, the Prophet’s blessed grave

Our Master, Fakhr-i kâinat said, “Whomever visits me after my demise is as if they had visited me when I was alive.” Our Prophet said in a hadîth-i sherîf which is stated in the book “Mir’ât-i Medina”, “It has become wâjib upon me to intercede for those who visit my grave,” This hadîth-i sherîf was conveyed by Ibn-i Huzaima, al-Bazzâr, ad-Dâraqutnî and at-Tabarânî (rahimahum-Allâh). In another, reported by al-Bazzâr, “It became halâl for me to intercede for those who visit my shrine,” is declared.

The hadîth-i sherîf in the book Muslim-i sherîf and also quoted in Abû Bakr bin Makkârî’s (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) book Mu’jama says, “If someone visits me solely for visiting me and without any other intentions, he deserves my intercession at the Last Judgment.” This hadîth-i sherîf foretold that Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would intercede for those who go to Medina to visit him.

Another hadîth-i sherîf reported by ad-Dâraqutnî is, “Those who do not visit me after carrying out the Hajj hurt me.” Rasûlullâh (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) desired that Muslims should visit him because he wanted his umma (Community) to gain thawâb in this manner also.

It was for this reason that our scholars of fiqh (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) would come to Medina and perform salât in Masjid-i sherîf after their pilgrimage. Then they visited and received blessings by seeing the Rawdat al-Mutahhara, the Minbar al- Munîr and the Qabr-i Sherîf, which is superior to the ’Arsh al-a’lâ; the places where the Prophet sat, walked and leaned against; the pole he leaned against when the wahî (revelation) came and the places where as-Sahâbat al-kirâm (our Prophet’s Compan- ions) and the Tâbi’ûn (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în) who helped construct the Masjid and repaired it or who had the honor of giving financial help, had walked. Those scholars and sulahâ’ who came later would come to Medina after hajj and do as our ’ulamâ’ (scholars) of fiqh did. It is for this reason that pilgrims have been visiting al-Medina-i munawwara.

Beware of immodesty! Here where Allah’s Beloved is!
To where the Divine Look is directed; Maqâm al-Mustafâ this is!
Only if you resolve to act modestly, Nâbî, go in this shrine,
There where angels go round, and where at prophets always kiss!
NÂBÎ

Abu Hanîfa (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), the sun of the ’ulamâ’ of Islam, said that vis- iting the Qabr as-Sa’âda (our Prophet’s blessed grave), one of the most valuable of mustahabs (an action which is liked by Allahu ta’âlâ), was an ’ibâda (worship) of a degree nearly equal to wâjib (act, almost as compulsory as fard, so not to be omitted).

The person who visits the blessed grave of our Master Rasûlullah should frequently say salawât-i sherîfa. It was declared in a hadîth-i sherîf that these salawâts and salâms reach to our Prophet. The manners of visiting our beloved Prophet are as below:

When you see the city of Medina-i munawwara from afar, you say the salât and salâm. Then say the prayer, “Allâhumma hâzâ haramu Nabiyyika waj’alhu vikâyatan lî min-an-nâr wa amânan min-al-‘azâb wa sû-il-hisâb.” If possible, you make a ghusl (ritual bathing) before entering the city or the masjid. You put on some good alco- hol-free cologne. You wear new, clean clothes. For, these acts indicate homage and respect. You enter the Medina-i munawwara modestly, seriously and silently. After saying, “Bismillâhi wa alâ millati Rasûlillah” you recite the 80th âyat-i karîma of the Isrâ Sûra. Right after, you say, “Allahumma salli alâ Muhammadin wa alâ âli Muham- mad. Wagfir lî zunûbî waftâh lî ebwâba rahmatika wa fadlika” and enter the Masjid-i Nabawî. You perform two rak’ats of Tahiyyat-ul-masjid namâz near the minbar (pul- pit) of our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm. The pillar of the minbar must be to the side of your right shoulder.

Our beloved Prophet would perform the namâz there. Here is the place between the grave and minbar of our Master, the Prophet. It was stated in a hadîth-i sherîf that, “Between my grave and my minbar is one of the Gardens of Paradise. My minbar is on my hawz (pond).”368 Then you prostrate yourself in gratefulness due to Allahu ta’âlâ having granted you the visit of the blessed grave of Rasûlullah. After the prayer you stand up and come near the Hujra-i sa’âda, his blessed grave. With your face toward Rasûlullah’s blessed face and your back toward the qibla you stand respectfully about two meters from the blessed grave. You do not approach the grave closer. You should be in khushû’ (deep and humble reverence) and hudû (in total sur- render) and stay respectfully as if he were alive and you were at his high presence ac- cording to how Allahu ta’âlâ decreed in the Qur’ân al-karîm. You should always keep your tranquility and composure. Not putting your hands on the walls of the blessed grave and staying away deferentially is a more favorable deed. You should stay there as if you were in namâz.

368 Bukhârî, “Itisam”, 16; Muslim, “Hajj”, 588; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 236; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, III, 491.

You bring to your mind the blessed appearance of our Master Rasûlullah and keep in your mind that Rasûlullah sees you, hears your salâm and prayers and answers you and says âmîn. For, our Master Rasûlullah said, “When someone says salât to me at my grave, I hear it.” Again in a hadîth-i sherîf, it was declared that at the blessed grave of our Master Rasûlullah an angel had been charged with the responsibility to convey to him the salâms of those from his Community who send salâms. Then you should say the following prayer, “Assalâmu alaika yâ sayyidî yâ Rasûlullah! Assalâmu alaika yâ Nabiyyallah! Assalâmu alaika yâ Safiyyallah! Assalâmu alaika yâ Habîballah! Assalâmu alaika yâ Nabiyyarrahmati! Assalâmu alaika yâ Shafî-al ummati! As-salâmu alaika yâ Sayyid-al-mursalîn! Assalâmu alaika yâ Khâtamannabiyyîn!

May Allahu ta’âlâ bestow upon you the highest reward and recompense. I testify that you achieved your task of Prophethood. You performed your duty. You advised your Community. You made jihad on the path of Allahu ta’âlâ until you passed away. May Allahu ta’âlâ say salât and salâm to you until the Day of Resurrection. O Rasû- lullah! We came to you from very far places. We came here to visit your blessed grave, to pay your right, to see what you did on site, to be blessed with visiting you, to re- quest you to be intercessor for us before Allahu ta’âlâ. For, our faults have ruined us. Our sins have weighed on our shoulders. O Rasûlullah! You are both the intercessor and the one whose intercession is accepted. The Rank of Mahmûd has been granted to you.

Also, Allahu ta’âlâ decrees (in the 64th âyat-i karîma of the Nisâ Sûra) in the Qur’ân al-karîm, purporting, “We, for every prophet, sent them with the command of Al- lahu ta’âlâ, solely for the obedience of the tribe to whom he was sent. Only, after oppressing their own nafses, they come and beg Allahu ta’âlâ for mercy. If My Rasûl intercedes for them, they will certainly find Allahu ta’âlâ Compassionate and Merciful.” We came to your high presence. Yet, we have oppressed our nafses. We ask for forgiveness of our sins.

O Rasûlullah! Intercede for us before Allahu ta’âlâ. O Rasûlullah! Entreat Allahu ta’âlâ that He take our souls while we are on your path, let us join with those who are at the place for gathering with you on Resurrection Day and grant us to meet at and drink from your pool. O Rasûlullah! We ask for your intercession.” Then you recite the 10th âyat-i karîma of Hashr Sûra, which purports, “… O our Rabb! Forgive us and our faithful brothers who lived before us and passed away! Do not leave any grudge in our hearts against those who have faith! O our Rabb! You are certainly Compassionate and Merciful!”

Then you convey the salâms of those who sent their greetings and say, “Assalâmu alaika yâ Rasûlullah! This person wishes you to be intercessor for him before Al- lahu ta’âlâ. Intercede for him and all Muslims,” and say the salawât as many times as you would like. Then, moving a half meter to your right, in line with the head of Hadrat Abû Bakr, you greet Hadrat Abû Bakr Siddîq by saying, “Assalâmu alaika yâ khalîfata Rasûlillah! Assalâmu alaika yâ rafîkahu fil-gâr! Assalâmu alaika yâ amînahu alal-asrâr! May Allahu ta’âlâ grant you, the imam of this community, the highest of recompense and reward. You performed your khilâfat (caliphate) duty and followed his high path in such a beautiful manner. You fought against the murtads (renegades)

and aberrant people. You always told the truth. You helped the people who were on the right path, until your demise. May Allahu ta’âlâ’s salâm, Compassion and abundance be upon you! O my Allah! Take our souls with your Compassion while we have his love in our heart. Do not invalidate our visit to him!”

Then, moving again a half meter to your right, in line with the grave of Hadrat ‘Umar, you greet Hadrat ’Umar by saying, “Assalâmu alaika yâ Amîr-al-mu’minîn! Assalâmu alaika yâ Muzhir-al-Islam! Assalâmu alaika yâ Muksir-al-asnâm! May Al- lahu ta’âlâ grant you the highest recompense and reward. You helped Muslims during your life time till the time of death. You protected the orphans. You were good towards your relatives. For Muslims, you were a guide who obtained their consent and who was both on the right path and led people to the right path. You put their affairs in order. You made the poor become rich and treated their injuries. May Allahu ta’âlâ’s salâm, Compassion and Blessings be upon you!”

Then, addressing Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Umar, you say, “Assalâmu alai- kumâ yâ dajîay-Rasûlillah wa rafîqayhi wa wazîrayhi wa mushîrayhi wal muâwinayni lahû alal-qiyâmi fid-dîni wal-qâimayni ba’dahû bi-masâlih-il-muslimîn! May Allahu ta’âlâ grant you the most beautiful recompense. We hold you as our means of being intermediary before Rasûlullah, in order to have his intercession and his invocations to Allahu ta’âlâ for His accepting our Sa’y, taking our souls and resurrecting us while we believe in Islam and granting us to be among the people who are with Rasûlullah on the Day of Judgment.”

Then you say prayers for yourself, your parents, for those who requested from you to say prayers for themselves and for all Muslims and then you stand towards the blessed face of our Master Rasûlullah and after saying, “O my Allah! You decreed (purporting),

‘“We, for every prophet, sent them with the command of Allahu ta’âlâ, solely for the obedience of the tribe to whom he was sent. Only, after oppressing their own nafses, they come and beg Allahu ta’âlâ for mercy. If My Rasûl intercedes for them, they will certainly find Allahu ta’âlâ Compassionate and Merciful.”369. O my Rabb! By complying with your Exalted word and obeying Your commands, we supplicate to You for Your beloved Prophet’s intercession before You” you say the following prayer, which is the 10th âyat-i karîma of the Hashr Sûra and which you recited before (purporting), “… O our Rabb! Forgive us and our faithful brothers who lived before us and passed away! Do not leave any grudge in our hearts against those who have faith! O our Rabb! You are certainly Compassionate and Merciful!” and also the prayer, “Rabbanagfir lanâ wa li-âbâ-inâ wa li-ummahâtinâ wa li-ihwâninal-lazîna sabakûna bil-îmâni” and also the âyat-i karîmas, “Rabbana âtinâ…” and “Subhâna rabbika…” and then complete the visit of this blessed grave.

369 The Nisa Sûra 4/64.

Then, you come to the pillar, between Rasûlullah’s grave and pulpit, to which Had- rat Abû Lubâba tied himself and made tawba (repentance). Here, you perform two rak’ats of namâz and make tawba and istigfar. You say whichever prayers you would like. Then you come to the Rawda-i mutahhara. Here is a square place. You perform namâz as much as you would like and say prayers. You say tasbîhs and thanks and praise Allahu ta’âlâ. Then you come to the pulpit and with the intention of receiving the benediction of Rasûlullah, you put your hand on the place where our Master, the Prophet would put his hand while he was delivering khutba (sermon). You perform two rak’ats of namâz here. You supplicate to Allahu ta’âlâ for your wishes. You take refuge in Allahu ta’âlâ’s Mercy from His wrath. Then you come to the Hannâna pil- lar. This is the pillar, which moaned due to the fact that our Master Rasûlullah had stopped leaning against it, as he had started to deliver his sermons on a new pulpit, and it stopped moaning after Rasûlullah had dismounted the pulpit and hugged it. During the time you stay here, you spend your time by reciting the Qur’ân al-karîm at nights, mentioning the name of Allahu ta’âlâ, saying prayers secretly and openly and make râbita (tying one’s heart to an accomplished murshid).

On the qibla side of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda, there was little space, before the rooms of Rasûlullâh’s blessed wives (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna) were annexed to the Masjid as Sa’âda; so it was difficult to stand facing the Muwâjahat as-Sa’âda. Visitors would stand facing the qibla and greet in front of the door in the Rawdat al-Mutahhara wall of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda. Later, Imâm Zain al-’Âbidîn would greet, with Rawdat al-Mu- tahhara being behind him. It had been visited in this manner for a long time. After the annexation of the rooms of the blessed wives to the masjid, the Hujrat as-Sa’âda started to be visited by standing in front of the window of the Muwâjahat ash-Sharîfa.

Hadrat ’Âisha’s (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhâ) room was three meters high and was built with adobes and date-palm branches. It had two doors, one to the west, which faced the Rawdat al- Mutahhara, and the other to the north. Hadrat ’Umar (radî- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), while extended Masjid as-Sa’âda during the last years of his caliphate, surrounded the Hujrat as-Sa’âda with a low stone wall.

Abdullâh ibn Zubair (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), when he became the Caliph, rebuilt this wall with black stones. This wall was not roofed and there was a door on the northern side. When Hadrat Hasan (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh) passed away in 49 A.H., his brother Hadrat Husain (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh) took his corpse to the door of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda as requested in his brother’s will and wanted to take the corpse into the shrine to pray and ask for intercession. Some people opposed it, thinking that the corpse would be buried in the shrine. To prevent the clamor, the corpse was not taken into the shrine and was buried at the Baqî’ cemetery. Lest such events might happen again later, the doors of the room and the one outside were walled up.

Walîd (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), the sixth Umayyad Caliph, when he was the gov- ernor of Medina, raised the wall around the room and had a small dome built over it. The three graves could not be seen from the outside, and the room was secured from being entered. After he became the Caliph, he ordered ’Umar ibn ’Abd al-’Azîz (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), his successor as the governor of Medina, to build a second wall around it when the rooms of the Pure Wives (radî- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna) were removed and Masjid as-Sa’âda was enlarged in 88 A.H. (707). This wall was pentag- onal and roofed and had no doors.

Jamâl ad-dîn al-Isfahânî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), vizier of the Atabeg State governed by Zengîs in Iraq and the paternal uncle’s son of Salâh ad-dîn al-Ayyûbî, constructed a grating made of sandal-ebony wood around the outer wall of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda in 584 A.H. (1189). The grating was as high as the ceiling of the masjid.

When it was destroyed by the first fire which occurred in 1289 A.D. an iron grating was constructed and painted green. This grating was named the Shabakat as-Sa’âda (Blessed Lattice). The qibla, east, west and north sides of the Shabakat as-Sa’âda are called the Muwâjahat as-Sa’âda, Qadam as-Sa’âda, Rawdat al- Mutahhara and Hujrat al-Fâtima, respectively. As al-Makkat al-Mukarrama is to the south of al-Madînat al-Munawwara, one who stands facing the qibla in the middle of Masjid an-Nabî, that is, at the Rawdat al-Mutahhara, has the Hujrat as-Sa’âda on his left and the Minbar ash-Sharîf on his right.

Marble flooring was laid on the ground between the Shabakat as-Sa’âda and the outer walls and on the outer area in 232 A.H. (847), and it has been renewed many times. The last restoration of the floor was done on the order of the Ottoman Sultân ’Abd al-Majîd Khân.

The small dome, which was constructed with the pentagonal wall, is called the Qubbat an Nûr. The Kiswat ash-Sharîfa sent by the Ottoman Sultans (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) was laid on that dome as a cover. The big, green dome which is over the Qubbat an-Nûr and which is called the Qubbat al-Khadrâ is the dome of Masjid as-Sa’âda. The kiswa on the outer side of the grating known as the Shabaka as-Sa’âda, used to be hung from the arches supporting the Qubbat al-Khadrâ. These internal and external curtains are known as the Sattâra.

The Shabakat as-Sa’âda has three doors, one on each of the east, west and north sides. None, except the directors of the Harâm ash-Sharîf, could enter the Shabakat as-Sa’âda, and no one can enter inside the walls since there is neither a door nor a window. There is only a small hole covered with wire gauze on top of the dome. Just above this hole is the hole in the Qubbat al-Khadrâ. The dome of Masjid ash- Sharîf was gray until 1253 A.H. (1837), when it was painted green by order of Sultân Mahmûd ’Adlî Khân. It was painted again by order of Sultan ’Abd al-Azîz Zhân in 1289 A.H. (1872).

No one has spent as much money and effort as Sultân ’Abd al-Majîd Khân (ra- himah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) to repair and embellish Masjid as-Sa’âda. He spent seven hun- dred thousand gold coins to restore the Haramain. The restoration was completed in 1861 (1277 A.H.).

Sultan ’Abd al-Majîd Khân ordered that a model of the early form of Masjid an-Na- bawî be made and put in the Khirka-i Sharîf Mosque, in Istanbul, so Major Hâji ’Izzet Effendi (rahimah- Allâhu ta’âlâ), a professor at the Engineering School and a design- er, was sent to Medina in 1850 (1267 A.H.). ’Izzet Effendi measured every dimension and constructed a 1/53 model and sent it to Istanbul. The model was placed in the Khirka-i Sharîf Mosque, which was built by ’Abd al-Majîd Khân.

Following repairs by ’Abd al-Majîd Khan, the distance between the qibla wall and the Shabakat as-Sa’âda became seven and a half meters; from the eastern wall to the grating of the Qadam as-Sa’âda became six meters; the width of the Shabakat ash- Shâmî became eleven meters; and the distance between the Muwajahat ash-Sharîfa and the Shabakat ash-Shâmî became nineteen meters. Width of Masjid an- Nabawî on the qibla side became seventy-seven meters and its length from the qibla wall to the Damascene wall became one hundred seventeen meters.

The Rawdat al Mutahhara, which lies between the Hujrat as- Sa’âda and the Min- bar ash-Sharîf, is nineteen meters wide. After the Ottomans, there have been several changes made to these sacred places and thus the invaluable historical artifacts that our ancestors had constructed, have been demolished and pillaged.

It is mustahab (an action, which is liked by Allahu ta’âlâ) to go and visit the Baqî’ Cemetery after visiting our Master Rasûlullah’s blessed grave. Then you visit the oth- er graves, especially the grave of Hadrat Hamza, who is the Sayyid-ush-shuhadâ (the master of the martyrs). Also you visit there, the graves of Hadrat Abbâs, Hasan bin Ali, Zaynalâbidîn and his son Muhammad Bâkir and his son Ja’far-i Sâdiq, Amîr-ul- mu’minîn Hadrat ’Uthman, our Master Rasûlullah’s son Ibrâhim, the blessed wives of our Master Rasûlullah, his paternal aunt Safiyya and many more Companions and the people from Tâbiîn. You perform namâz in the Fâtima Mosque in the Baqî Cemetery. It is mustahab to visit the martyrs of Uhud on Thursday. There you recite the prayer, “Salâmun alaikum bimâ sabertum. Fani’ma uqbaddâr. Salâmun alaikum yâ ahla dâr- il-kavm-il-mu’minîn wa innâ inshâallahu an karîbin bikum lâhikûn.” Then you recite the Âyat-al-kursî and Ikhlâs Sûra.

Those who visit the Hujra-i sa’adat should be very vigilant and not have worldly thoughts in their hearts. They should think of Muhammad ’alaihi’s-salâm’s nûr and high status. Prayers made by those thinking of worldly affairs, of ingratiating them- selves with people of high rank or of trade will not be accepted; they will not attain their wishes.

Visiting the Hujra-i sa’adat is a very honorable worship. It is feared that those who do not believe this may go out of Islam. As a matter of fact, they will have opposed Allahu ta’âlâ, His Messenger and all Muslims. Although some Mâliki scholars said that visiting Rasûlullah was wâjib, it was unanimously said to be mustahab.

Tawassul

People made tawassul 370 with our Master, the Prophet all the time, before and after his creation, during his lifetime and after his passing away and during the life of the grave and shall make tawassul with him at the place of Arasât, after the resurrection on the Day of Judgment and in Paradise. Wasila (intermediary, recourse) is anything which causes closeness to and the meeting of one’s needs, before Allahu ta’âlâ.

370 Tawassul means to make someone a wasîla (intermediary, recourse), to ask for his help and prayers. To ask for his intercession means to pray to Allahu ta’âlâ through his intermediation and to beg for death with faith.

It is permissible to make tawassul with Rasûl-i akram, that is, to make our Mas- ter Rasûlullah wasila in the presence before Allahu ta’âlâ and ask for his help and intercession. This is something which has been performed by the Prophets (alaihi- mus-salâm), the Salaf-i salihîn (the early savants), scholars and other Muslims. No Muslim deemed it as an evil deed. Till now, except for those with a corrupt creed, there have been none who would not accept this.

The father of mankind, Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm), when he descended onto the earth, had made recourse to our Master, the Prophet. Our beloved Prophet related this in- cident in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs as follows, “When Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) had erred and was taken out of Paradise; he said, ‘Oh my Rabb! Forgive me for the love of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)!’ Allahu ta’âlâ accepted his prayer and asked, ‘How do you know My Beloved Prophet Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)? I have not created him yet!’ He answered, ‘When You created me, as soon as I opened my eyes I saw Lâ ilâha illallâh Muhammadun Rasûlullâh written on the edges of the ’Arsh; it stated his name with Yours, showing Your love for him.’ And Allahu ta’âlâ said, ‘Oh Âdam! You have told the truth! He is the most loved of all My creatures. As you have asked forgiveness for his sake, I have accepted your prayer and forgiven you’.”371 According to another report, He decreed, “He is a Prophet who will be one of your descendants. If I had not created him, I wouldn’t have created you and your descendants. Since you had recourse to him as an intercessor, I have forgiven you.”372

There are thousands of examples about this. Some of them are stated below:

A man blind in both eyes asked Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) to pray so that his eyes could see. Rasûlullah said, “I will pray if you wish, but it will be better if you have patience and endure it.” “I have no power left to endure. I beg you to pray,” the blind Muslim replied. Then our Master, the Prophet ordered him, “Perform an ablution and say the prayer!” “Allâhumma innî as’aluka wa ata- wajjahu ilaika bi-Nabiyyika Muhammadin Nabiy-yir-rahmati. Ya Muhammad! Innî atawajjahu bika ilâ Rabbî fî hâjatî li-taqdiya lî Allâhumma shaffi’hu fiyya.”

Al-Imâm an-Nasâ’î (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), a hadîth ’âlim (scholar), reported that, when the blind man prayed, Allahu ta’âlâ accepted his prayer and he recovered.

About making tawassul with our Master Rasûlullah, Hadrat ’Uthman bin Hanîf, narrated the following event, “When ’Uthmân bin ’Affân (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’an- humâ) was the Khalîfa (Caliph), someone who was in great trouble told me about his personal grief and that he was ashamed of going to the Khalîfa. I told him to perform an ablution and to go to Masjid as- Sa’âda and say the prayer which restored the blind Muslim’s sight.

371 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 672, Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, I, 320.
372 Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, VIII, 198.

That poor man, after saying the prayer, went to the Khalîfa. He was received. The Khalîfa had him sit on his prayer rug and listened to him, his trouble, and accepted his request.” That poor man, seeing his problems solved at once, came to ’Uthmân bin Hanîf and cheerfully said, “May Allahu ta’âlâ bless you! I wouldn’t have been able to get rid of these troubles if you hadn’t had a word with the Khalîfa.” He supposed that ’Uthman bin Hanîf had spoken with the Khalîfa.

Once a famine took place during the caliphate of ’Umar (radî- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh). Hadrat Bilâl bin Hars (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), a sahâbî, went to Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) tomb and said, “O Rasûlullah! Your umma (companions) are starving to death. I beg you to intercede for [us that it shall] rain.” That night, he dreamed of Rasûlullah, saying, “Go to the Khalîfa! Give my salâm to him and tell him to go out to pray for rain!” Hadrat ’Umar went out to pray for rain, and it started raining.

Allahu ta’âlâ accepts prayers for the sake of His beloved servants. Allahu ta’âlâ de- clared that He greatly loves Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). Therefore, if someone prays saying, “Allâhumma innî as’aluka bijâh-i Nabiyyika ’l-Mustafâ,” his prayer will not be refused. But it is against âdâb to make an intercessor of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) for unimportant, mundane affairs.

“Burhân ad-dîn Ibrâhîm al-Mâlikî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), told about a very poor man who went to the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and said, “Oh Rasûlullah! I am hungry.” After a while, someone came and took him to his house and served him food. When the poor man said that his prayer had been accepted, the host said, “My Brother! You left your family at home and had a long, strenuous journey to visit Rasûlullah; is it appro- priate to enter Rasûlullah’s audience for a morsel of food? You should have asked for Paradise and endless favors in that high, noble audience. Allahu ta’âlâ does not refuse requests there.” Those who attain the honor of visiting Rasûlullah should pray for him to intercede for them on the Day of Judgment.

One day Imâm Abu Bakr al-Mukrî, along with al-Imâm at-Tabarânî and Abu Shaikh (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ), were sitting in Masjid as-Sa’âda. After having gone a few days without eating, they were very hungry. At last, Imâm Abu Bakr, being unable to endure any more, said, “I am hungry, O Rasûlullah!” and retired into a corner. A noble person, who was a sayyid, came with his two servants and said, “My Brethren! You have asked my grandfather, Rasûlullâh (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) to help you find food. He ordered me to satiate you.” They all ate together. He left them the remaining food and departed.

Abû Abdullah Muhammad Marâkashî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), an Islamic scholar (d.683 H. /1284 A.D.), listed those who had attained their wishes by making Rasû- lullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) their intercessor in his valuable book Mis- bâh-uz zulâm. One of them, Muhammad bin Munkadir, said that a man, before going out for jihâd, had deposited eighty gold coins with his father for safe keeping and said, “Keep them for me! You may lend them to the needy.” A famine took place in Medina. Muhammad bin Munkadir’s father had lent them to those who suffered from famine. When the man came back and wanted his money back, his father told him to come the next night and supplicated he at the Hujrat as-Sa’âda till morning. “My father said that a man came who told him to open his hands and gave him a packet of gold coins. He counted them at home and saw that there were eighty gold coins. Delighted, he immediately returned them to the owner.”

Hadrat Imâm-i Muhammad Mûsâ, in the beginning of his book, explains about an incident as follows:

“In the year 637 H. (1239 A.D.) we set forth from the Sadar Fort with a group of distinguished people. There was a person who was guiding us. After a while we ran out of water. Then we started to search for water. Meanwhile I went to relieve myself. At that moment I felt terribly sleepy. Thinking that they would wake me up anyway when they depart, I laid my head on the ground.

When I woke up, I found myself alone in the middle of the desert. Forgetting me, my friends had gone. Having been left alone, I was seized with fear. Then I wandered around. I had no idea where I was and where to go. Everywhere was flat sand. Soon after, it became dark. There was not even a trace of the caravan with which I was traveling. I was all alone in the dark. My fear became worse. Confused, I started to walk faster.

After a while, thirsty and tired, I collapsed. Finally, I gave up hope of my life and felt that my death was approaching. The thirst and tiredness brought my pain and suffering to a breaking point. Suddenly I came to my senses. In the dark of night, I supplicated, “O Rasûlullah! Help! I ask for help from you with the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ!”

As soon as I finished what I was saying, I heard someone calling me. When I looked where the voice was coming from; brightening the darkness all around, wearing com- pletely white clothing, I saw someone whom I had never seen before calling me. Approaching me, he took my hand. At that moment all my tiredness and thirst disappeared. It was as if I was born again. I suddenly warmed towards him. We walked hand in hand for a while. I felt that I had one of the most beautiful moments of my life. After climbing over a sand dune, I saw the lights of the caravan with which I was traveling and heard the voices of my friends. Then we approached them.

The animal which I had been riding, was following the caravan from behind. Sud- denly it stopped in front of me. When I saw my mount in front of me I cried out. When I cried out, the person, who was with me, let go of my hand. Then he held my hand again and helped me mount my animal. After that, he said, “We never refuse those who want something from us and asks for our help” and left. At that time I under- stood that he was our Master Rasûlullah. During his return, it could be seen that the nûr, that he was radiating, was ascending skywards in the darkness of the night. As he disappeared I came to my senses. I said to myself remorsefully, “How did I not kiss our Master Rasûlullah’s hands and feet?” However it was too late and I had missed the opportunity.

Abu ’l-Khair ’Aqta’ (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), after five days of hunger in Medina, came to the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and greeted Rasûlullah. He said he was hungry and soon fell asleep off to the side. In his dream he saw Rasûlullah coming, Abu Bakr as-Siddîq on his right, ’Umar Fârûq on his left and Alî al-Murtadâ (radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’in) walking in front of him. Hadrat Alî came and said, “O Aba ’l-Khair! Stand up! Why are you lying down? Rasûlullah is coming! He immediately stood up. Rasû- lullah came and gave him a big loaf of bread. Later Abu ’l-Khair said, “I began eating as soon as I took the loaf, as I was very hungry. When I had eaten half of the loaf, I woke up and I found the other half in my hands.”

Ahmad bin Muhammad Sûfî said, “While in the Hijâz deserts, I had no possessions left. I reached Medina. I gave salâm to Rasûlullah by the Hujrat as-Sa’âda. Then I sat somewhere and slept. Rasûlullah appeared. ‘Have you come, Ahmad? Open your hands!’ he ordered. He filled my hands with gold. I woke up. My hands were full of gold coins.”

Once Imâm as-Samhûdî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) lost his key. He could not find it. Finally he went to the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and said, “O Rasûlullah! I lost my key, I can’t go home!” A boy brought the key. The boy said, “I found this key. Is it yours?”

Mustâfa ’Ishqî Effendi (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) of Kilis wrote in his history book Mawârid-i Majidiyya: “I stayed in Mecca for twenty years. I, my wife and children, after saving sixty gold coins, migrated to Medina in 1247 A.H. (1831 A.D.). We spent all the money during the journey. We went to a friend as guests. I visited the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and asked Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) for help. Three days later, a gentleman came to the house where we were staying and said that he had rented a house for us. He brought my things there. He paid the rent for one year. After a few months, I fell ill and stayed in bed for a month. There was nothing left to eat or sell in the house. With my wife’s help, I climbed up to the roof, I had wanted to tell about my troubles towards Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) tomb and ask for help. But when I raised my hands to pray, I felt ashamed to ask for something worldly. I couldn’t say anything. I descended to my room.

The next day, someone came and said that some kind person sent some gold coins to me as a gift. I took the purse. Our trouble ended but my illness went on. Assisted, I went to the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and asked Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) for recovery. I left the Masjid and walked home without asking for anybody’s help. I completely recovered by the time I entered the house. I went out with a walking stick for a few days for protection against evil eyes. Soon, the money was all spent. Leaving my wife and children in the dark, I performed the night prayer in Masjid an-Nabawî and then told Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) about my trouble. On the way back home a person that I did not know approached me and gave me a purse. I saw there were forty-nine gold coins each worth nine kurus. I bought candles and other needs and returned home.”

It is written in the second volume of the translation of the book Shaqâyiq-i Nu’mâni- yya that when the great Islamic scholar Mawlânâ Shamsaddîn Muhammad bin Hamza al-Fanârî (rahimah Allâhu ta’âlâ), the first Shaikh al-Islâm of the Ottoman Empire and mujaddid of his time, who became blind from cataracts, had one night dreamt of our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam), who commanded him, “Explain (make a tafsîr of) the Sûra of Tâhâ!” He replied, “I do not have the power to explain al-Qur’ân al-karîm in your audience. Besides, my eyes cannot see.” Then our Master Rasûlullah, who was the physician of prophets, pulled out a piece of cotton from his blessed khirka and, after wetting it with his blessed saliva, put it on Mollâ al-Fanârî’s eyes, who woke up and found the piece of cotton on his eyes, and when he took it away he began to see. He praised and thanked Allahu ta’âlâ. He kept the piece of cotton and willed that it should be put on his eyes after his death. His testament was fulfilled when he died in Bursa in 834 (1431 A.D.).

Hadrat Imâm Mâlik (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), while conversing with Abu Ja’far Mansûr, the ’Abbasîd Caliph, told him in Masjid an-Nabawî, “O Mansûr! We are in the Masjid as- Sa’âda! Lower your voice! Allahu ta’âlâ reprimanded a congregation of worshippers in his declaration in Sûrat al Hujurât, ‘Make not thy voice louder than My Messenger’s!’ And in the âyat al-karîma, ‘Those who speak softly in the Prophet’s presence…’ He praised those who speak softly.

Respecting Rasûlullah after his death is like respecting him when he was alive.” Mansûr, bending his neck, said, “Oh Abâ ’Abdullah! Shall I face the qibla or the Qabr as-Sa’âda?” Hadrat Imâm Mâlik said, “Do not turn your face away from Rasûlullah! That exalted Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam), the intercessor on the Day of Judgment, will intercede for you and for your father Âdam’s (’alaihi’s-salâm) salvation on the Day of Judgment.

You should ask for his intercession facing the Qabr as-Sa’âda and attach yourself to Rasûlullah’s blessed soul. The 64th âyat of the Sûrat an-Nisâ declared, purpoting, ‘“If those who oppress their own nafses, they come to you and beg Allahu ta’âlâ for mercy and if My Rasûl also intercedes for them , they will certainly find Allahu ta’âlâ Compassionate and Merciful.”

This âyat promises that the tawba of those who make an intercessor of Rasûlullah will be accepted.” Thereupon, Mansûr stood up and in front of the Hujrat as Sa’âda, “O my Rabb!” he said, “You promised that You will accept the tawba of those who make Your Messenger an intercessor! And I supplicate to You for forgiveness in Your Exalted Prophet’s high presence. Forgive me, too, as Your servants whom You had forgiven when they asked for forgiveness when he [the Prophet] was alive! O my Rabb! I beg You through Your Exalted Prophet’s intercession who is the Nabî ar-Rah- ma (Prophet of Graciousness). O Muhammad, the most superior of Prophets! I begged my Rabb through your intercession. O my Rabb! Make that Exalted Prophet an in- tercessor for me!” While he prayed he stood in front of and faced the window of the Muwâjahat as- Sa’âda, the qibla being behind and the Minbar an Nabawî on his left.

The advice given to Khalîfa Mansûr by Hadrat Imâm Mâlik (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) shows that those who pray in front of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda should be very vigilant; it is not right for those who cannot show the modesty and respect appropriate for that place to stay long in al-Madinat al-Munawwara.

An Anatolian villager who had stayed and gotten married in al-Madinat al-munawwara and had been doing a certain service at the Hujrat as-Sa’âda for years, one day caught a feverish illness and longed for ayran (a cool drink made of yogurt and water). “I would have ayran made from yogurt and drink it, if I were in my village,” he thought to himself. That night, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) appeared in Shaikh al- Haram Effendi’s dream and ordered him to entrust that certain service done by the Anatolian villager to someone else. When he answered, “O Rasûlullah! A person from your umma is in that service,” the Prophet ordered, Tell that person to go to his village and drink ayran!” in reply. The villager said, “As you command!” and set out for his country when the order was communicated to him the next day.

Hence, it should be realized that if a mere thought would cause such a loss, what great a loss will happen -may Allah forbid- because of an unsuitable word or an action unconformable to âdâb, even if it is a joke.

The importance of saying salawât-i sherîfa

It is one of our most important duties to recite salawât-i sherîfa on our Master, the Prophet “Sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam” as an expression of respect whenever his name is heard or written. The 56th âyat-i karîma of the Ahzab Sûra of the Qur’ân al-karîm purports, “Verily Allahu ta’âlâ and His angels say salât for the Prophet (They exalt his glory). O the believers! You too say salât to him and submit yourself to him with sincerity.”

The scholars of tafsîr (science of interpretation of the Qur’ân al-karîm) have in- formed that the word “salât”, mentioned in the above âyat-i karîma, means rahmat (compassion) from Allahu ta’âlâ, istighfâr (praying for forgiveness) from the angels and duâ (prayer) from the Muslims. All Islamic scholars have unanimously said that it is wâjib to say the (certain prayer) Salawât (pronounced as a benediction over our Prophet’s soul) each time one says, hears, reads or writes (one of his blessed names) for the first time, and it is mustahâb to pronounce this blessed benediction whenever the blessed name (of the Prophet) is repeated.

He who wants something from Allahu ta’âlâ should first start by making hamd-u- thanâ (laud, praise and gratitude) to Allahu ta’âlâ and then say salât for our Master Rasûlullah. Such a prayer is worthy of being accepted. The prayer with two salâts (at the beginning and in the end of the prayer) is not rejected.

Hadrat Abû Talha said, “Once when I was in the presence of Rasûlullah, I noticed that he was more glad and pleased than I had ever seen him before. When I asked the reason for it, he said, “How could I not be happy? A short while ago Jabrâil (’alaihi’s-salâm) brought glad tidings. Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, ‘When one of your Community recites one salawât on you; Allahu ta’âlâ recites ten salawât in return’.”373

373 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 102; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, II, 399.

Some of the hadîth-i sherîfs about this are as below:

“May the nose of he, who does not recite salât-u-salâm on me when my name is mentioned near him, be rubbed into the ground. May the nose of he, who fails to attain the mercy of Allahu ta’âlâ as the month of Ramadan comes and goes, be rubbed into the ground too. And the nose of he, who reaches the time of his parents’ old age and cannot deserve entering Paradise by gaining their consent, be rubbed into the ground.”

“The one, who does not recite salât-u-salâm on me when my name is mentioned near him, is the stingiest one among the most stingy.”

Hadrat Abû Humaid as-Saidi says, “Some of the Sahâba-i kirâm asked to our Mas- ter, Rasûlullah and said, “O Rasûlullah! How shall we recite salât-u-salâm on you?” Our Master Rasûlullah said, “Allâhumma salli alâ Muhammadin wa azwâjihi wa zurriyatihi kemâ sallayta alâ Ibrâhîma wa bârik alâ Muhammadin wa azwâjihi wa zurriyatihi kemâ bârakta alâ Ibrâhîma innaka hamîdun majîd.”374

Some of the salawât-i sherîfas are as below:

“’alaihi’s-salâm”, “Sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam”, “Allâhumma salli ’alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammad”, “Allâhumma salli ’alâ Muhammadin wa ’alâ âli Muhammad, kemâ sal- layta ’alâ Ibrâhîma wa ’alâ âli Ibrâhîm…”, “Allâhumma salli ’alâ Muhammadin wa ’alâ Âlihî wa Sahbihî ajma’în”, “Alaihissalâtu wassalâmu wattahiyya” “’alaihi wa ’alâ jami’i minassalawâti atammuhâ wa minattahiyyati aymanuha.”

Someone related as follows: One of my friends had written “sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam tasliman kathiran kathira” in every place where the blessed name of Rasûlullah is mentioned in the letter he sent. When I saw him and asked why he did so, he said, “I wrote hadîth books when I was young. I would not write salawât after writing the blessed name of Rasûlullah. I saw the Master of the worlds in my dream and went to him. However he turned his face away from me. As I moved to the other side, he again turned his face away.

When I stood in front of him and said, ‘O Rasûlullah! Why are you turning your face away from me?’ he replied, ‘Because you did not write salât when you wrote my name in your book!’ Since then I have been writing his blessed name always with salât.”

It was declared in hadîth-i sherîfs; “If someone sends one salât to me, Allahu ta’âlâ sends ten salâts (compassion) to him, forgives ten sins of his and promotes his rank ten fold”

On the Day of Judgment, “The one who will be the closest to me and will de- serve my intercession the most; is the one who has recited the most salât on me.”

374 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XII, 434.

Haqq ta’âlâ said to Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) ’alaihi’s-salâm, “O Mûsâ, do you want Me to be closer to your tongue than your words, closer to your heart than your thoughts, closer to your body than your soul and closer to your eyes than their light?” When he said, “Yes, O my Rabb!” Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “Then recite many salawât on Muhammad (Sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).” Allahu ta’âlâ said, “O Mûsâ, do you want to not suffer thirst on the Day of Judgment?” When he said, “Yes, O my Rabb!” Allahu ta’âlâ decreed, “Then recite many salawât on Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).”375

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said;

“Those who will be the closest ones to me in every rank on the Day of Judgment will be the ones who have recited many salawâts on me in the world. Whomever recites one hundred salawâts on me on Friday and Friday evening, Allahu ta’âlâ satisfies one hundred needs. Of these needs, seventy belong to the Hereafter and thirty to the world. Then Allahu ta’âlâ sends those salâts to my grave by means of an angel. They are like gifts that you receive. That angel informs me of the name, descent and tribe of the sender and records it on a white sheet which is with me. My knowing after my death is like my knowing while I am alive.”376

“On Thursdays, Allahu ta’âlâ sends angels having silver books and golden pens with them. They record those who recite many salât on the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) on the day of Thursday and Friday evening (the night be- tween Thursday and Friday).”

“When two Muslims meet each other, if they make musâfaha (shake hands in a manner prescribed by Islam) and recite salawât on the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), their previous and future sins are forgiven.”

“When one of you enters the masjid, let him say salâm to the Prophet and say, O my Rabb! Protect me from Satan!”377

According to another narration, “When he goes out, let him say, Allahumma innî as’aluka min fadlika.”

If there is no thanâ (praise) to Allahu ta’âlâ and no salawât to Rasûlullah at the beginning of the duâ (prayer), the duâ stays behind a curtain. Duâ with praise and salawât at its beginning is accepted.

Unless salawât is recited on Rasûlullah and his family, there is a curtain between the prayer and the sky. When salawât is recited, that curtain is torn and the prayer ascends to the sky. In case the salawât is not recited, the prayer comes back.

If the name of Allahu ta’âlâ is not mentioned and no salât is recited on Rasûlullah in a gathering, a whip stands ready over the attendants and it either torments or forgives them.

When you have ringing in you ears, remember me and recite salât on me.

He who intends to start a task should consult regarding that matter. Allahu ta’âlâ will grant him discretion in his task. In case one wants to say a word but forgets it, let him recite salât on me.378

375 Abû Nu’aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyâ, VI, 33.
376 Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, III, 111; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, LIV, 301.
377 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, I, 374; VII, 124; Abû Nu’aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyâ, VIII, 139.
378 Tirmidhî, “Fitan”, 78; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, III, 457.

In case a beneficial action is started without mentioning the name of Allahu ta’âlâ and reciting salât on me, it is interrupted and its benediction will be removed.379

After the demise of Hadrat Abû Hafs Kaghidî, one of the notables in Islam, some- one saw him in his dream and asked, “How did Allahu ta’âlâ treat you?” He said, “He showed mercy, forgave me and put me in Paradise.” The man asked, “What was the reason?” He replied, “He stopped me among the angels. They counted my sins and my salawâts on Rasûlullah and found my salawâts more than my sins. Then Allahu ta’âlâ decreed to His angels: O My angels! Your task is over. Do not ask anything else. Take him to My Paradise!”

Someone from Salaf (as-Sâlihîn) relates: One of my friends, with whom I was learning hadîth, died. In my dream, I saw him wearing green garments of Paradise. When I asked its reason, he said, “I would write ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ near Rasûlullah’s name that I saw in every hadîth. Allahu ta’âlâ rewarded that deed of mine with this.”

Again someone from Salaf (as-Sâlihîn) relates: One of my neighbors, who was a clerk, died. I saw him in my dream and asked him how Allahu ta’âlâ had treated him. He told me that Allahu ta’âlâ had forgiven him. When I asked its reason he said, “For, every time when I wrote Rasûlullah’s name, I wrote the words ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ next to it.”

Abû Sulaiman Dârâni relates: When I was writing hadîth, I would write “sall-Allâhu ’alaih,” however I wouldn’t write “wa sallam” after stating the blessed name of our Prophet. I saw him in my dream. He asked, “O Abâ Sulaiman! When you write my name in hadîth, write also “wa sallam” with the salât. It consists of four letters. There are ten rewards for each letter. If you don’t write, it means that you give up forty rewards.” There was another person having the same habit. Rasûlullah said to him in his dream, “What happened to you that you do not completely write the salât on me?”

Abû Bakr-i Siddiq said, “Let those who fear losing their memory recite many salawâts on Rasûlullah.”

Muhammad bin Said Mutarrif, one of the notables of devoted Muslims relates: I would recite a certain amount of salawâts when I was going to bed every night. One night, I saw Rasûlullah in my dream. He came in. My room was filled with nûr. Then he approached me and said, “Let me kiss your mouth with which you recite many salawâts on me.” However I felt ashamed to extend my mouth. Then I extended my cheek. He kissed with his blessed mouth. I awoke with dread. My room was filled with the smell of musk. The scent on my cheek did not remove for eight days.

When Hallad bin Kathîr, one of the prominent Salaf (as-Sâlihîn), passed away; a piece of paper was found under his head. Written on the paper was, “It is Hallad bin Kathîr’s warrant of salvation from Hell.” Then they asked his relatives what his deed was. They said, “He used to recite salawât every Friday.”

379 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 359; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, XI, 163.

In Sheikh Aynî’s book Zaynu’l-Majalis, it is written: “On the Day of Judgment, except for three groups of people, there will be no shade under the Arsh.” When he was asked who they are, our Prophet “sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam” said, “Those who resolve the problems of my Community, those who revive my sunnat and those who recite many salawâts on me.”

Sheikh Abû Mûsâ relates: We had been caught by a hurricane at sea. Everybody was crying with the fear of death. At that time I fell asleep. I saw Rasûl-i akram in my dream. He ordered me to inform those with me in the ship to recite, one thousand times, “Allâhumma salli ’alâ sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa ’alâ âli sayyidinâ Mu- hammad, salâtan tunjînâ bihâ min jamî’il ahwâli wal-âfât wa takdî lanâ bihâ jamî’al hâjât wa tutahhirunâ bihâ min jamî’is-sayyiât wa tarfa’unâ bihâ indaka a’lad-darajât wa tuballigunâ bihâ aksal-gâyât min jamî’il hayrâtî fil-hayâti wa ba’dal mamât.” We hadn’t even finished three hundred, when the storm began to calm down and finally we were out of danger. It was recommended that this salât should be recited during every important action and for every trouble, in calamities and earthquakes. There are more than forty hadîths in reliable books about how the salât should be. Some of them are as follows:

Allâhumma salli ’alâ Muhammadin wa ’alâ âli Muhammad, kemâ sallayta ’alâ Ibrâhîma wa ’alâ âli Ibrâhîm, wa bârik alâ Muhammadin wa alâ âli Muhammad, kemâ bârakta alâ Ibrâhîma wa ’alâ âli Ibrâhîm, innaka hamîdun majîd.

Allâhumma salli wa sallim wa bârik warham alâ sayyidinâ Muhammadin huwa sayyid-ul Arabi wal Ajam wa imâmi Makkat-il mukarramati wal Madînat-il munaw- warati wal haram. Allam-al insâne mâlam ya’lam.

Asluhu nûrun wa nasluhu Âdam. Ba’suhu muahharun wa halkuhu mukaddam. Ismuh-ush sharîfu maktûbun alal Lawh-il mahfûzi biyâkût-il kalam.

Wa jismuh-ush sharîfu madfûnun fil Madînat-il munawwarati wal haram. Yâ layta aktahilu turâballazî taht-al qadam.

Fa tûbâ summa tûbâ liman daâ wa tabiahu wa liman aslama sahib-ash shafâati lil âlamîn.

Kâilan yâ Rabbî! Sallim ummatî, ummatî wâ ummatâ yâz al lutfi wal karam.

Fa yunâd-il munâdî min kibal-ir Rahmân, kâbiltu shafâataka yâ Nabiyyal mu- htaram. Udhul-ul Jannata lâ hawfun alaikum walâ huznun walâ alam.

Thumma Radî-Allâhu ta’âlâ an Abî Bakrin wa ’Umara wa ’Uthmâna wa Aliyyin zil-Karam.

Wa sallallahu alâ sayyidinâ Muhammadin wal hamdu laka yâ Rabb-al âlamîn. Bi hurmeti Sayyid-il mursalîn.

He would sit on the ground, either on both his knees or with his one knee upright,
That source of generosity was full of respectfulness, secretly or openly.

He would eat by using his three fingers and lick them appetizingly,
That source of generosity would drink water in three breathes thirstily.

He would like eating honey, squash, vinegar and tirit food; but,
That source of generosity never ate barley bread until he was filled.

Sometimes he would tie a stone on his abdomen when he was hungry,
That source of generosity didn’t want his heart to be shaky.

They could not light a fire for cooking in his home of bliss for many months,
That source of generosity would eat date and pomegranate contentedly.

HILYA-I SA’ÂDET

(Traits and attributes of our beloved Prophet, Muham- mad “sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam”)

His blessed names and documentation

Among the names of our beloved Prophet, “Muhammad” is the one, which is said the most. It means to be greatly extolled and to be highly admired. This name is men- tioned four times, in the 144th âyat of Âl-i Imrân Sûra, in the 40th âyat of Ahzâb Sûra, in the 29th âyat of Fath Sûra and in the 22nd âyat of Muhammad Sûra. In the 6th âyat-i karîma of Saf Sûra, it is stated that Hadrat Isâ had informed his community about our Prophet by using his name “Ahmad,” which means “the one who highly praises and exalts Haqq ta’âlâ”. Besides the names of “Muhammad” and “Ahmad,” our beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is mentioned in the Qur’ân al-karîm as Mahmûd, Rasûl, Nabî, Shahid, Bashîr, Nazîr, Mubashshir, Munzîr, Dai-i ilallah, Siraj-i munîr, Raûf, Rahîm, Musaddiq, Muzaqqir, Muddassir, Abdullah, Karîm, Haq, Munîr, Nûr, Khâtam-un-Nabiyyîn, Rahmat, Nîmat, Hâdî, Tâhâ, Yâsin… Some of his other blessed names, which are not mentioned above, have been mentioned in the Qur’ân al-karîm, some in hadîth-i sherîfs and some in the Holy books, which were sent to the previous prophets.

Our Prophet’s names are mentioned in some of his hadîth-i sherîfs as below: Mahî, Âkib, Mukaffi, Nabiyyur-Rahma, Nabiyyut-Tawba, Nabiyy-ul-Mulahim, Qattal, Mu- tawakkil, Fatih, Khâtam, Mustafâ, Ummî, Qusam (the one who collected all blessings on himself).

In one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, our beloved Prophet said, “There are five names peculiar to me: I am Muhammad, I am Ahmad, I am Mahi’ with whom Allahu ta’âlâ demol- ishes disbelief. I am Hashr, that people will be resurrected after me on the Day of Judgment. I am Akib, after whom; there will be no other prophet.”380

380 Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, III, 436; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 230; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, I, 403.

Our beloved Prophet had been called also as “Abu’l Qâsim” due to his son Qâsim who was born from Hadrat Khadîja and died when he was a young child. Again, before his prophethood, due to his innumerable excellent virtues such as honesty, reliability, trustworthiness, he had been called as Al-Emîn among the Quraysh tribe.

One of our Master Rasûlullah’s names, which are mentioned in the Qur’ân al-karîm, is the word “Yâsin” in the Yâsin Sûra, the heart of the Qur’ân al-karîm. Hadrat Sayyid Abdulhakîm-i Arwâsî, one of the notables of ’Ulamâ-i Râsihîn, said, “Yâsin means, O My beloved who is the diver of My Sea of Muhabbat (Love).”

Besides the many pieces of poetry and eulogies written, praising our Master, the Prophet; there are many books, which have been written about him. Among the au- thors who wrote these, even the ones, whose fame and skills have spread worldwide for centuries, acknowledged that they were unable to praise Rasûlullah. Those who saw him and fell in love with his beauty, tried to describe him as best they could and said that human power is unable to describe his beauty.

Hilya-i Sa’âdat

Hilya-i Sa’âdat describes the appearance of Habîb-i akram sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam.

Scholars of Islam have openly written all the visible limbs of Muhammad ’alai- his-salâm, his shape, attributes, beautiful habits and his entire life in detail, by indicating proofs and documents. This knowledge had been collected from the hadîth-i sherîfs, which are his sayings and from those conveyed by his Companions. The books, which contain them, are called siyar books. The most well-known books, which explain our Master, the Prophet’s Hilya-i Sa’âdat, of these thousands of siyar books, are “Ash-Shamâil-ur-Rasûl” by Imâm-i Tirmizî, “Shifâ-i sharîf” of Qadi Iyâd, “Dalâil-un Nubuwwa” books by Imâm Bayhaqî and Abû Nuaym Isfahânî and “Mawâhib-i Ladunniya” by Hadrat Imâm-i Qastalânî.

Hilya-i Sa’âdat of our beloved Prophet is described in the hadîth-i sherîfs and in the reports conveyed by his Companions as below:

The blessed face and all the blessed limbs and the blessed voice of Fakhr-i kâinât (our beloved Prophet Hadrat Muhammad [sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam]) were more beautiful than the faces and limbs and voices of all other people. His blessed face was roundish. When he was cheerful, his blessed face used to shine like the moon.381 It would be evident by his blessed forehead that he was pleased. Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) used to see during the night just as well as he saw during the day. He used to see what was behind him just as he saw what was in front of him. When he would look towards one side or look around, he used to turn with all his body and then look. He used to look at the earth more than he looked at the sky. His blessed eyes were large. His blessed eye-lashes were long. There was a certain amount of reddish color in the white of his blessed eyes. The iris of his blessed eye was extremely black.

381 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 459; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 605; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 242.

At nights he used to put kohl on his blessed eyes. Fakhr-i âlam had a broad forehead. His blessed eye brows were thin. His eye-brows were apart from each other. The vein between his two eyebrows used to swell when he became angry. His blessed nose was extremely beautiful and was a little higher in the middle. His blessed head was large. His blessed mouth was not small. His blessed teeth were white. His blessed front teeth were amply spaced. When he would speak, it used to sound as if radiance (nur) was coming from between his teeth. Among the slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ, no one has been seen with a more eloquent or sweeter speech than his. His blessed words used to be understood easily, pleasing hearts and attracting souls. When he spoke, his words used to string like pearls. Had someone wanted to count his words, it would have been pos- sible to count them. Sometimes, he used to repeat something three times in order that it might be understood well. In Paradise everybody will speak like Hadrat Muhammad ‘alalihis-salâm. His blessed voice could reach a distance which no one else’s could. Fakhr-i âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was affable. He used to smile pleasantly. When he smiled, his blessed front teeth used to be seen. When he smiled, his blessed radiance used to enlighten the walls. His weeping was silent like his smiling. As he never burst out laughing, so he never used to cry loudly; but when he became sad, his blessed eyes would shed tears and the sound of his blessed chest would be heard. He used to weep when thinking of the sins of his Ummat [that is, Muslims], and he used to weep out of fear of Allahu ta’âlâ. He also wept when he heard the Qur’ân al-karîm and, sometimes, when performing namâz (ritual prayer).

Fakhr-i âlam’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) blessed fingers were large. His bless- ed arms were fleshy. His blessed palms were wide. The scent of his entire body was more odorous than the most beautiful musk. His blessed body was both soft and strong. Anas bin Mâlik says, “I served Rasûlullah for ten years. His blessed hands were softer than silk. His blessed sweat was more odorous than the most fragrant scent or than any flower. His blessed arms, feet and fingers were long. His blessed toes were large. The arch of his foot was not too high and was soft. His blessed abdomen was wide and his chest and his abdomen did not exceed each other. The bone at the point of his shoulder was big. His blessed chest was wide; his qalb-i sharîf (blessed heart) was nazargâh-i ilâhî (a place of Divine Sight).”

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was not too tall, nor was he short. When someone came near him, Rasûlullah would look taller than that person. When he sat, his blessed shoulders would he higher than all of those who sat near him.

His hair and the hairs of his beard were not too curly, nor too straight, but they were undulate from his creation. His blessed hair was long. Formerly he used to have a ringlet of hair in front, later he parted his hair into two. Sometimes he used to grow his blessed hair long, and sometimes he used to have it cut and shortened. He didn’t use to dye his hair and beard. When he passed away the white hairs in his hair and beard were less than twenty. He used to trim his blessed moustache. The length and the shape of his moustache were as much as and like his blessed eye brows. He had private barbers in his service. He used to look in a mirror when he combed his blessed hair and beard. Fakhr-i kâinat used to walk fast while looking down at the ground in front of him. When he went past a place, he would be recognized by his odorous scent. Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) always had his miswâk and his comb with him. He (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was an Arab. Fakhr-i âlam had a white complexion mixed with red, and was extremely handsome with a blessed and lovable appearance. If a person says that the Prophet was black, he becomes a disbeliever.

The lexical meaning of “Arab” is “beautiful.” For instance, “lisân-i Arab” means “beautiful language”. In the geographical sense, “Arab” means the person who was born on the Arabian Peninsula and who grew up in its climate with its water and food and who is of the blood of its people. As those of Anatolian blood are called Turks, those who are born and raised in Bulgaria are called Bulgarians and those in Germany German; likewise, Rasûlullah is an Arab because he was born in Arabia. Arabs were white, a wheat colored complexion. Especially the family of our Prophet (Muhammad ’alaihi’s-salâm) was white and very beautiful. As a matter of fact, their ancestor Had- rat Ibrâhîm (Abraham) had a white complexion and was the son of a believer named Târuh, who was one of the inhabitants of the city of Basra. Âzer, who was a disbeliever, was not Hadrat Ibrâhim’s (’alaihi’s-salâm) father. He was his uncle and stepfather.

The fame of Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) father, Abdullah, had spread outward even to Egypt due to his beauty and owing to the blessed light on his forehead; almost two hundred girls had come to Mecca in order to marry him. But, Hadrat Muhammad’s sacred light fell to Âmina’s lot.

His uncle Abbâs and Abbâs’ son Abdullah shared his white complexion. Also, our Prophet’s descendants until the end of the world will be beautiful and white. Rasûlullah’s Ashâb were white and beautiful, too. Hadrat ’Uthmân was white with blond hair. Dihya-i Kelebî, the ambassador whom Rasûlullah used to send to the Emperor of Byzantium, Heraclius, was very handsome, and as he went around on the streets of Istanbul, the Byzantine girls used to rush out into the streets in order to see his face. Hadrat Jabrâil (Gabriel) usually came in the guise of Hadrat Dihya (radî- Allâhu ’anh).

The natives of Egypt, Syria, Africa, Sicily and Spain are not Arabs. But, since the Arabs came to these places after having migrated from the Arabian Peninsula in order to spread Islam all over the world, there are Arabs in these lands, too. Likewise, they exist in Anatolia, India and other countries. But, today, none of the citizens of these countries can be called Arabs.

The people of Egypt have a slightly dark complexion. The people of Ethiopia are black and are called Habesha. The people of Zanzibar are called Zanzibaris, and they are also black. It is an act of worship to love and respect our Prophet’s relatives, descendants. Every Muslim loves them. Black people who came to Asia Minor as visitors, introduced themselves as Arabs in order to receive respect and kindness, and the credulous Anatolian Muslims believed and loved them. This was due to the fact that black and the white weren’t looked upon differently in terms of this love. A black

Muslim is far more superior, dearer, and more lovable than a white disbeliever. To be black does not diminish the value of îmân (faith) for any person. Some of Rasûlullah’s Ashâb were black. Hadrat Bilâl-i Habashî and Usâma, whom the Prophet loved very much, were black. But such disbelievers as Abû Lahab and Abû Jahl, whose evil and baseness are known by everybody, were white. Allahu ta’âlâ judges a man not with regard to his color, but with respect to the strength of his îmân and taqwâ (Taqwâ is to abstain from harâms by fearing Allahu ta’âlâ). However, the enemies of Islam, the Jews, introduced blacks as if they are of a low class and horrible. They used them as slaves. On the other hand, by calling black pets such as cats and dogs ‘Arab’ and by referring to the blacks in their pictures, cartoons, magazines and newspapers as Arabs, they tried to misrepresent the Arabs to our youth as badly as they could in order to alienate Muslim children from our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).

All the beautiful habits were accumulated in Rasûlullah. His beautiful habitsiş were given to him by Allahu ta’âlâ; he did not acquire them later by striving. He never cursed a Muslim by mentioning his name, nor did he hit anybody with his blessed hand. He never took revenge for himself. He used to avenge for Allah’s sake. He used to treat his relatives, companions and servants well and modestly. He was very mild and cheerful in his home. He used to visit the sick and attend funerals. He used to help his companions with their work and take their children on his lap. Yet his heart wasn’t busy with them. His blessed soul was in the world of angels.

Fear would grasp a person who saw Rasûlullah suddenly. If he hadn’t behaved mildly, no one could have sat near him, no one could have had the strength to listen to him, ow- ing to his state of being a prophet. However, out of bashfulness, he himself would never look at anybody in the face with his blessed eyes. Fakhr-i âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was the most generous of human beings. He had never been heard to say, “I don’t have,” about something asked from him. If he had the thing asked for, he gave it; if he didn’t have it, he didn’t answer. The Prophet had so many great attributes and had done so many favors for so many people that the Eastern Roman emperors, the Persian shahs and any other ruler could not do enough to compete with him. But he himself liked to live in inconvenience. He led such a life that he would not even remember to eat or drink. He never used words like “Bring something to eat,” or “Cook such and such food.” He used to eat when they brought the meal to him, and he used to accept whatever fruit they gave him. Sometimes he ate very little for months, and he liked hunger. And sometimes he ate much. He wouldn’t drink water after meals. He used to drink water while sitting.382 When he ate with others, he used to stop eating after everybody had finished.383 He used to accept presents from everybody. In response to someone who had brought him a present, he used to give much more.

382 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, p, 318.
383 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, p, 319.

It was his habit to wear various clothes. When ambassadors from foreign countries came, he used to adorn himself. That is, he used to wear precious and beautiful clothes and expose his beautiful face. He wore a silver ring with an agate. He used his ring as a seal. “Muhammadun Rasûlullah” was written on his ring. His bed was made of leather filled with shredding from palm date trees. Sometimes he laid on the bed and sometimes on leather laid on the ground, on a mat and sometimes on dry soil. He laid on his right side putting his blessed palm under his right cheek.384 Rasûlullah (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) didn’t accept zakât, and he didn’t eat such things as raw onions or garlic, and he didn’t recite poems.

Sarwar-î âlam’s (Muhammad ’alaihi’s-salâm) blessed eyes used to sleep, but his blessed heart would not sleep. He used to go to bed hungry, but he would feel satiat- ed when he got up. He never yawned. His blessed body was luminous, and he never cast a shadow on the ground. Flies didn’t alight on his clothes, nor would mosquitoes or other insects suck his blessed blood. When he was informed Allahu ta’âlâ that he is Rasûlullah (Allah’s Messenger), satans could not ascend to the sky and could no longer get any news, nor could soothsayers make omens. Our Master Sarwar-i âlam (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is now alive in a life we do not understand. His blessed body never decays. An angel stays in his tomb and informs him of the prayers which his Ummat (Muslims) say for him. Between his pulpit and his blessed tomb is a place called Rawda-i-mutahhara. This place is one of the gardens of Paradise. It is one of the greatest and most valuable of worships to visit his blessed tomb.

Notables of the Ashâb-i kirâm related the beauty of our Master, the Prophet as be- low: Abû Hurayra said, “I have never seen anybody more beautiful than Rasûlullah. It was as if the sun was shining on his face with all its radiance. When he smiled, his blessed teeth would enlighten the walls.”

Ibn-i Abî Hâla said, “The blessed face of our Master, the Prophet used to shine like the full moon.”

Hadrat Ali said, “Fear would grasp a person who saw Rasûlullah suddenly. Those who had conversation and became acquainted with him would soon warm towards him?

Jâbir bin Samura said, “Rasûlullah rubbed his blessed hand on my face. His hand, as if it had been newly taken out of the sack of an herbalist, had a beautiful scent which cooled me. If our Master Rasûlullah would touch his hand to someone else’s hand for musâfaha (shaking hands in a manner prescribed by Islam), that beautiful scent would not remove from that person’s hand that day.”385

Our mother Hadrat Âisha said, “When Rasûlullah caressed a child’s hair, that child would be distinguished amongst others, due to his scent.”386

384 Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 358.
385 Muslim, “Fazâil”, 120; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, II, 228; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 68; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, II, 74.
386 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 68.

One day, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was sleeping at home. Anas bin Mâlik’s mother, Umm-i Sulaym, came. While sleeping, drops of sweat appeared on the blessed face of our Master Rasûlullah. Then Umm-i Sulaym started to wipe the blessed sweat of our Master, the Prophet. When our Master, the Prophet woke up and asked why she was doing so; Umm-i Sulaym, the sister of our Prophet’s wet nurse said, “We are adding it to our scents. Your sweat is the most beautiful and pleas- ant-smelling one among the scents.”387

387 Muslim, “Fazâil”, 125; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 221; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XXV, 119; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, I, 254.

Abû Hurayra said, “I have never seen anybody who walked faster than Rasûlullah. As if the ground would roll up to him. While walking with him, we would exert ourselves.”

Our Master, the Prophet used to speak very well. He knew perfectly how to start and finish his speaking. His words were so clear in his manner of speaking and eminently fluent. The truth of the meaning in his speech and words would always reveal them- selves. Since his words had high power of expression, he would never be tired or have trouble expressing himself.

The beauty of our Master, the Prophet

The great Islamic scholars, called Ulamâ-i râsihîn, who are the inheritors of our Master, the Prophet and have deep knowledge in both zâhir (apparent) and bâtin (concealed) knowledge; have seen our Prophet with all his beauties and fallen in love with him. Abû Bakr-i Siddîq is the first one among them. He fell in love with our Master, the Prophet by seeing his light of prophethood and comprehending the superiority, beauty and highness of Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam. He progressed in this love of his so much that nobody else could be like him. Hadrat Abû Bakr would see our Master Rasûlullah at any moment at every place he was looking. Once he explained his state by saying, “O Rasûlullah! I always see you wherever I look!” And another time, he said, “I can exchange all my good deeds for one of your errors.” Had- rat Âisha, the mother of Muslims, was one of the people who had seen, understood and explained the beauty of our Master Rasûlullah in the best way. Hadrat Âisha was scholarly, mujtahid, wise, intelligent and lettered. She would speak eloquently and elegantly. She used to know the purports of the Qur’ân al-karîm, the halâl (permitted) and harâm (forbidden), the Arabic poems and the science of calculation very well. She had several poems which eulogize Rasûlullah. The following two couplets were composed by our mother Hadrat Âisha;

Wa law samî’u fî Misra awsâfa haddihî; Lamâ bazalû fî sawmi Yûsufa min nakdin. Lawîmâ Zalîhâ law Raaina jabînahû, La âsarna bilkat’il Qulûbi alal aydî.”

Its translation;

“If the people in Egypt had heard of the beauty of his (our Master, the Prophet’s) cheeks; they would not have given any money for Yûsuf ’alaihi’s-salâm (whose beauty has been resounded), that is, they would have kept all their money in order to see his cheeks. If those women, who reviled against Zalîhâ by saying that she had fallen in love with Yûsuf ’alaihi’s-salâm, had seen the shining forehead of Rasûlullah; they would have cut their hearts instead of their hands and would have not felt it.”

Our mother Hadrat Âisha relates, “One day Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sal- lam’ was unfastening the straps of his blessed sandals and I was spinning yarn. I looked at his blessed face. Sweat was dropping from his bright forehead. And each drop of sweat was spreading light all around. They were dazzling my eyes. I was bewildered. He looked at me. ‘What is the matter with you? What makes you so pensive,’ he asked. I said, ‘O the Messenger of Allah! Looking at the brightness of the haloes on your blessed face and the lights spread by the drops of sweat on your blessed forehead, I have lost myself.’ Rasûlullah stood up and came near me. He kissed between my eyes and said, ‘Yâ Âisha (O Âisha)! May Allahu ta’âlâ bless you with goodness! I have not been able to please you the way you have pleased me.’ That is, he said, ‘Your pleasing me has been more than my pleasing you’.” His kissing between Hadrat Âisha’s blessed eyes meant awarding and honoring her for her loving the Messenger of Allah, seeing and recognizing his beauty.

Apparent beauties, which were gathered on the blessed body of Rasûl-i akram sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam and showing the internal beauties, have not been gathered on any other individual’s body. Hadrat Imâm-i Qurtubî had related as follows: “The beauty of our Master Rasûl-i akram were not seen completely. If his real beauty had been seen, the Ashâb-i kirâm could not have endured looking at him. If he had shown his real beauty, nobody could have endured looking at him.”

Yûsuf ’alaihi’s-salâm appeared to people with his apparent beauties and our Master Rasûlullah appeared to people with his internal beauties. As the beauty of Yûsuf ’alaihi’s-salâm was seen, the hands were cut. With the kamâl (inner excellence) of our Master Rasûlullah, zunnârs (rope girdles worn by Christian priests) were cut, idols were broken and the clouds of disbelief dispersed.

The Ashâb-i kirâm asked our Master, the Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! Are you or was Yûsuf ’alaihi’s-salâm more beautiful?” He said, “My brother Yûsuf is more beautiful than me and I am more attractive than he. His visible beauty is more than my visible beauty.”

Our Master, the Prophet said in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, “Every prophet, sent by Allahu ta’âlâ, has a beautiful face and a beautiful voice. As for your Prophet, he is the one who has the most beautiful face and the most beautiful voice among them.”

One of the names of our Master Rasûlullah sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam is the word “Yâsîn” that is mentioned in the Yâsîn Sûra, which is the heart of the Qur’ân al-karîm. Sayyid Abdulhakîm-i Arwâsî, one of the notables of Ulamâ-i râsihîn said,

“Yâsîn means, ‘O My Beloved who is the diver of My Ocean of Love’.” All of those who have heard of the name of this ocean, who have seen it from a distance, who have come near it and who have dived into it as deep as their shares; have ached with the love of Rasûlullah at every phase of their lives and expressed their love through sorrowful writings, sentimental tears and poignant verses. Of those people, Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Bagdadî is one of the most notable and famous persons who had gained a large share from that Ocean of Love. He wrote in one of his eulogies, in which he expressed his muhabbat (love) for our Master Rasûlullah, as follows:

I am burning with your love, O the Sarwar-i âlam!
I am always looking for your beauty, wherever I am.

I am nothing, you are the Sultân of the Qâba Qawsayn throne,
I deem it disrespectfulness to say that I am your guest.

Everything in this universe has been created for your sake,
When your mercy rains down on me, it is the time of my spring.

Everyone comes to Hedjaz to circumambulate the Kâ’ba,
I climb over the mountains with the enthusiasm of reaching to you.

I saw in my dream that I was crowned by the crown of bliss,
I suppose the soil of your foot dusted on my face.

O Jâmî, who is the nightingale of the lovers who praise your friend,
These excerpts express my feelings from your book of poetry:

“Like a dog which has mange and extremely thirsty,
I long for a drop from your sea of generosity.”

Besides the poems and eulogies, written in parts and which praise our Master, the Prophet; there are many books, which have been written about him. Among these writers, even those, whose fame and skills have spread worldwide for centuries, ac- knowledged that they were unable to praise Rasûlullah. Those who saw him and fell in love with his beauty, tried to describe him as best as they could and said that it is beyond human power to describe his beauty. Hundreds of reports narrated by those lovers, are written about in the books of Islamic scholars. Those who read them, im- mediately understand that Allahu ta’âlâ created His Beloved Prophet in such an un- imaginable order and with such a beauty that the people who saw him, could not take their eyes off him. People set their hearts on him without seeing him. Those who love Habîbullah, feel the taste of his love within the coolness of the air that goes in their lungs in every breath. At their every glance at the moon, they feel pleasure by seeking the reflections of the rays which have come from his blessed eyes. Each atom of those, who have reached even one drop of water from the ocean of his beauty, say;

“He who saw your beautiful cheek, Will never look at a rose,
He who melted in your love, Will not seek a remedy!”

It was declared in a hadîth-i sherîf conveyed by Anas bin Mâlik, “None of you will have a complete faith in me, unless he loves me more than his children, his father and all the people.”388

One day Hadrat ’Umar said to our Master, the Prophet, “O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ that you are more lovable than everything except my life to me.” Then our Master Rasûlullah said, “If a person does not love me more than his own life, his îmân is incomplete.” Thereupon Hadrat ’Umar said, “O Rasûlullah! I swear by Allahu ta’âlâ Who has sent the Qur’ân al-karîm to you that you are more lovable than my life to me.” Then our Master, the Prophet said, “O ’Umar, now it is all right.”

Someone came and said to our Master Rasûlullah, “O the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ! When will Judgment Day be?” Our Master, the Prophet asked him, “What have you prepared for Judgment Day?” He replied, “Yes, I have not prepared my- self for Judgment Day by performing an abundance of prayer, fasting or giving alms, However I love Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger.” Thereupon our Master, the Prophet said, “One will be with whom one loves.”389

388 Muslim, “Iman”, 76; Nasâî, “Iman”, 19; Ibn Maja, “Muqaddima”, 9; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 207; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 528.
389 Bukhârî, “Ahkâm”, 10; Tirmidhî, “Zuhd”, 50; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 104; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XI, 186, Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 77.

It is fard-i ayn for all Muslims to love Rasûlullah. If the love of that Sayyid takes place in one’s heart, it becomes very easy to live in accordance with Islam, to reach the taste and pleasure of faith and Islam. This love causes one to completely abide by the Master of both worlds. With this love, one is honored to reach the endless and indefinable blessings and benedictions that Allahu ta’âlâ granted to His Messenger. The Ahl-i sunnat scholars and their books are the proofs of these benedictions which directly take all Muslims to the love of Rasûlullah.

It is wajib for a Muslim who mentions or hears the blessed name of Rasûl ’alai- his-salâm to stay quietly, decently and reverently at heart and bodily, as if he were present in the audience of Rasûlullah.

It is out of reverence and respect to our Prophet, to respond to anything from his blessed words or behaviors, in a way which exalts his glory. It is compatible with reverence toward him to not describe Rasûlullah by the words which are used for low status people.

For example Rasûlullah is not called poor or herdsman. It is out of reverence not to say, “However, I don’t like that” when it is said, “Our Master Rasûlullah liked so-and- so.” It is also due to reverence, not to say, “I eat while leaning against somewhere” and not to act in that way in return for our Master Rasûl-i akram’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) saying, “I never eat while leaning against somewhere.” 390 It is included in the reverence to Rasûlullah to pay attention these facts. Not to pay attention to them purposely will cause one to fall into disbelief.

It is also due to reverence to Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger not to put any house- hold goods on the Qur’ân al-karîm and hadîth-i sherîf books. It is due to reverence to Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger to dust off these books and not to throw away paper which bears the blessed names of Allahu ta’âlâ or our Master Rasûlullah.

Such papers should not be torn. One should show more respect to the papers which bear Islamic letters. In case the books and papers, which bear the names of Allahu ta’âlâ and âyat-i karîmas, are torn due to aging; they should be wrapped in clean cloth and then buried or the writings on these papers should be removed by washing with water or they should be burnt. When they are burnt, the ashes are buried. Burning is better than removing the writings by washing. Because the water used for washing can be trodden under foot.

Showing respect to Madina-i munawwara, which is the harem of Rasûlullah ‘alai- his-salâm, avoiding prohibited things there (or committing any sins) and doing fa- vors to the people of Madina-i munawwara are regarded as reverence to Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm.

Let the lovers burn with your love O Rasûlullah,
Let them quaff the drink of love O Rasûlullah.

That person who loves you is ready to sacrifice his head on your way,
You are the sun of both worlds O Rasûlullah.

Be the intercessor for those who love you,
You are the zeal for believers O Rasûlullah.

I love that face, I am the nightingale of that rosary,
May those who don’t love you be burnt O Rasûlullah.

Who he loves you becomes a Sultan
May my life be sacrificed for your path O Rasûlullah.

For the soul of Darwish Yunus, intercede
You are the sultan of both worlds O Rasûlullah.

390 Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, S, 81; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 877.

lineHIS SUPERIORITIES

Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ Beautiful Moral Qualities and Habits

Allahu ta’âlâ, while pleasing the blessed heart of His beloved Prophet by enumer- ating a series of the virtues and blessings which He has given to him, also counted the beautiful morals which He bestowed upon him, “You have been created with a beautiful disposition.” Hadrat Akrama said that he had heard from Abdullah Ibni Abbâs that his “Khuluq-i ’azîm”, that is, beautiful ethics, are the beautiful moral qualities declared by the Qur’ân al-kerîm. It was declared in the ayât, “You are with khuluq-i-’azîm.” (Qalam Sûra: 4) ‘Khuluq-i ’azîm’ means ‘to have secrets with Al- lahu ta’âlâ and to be kindhearted towards people.’ The beautiful nature of Hadrat Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ was the reason for the conversion of many people to Islam .

His words were so sweet that they pleased hearts and attracted souls. His intellect was so great that, though coming from among the very violent and obstinate people of the Arabic Peninsula, he handled them very well, endured their torments and thus brought them to tenderness and obedience. Many of them abandoned their religions and converted to Islam; for the cause of Islam, they even fought against their fathers and children. For his (the Prophet’s) sake, they sacrificed their possessions and homes and shed their own blood. As a matter of fact, they had not accustomed to such things. He was so good tempered, so tender, so forgiving, so patient, so kind and so benev- olent that everybody admired him. Those who saw him and listened to him became Muslims willingly. No unseemliness or defect was ever noted in any of his actions, in any of his words. For his own sake, he never became offended with anybody, he was harsh and severe against those who spoke ill of or laid hands on the religion.

Thousands of miracles of Hadrat Muhammad were seen; enemy or friend, every- body spoke about them. Of these miracles, the most valuable were his high man- ners and beautiful habits. Hadrat Abû Sa’id-i Khudrî ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anh’ said, “Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ would give grass to an animal. He would fasten a camel. He would sweep his house. He would milk the sheep. He would re- pair his shoes. He would patch his under garments.391

391 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 877.

He would eat with his servant. When his servant became tired of grinding with small millstones, he would help him. He would go shopping and bring what he had bought in a sack to his home. When he met somebody, he would be the first to greet, whether they were poor or rich, young or old. He, first, would hold out his blessed hand when he wanted to make musâfaha (shake hands in a manner prescribed by Islam). He regarded the servant, the master, the black and the white as equal. He would go wherever he was invited, no matter who invited him. He would not despise what was put in front of him to eat, even if it were only a little. He would not reserve meals from evening to morning or from morning to evening. He was good-natured. He liked to do favors. He maintained good relations with everybody. He was affable and he spoke pleasantly. He would not laugh as he spoke. He would look sorrowful, but he would not frown. He was modest, but he was not low-natured. He was majestic; that is, he would inspire respect and awe. But he was not harsh. He was polite. He was generous, but he would not waste, nor would he give anything in vain. He would pity everybody. He always bent his blessed head forward. He would not expect anything from anybody. He who wants happiness and comfort should be like him.”

Anas bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ said, “I served Rasûlullah for ten years. He never uttered “Ugh!” towards me. He never asked me why I had done this or why I hadn’t done that.”392

Abû Hurayra ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ said, “During a holy war, we asked him to pray so that the disbelievers would be annihilated. He said, ‘I have not been not sent to curse people so that they will be tormented. I have been sent to do favors for everybody so that people will attain ease’.”393 Allahu ta’âlâ declares in the hundred and seventh âyat of the Sûrat-ul-Anbiyâ, “We sent you as a mercy, as a blessing for all creatures.”

Abû Saîd-i Khudrî ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ said, “Rasûlullah ‘sall- Allâhu alaihi wa sal- lam’ was more bashful than Muslim virgin girls.394

Anas bin Mâlik said, “When Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ would make musâfaha (shake hands in a manner prescribed by Islam) with a person, he would not take his blessed hand away from that person’s hand before that person did so.395 He would not turn his blessed face away from that person before the latter turned his face. As he sat near a person, he would sit on his two knees; to respect that person, he would not raise his blessed knee.”

392 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 255; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 291.
393 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 878.
394 Muslim, “Fazâil”, 99; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 71; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, V, 213, Ibn Sa’d, at-Ta- baqât, I, 368; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 477; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 264.
395 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 879.

Jâbir bin Sumra says, “Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ used to rarely speak. He would talk when necessary or when he was asked a question.” It is understood that Muslims should not talk nonsense; instead they should keep silent. He would speak very clearly and methodically; his words would be understood easily.

Anas bin Mâlik said, “Rasûlullah would visit the sick, walk behind the dead as they were taken to the cemetery and accept invitations. He would ride a donkey, too. I saw him in the holy battle of Khaybar. He rode a donkey with a rope halter. When Rasûlullah went out after morning prayer, children and workers of Medina would bring containers full of water in front of him. They would beg him to dip his blessed finger into the water. Even if it was winter and the water was cold, he would put his blessed finger into all the containers one by one, thus pleasing them.”396

Again, Anas bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ says, “If a little girl held Rasûlullah’s hand and wanted to take him somewhere for some matter, he would go with her and solve her problem.”

Hadrat Jâbir ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’, said, “Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ was never heard to say ‘no’ for anything asked from him.

Our Master, the Prophet was superior to all creatures in respect of hayâ (bashful- ness, modesty) as well. He would merely close his eyes, when confronted with some- thing that was unseemly. He would never express displeasure to anyone that he would address.

Our Mother Hadrat Âisha reported, “Whenever our Master Rasûlullah ‘alai- his-salâm was informed that someone had done an unpleasant thing, he would say, – without mentioning the name of that person- “Why do they act so?”

In this manner, without mentioning any name, he would prevent that person from doing or saying that inappropriate thing.397

Anas bin Mâlik reported, “One day a man came to the presence of our Master, the Prophet. Something yellow had smeared on that man’s face. He did not say anything which would make that person sorry. When the person went out, he said, “Had you mentioned that to him, he would have washed his face!”398

Our Master Rasûlullah would unite people. He would not make them hate each other. He would give presents to the head of each tribe and give them a place near himself.

He would not reject anyone who came to see him. He would inquire about the well being of his Companions, he would ask about those who were not present. He would advise those who sat with him.

By seeing his behavior, no one would think that he loved one person more than the other. He would tolerate those who came to complain. He would listen to them.

Until those who had visited would leave, he would not leave them. He would show all his beautiful ethics and morals to all people in the best manner. Before him, every- one was equal in terms of rights and justice. No one had any special privilege.

Our Mother, Hadrat Âisha said, “I have never seen anyone have such beautiful ethics as our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. Whenever one of his Companions or household members called him, he replied by saying “Yes”.”399

396 Ibn Maja, “Zuhd”, 16; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 506; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 371; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, VI, 289.
397 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 116.
398 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 116.
399 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, VI, 7.

Our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm called his Companions with the most beau- tiful names. He would not interrupt anyone while they were speaking. Unless the person himself ceased to speak, or stood up to leave, he would not interrupt them.

Regarding his compassion and mercy, Allahu ta’âlâ purports: “Your having difficulty hurts and saddens him. He is very devoted to you. He is very compassionate to the believers. He does wish goodness for them.”

Allahu ta’âlâ said in the 107th âyat-i karîma of the Anbiya sûra, purporting, (O My Beloved!) We have sent you as a mercy to the worlds (all classes of beings).” Our Master, the Prophet made many things easy, fearing that they would be difficult for his ummat (community). He said, “If it was not a cause for trouble for my community, I would command them to use miswak in every ritual ablution.”400

Regarding keeping promises, no person superior to him has come to the world. Abdullah bin Abi’l-Hamsa reported, “I had a business deal with our Master, the Prophet before his prophethood was communicated to him. He had some receivables from me. I promised to meet with him at a certain time and place, and then I forgot it. Three days later, I remembered my promise and ran to that place. When I saw that he had been waiting there for three days, I was really stunned. He said to me, “O young man! You have made me tired! I have been waiting here for you three days.”

There has never been another person, not even another Prophet, that had such modesty as our Prophet.

It never came to him to be arrogant. When our Prophet was allowed the choice between being a Prophet with a throne and having great power and status, or being a Prophet who lived like a slave, he preferred to be as a slave.401

Upon this, Isrâfil ’alaihis-salâm (one of the four Archangels) told our Master, the Proph- et, “Verily, Allahu ta’âlâ has granted you the characteristic of modesty. For, you are the greatest of the sons of Adam (that is, mankind) on the Day of Rising. You are the first person who will rise from his grave. You are the first person who will make intercession.

Our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm once told our Mother Hadrat Âisha, “I was offered that Mecca’s earth and stones be turned into gold. I said: O my Rabb! No. Let me be one day hungry one day satiated. On days I remain hungry, I will pray to You. On days I am satiated; I will thank and praise You.”402

One day Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm came to our Master, the Prophet. He said, “Allahu ta’âlâ has sent His salâm (greetings) to you. He said: If he wishes, I shall turn those mountains into gold. Those mountains of gold will be with him, wherever he goes”.

Our Master, the Prophet replied, “O Jabrâil! The world is the home of those who have no home. And it is the property of those who have no property. These are hoarded by those who have no ‘aql (reason, mind).”403

400 Bukhârî, “Tamanni”, 9; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, I, 556; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 123.
401 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 309.
402 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 381; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, VII, 75; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 308-
309; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, III, 196.
403 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 71; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 243; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, VII, 375.

Upon this, Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm said, “O Muhammad! Allahu ta’âlâ has made you steadfast”

Our mother Hadrat Âisha said, “Sometimes, for a complete month, there would be no fire lit in our home (to cook a meal). There were only palm dates and water.”

Ibn-i Abbas said, “Many nights, our Master Rasûlullah and his household would go to sleep without having eaten dinner. They could not find anything to eat in the evening.”

Our Mother Hadrat Âisha said, “Our Master Rasûlullah never ate food as much as to fill him. He never complained about this matter to anyone. To him, poverty is better than being rich. Even if he felt pains of hunger all the night, that situation would not prevent him from fasting during the day.”404

If he wished, he would ask for all the treasures, foods, comfortable life of the world from his Rabb. I swear that I would feel sad and weep whenever I saw this state of his. I would rub his blessed abdomen with my hand and say:

“May my life be sacrificed for your sake! Is it not suitable if you have some benefits from this world that will strengthen you?”

He would reply, “O Âisha! What will I do with the world? My ‘Ulu’l azm Prophet Brothers [the most superior Prophets] tolerated more vehement difficul- ties. However, they continued their lives in the same manner. They attained their Rabb.

For this reason, their Rabb made their return to Him very beautiful, He in- creased their rewards. I will be ashamed of living in comfort. That kind of life would cause me to fall behind them.

The most beautiful and lovely thing for me is to meet my brothers, my friends and to join them.”

Our mother Hadrat Âisha said, “Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm passed away one month after these words of his.”

Our Master, the Prophet’s generosity was very well known. No one could rival him in this beautiful moral quality either.

Ibn-i Abbas once said, “Our Master Rasûlullah was the most generous of people in doing favors. In the month of Ramadan and when he met with Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm (Archangel Gabriel), he would be more generous than the morning breeze.”

Anas bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu anh’ said, “I was walking with Rasûlullah ‘sall- Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’. He had Burd-i Najrânî on. That is, he wore an overcoat made of Yemen cloth. A villager, who came from behind us, pulled his collar so harshly that the collar of the coat scratched his blessed neck and the scratch remained there. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ turned round. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ just chuckled at his manners. He commanded that something should be given to him.”

404 Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, V, 25; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, VIII, 139; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 406.

There was an old woman who was Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ neighbor. She sent her daughter to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ to beg of him, “I do not have a dress to cover myself when praying. Send me a dress to cover myself for namâz (ritual prayer).” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ did not have any other clothes at that moment. He took the loose robe off his blessed body and sent it to the woman. When it was time for namâz, he couldn’t go to the mosque without a garment. The Ashâb-i kirâm ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ alaihim ajma’în,’ hearing about this, said, “Hadrat Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ is so generous that he has no clothes left; therefore, he cannot come to the mosque for jamâ’at (that is, performing the ritual prayer in congregation). Let us give all we have to the poor, too.” Consequently Allahu ta’âlâ sent the twenty-ninth âyat of Sûrat-ul-Isrâ. First, He commanded His beloved not to be stingy nor give nothing; then He commanded him not to give so much as to fall into straits, to miss the namâz, or to become worried! He ordered moderation in giving alms!

That day, after prayer, Hadrat Alî ‘kerrem-Allâhu wejheh’ came to Rasûlullah and said, “O Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’! Today I borrowed eight dirhams of silver to spend for the subsistence of my family. I’ll give you half of them. Buy a robe for yourself.” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ bought a robe for two dirhams. While he was going to buy food with the remaining two dirhams, he saw a blind man, who sat down and kept saying, “Who will give me a shirt for Allah’s sake and in turn be blessed with the dresses of Paradise?” He gave the robe he had bought to the blind man. When the blind man took the robe, he smelled a fragrance like musk. He realized that it was from the blessed hand of Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam,’ because everything which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ had worn once would smell like musk, even if it had been worn to pieces.

The blind man prayed, “O my Allah! Open my eyes for the sake of this shirt.” His two eyes opened at once. Then Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ left there. He bought a robe for one dirham. As he was going to buy food with the other dirham, he saw a maid weeping. He asked “Why are you crying, daughter?” She said, “I am a Jew’s maid. He gave me one dirham and told me to buy a bottle for half a dirham and olive oil with the remaining half, I bought them. But as I was going back, I dropped the bottle. Both the bottle and the oil are gone; I don’t know what to do now.” Rasû- lullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ gave his last dirham to the girl. He said, “Buy the bottle and the oil with this and take them home.” But the poor girl said, “I am afraid the Jew will beat me for being late.” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ said, “Don’t be afraid! I will go with you and tell him not to beat you.”

So they went to the Jew’s house and knocked at the door. The Jew opened the door and was bewildered to see Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ who then told him what had happened and interceded for the girl. The Jew sprang down to Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ feet and supplicated “O the great Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam,’ who is loved and honored above all by thousands of people! Thousands of lions are waiting to do your commands. And you honor the door of a wretched person like me for a maid’s sake. O Rasûlallah ‘sall- Allâhu alaihi wa sallam!’ I have emancipated this girl for your honor’s sake. Teach me îmân (faith) and Islam. Let me become a Muslim in your presence.” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ taught him Islam. He was converted to Islam. He went back into his house and told his household what had happened. They all became Muslims, too. All these were the fruits of Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ beautiful habits.

Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm had many beautiful morals. Each Muslim must learn and have the same. Thus, avoiding catastrophes and difficulties in this and the next world and thus attaining intercession, by the master of both worlds, granted.

Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm had many beautiful morals. Each Muslim must learn and have the same. Thus, avoiding catastrophes and difficulties in this and the next world and thus attaining intercession, by the master of both worlds, granted.

Some of his good morals are listed below:

1-   Resûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was superior to all the other Prophets in knowledge, in irfân (enlightenment, culture), in fehm (comprehen- sion, intellect, understanding), in îqân (certitude, positive knowledge), in wis- dom, in mental capacity, in generosity, in modesty, in being compassionate, in patience, in enthusiasm, in patriotism, in faithfulness, in trustworthiness, in courage, in grandeur, in bravery, in eloquence, in rhetoric, in intrepidity , in beauty, in wara’ (to abstain from committing prohibited actions as well as abstaining from those things that are doubtful, i.e. things that could be haram), in chastity, in kindness, in fairness, in hayâ (bashfulness), in zuhd (not setting the heart on worldly affairs), and in taqwâ (avoiding acts that are forbidden). He would forgive other people for their malevolent behaviors against him, friend and foe alike. He would never retaliate against them. When disbelievers caused his blessed cheek to bleed and broke his blessed teeth during the Holy Battle of Uhud, he pronounced the following benediction over the people who gave him those harms, “Yâ Rabbî! Forgive them! Pardon them for their ignorance.”

2-   He would not look down on anybody. During an expedition, one of his com- panions undertook the task of slaughtering the sheep they were going to eat, another did the skinning, and another said he would do the cooking. When Rasûlullah said he would supply the firewood, they said, “O the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Please do sit and rest! We’ll get the firewood, too.” Upon this the blessed Prophet stated, “Yes, you will! I know that you will do all the work. But I would not like to keep myself apart and sit while others are working. Allahu ta’âlâ dislikes a person who sits aloof from his companions.” He stood up and walked away to find firewood.

3-   Whenever he joined a group of his Sahâba ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum aj- ma’în’ sitting together, he would never chose favored seat. He would seat him- self on the first unoccupied place he noticed. One day he went out with his walking stick in his hand. People who saw him stood up. He warned them, “Do not stand up for me like some people who stand at attention for one another! I am human, like you. I eat, like any other person. And I sit when I am tired.”

4–   He would mostly sit on his knees. He is also reported to have been seen to squat with his arms around his knees.405 He would not exclude his servants from any of his daily activities such as eating and dressing. He would help them with the work. He was never seen to beat anyone or to swear at anyone. Anas bin Mâlik, who was continuously in his service, states, “I served the Messenger of Allah for ten years. The service he did for me was more than the service I did for him. I never saw him cross with me or rebuke me.”406

5-   After conducting the morning prayer (in the mosque), he would ask the con- gregation, “Do we have any brothers ill at home? (If there are any,) let us visit them.” When there was no one ill, he would ask, “Is there any family (who need help) with their funeral? Let us go and help them.” If there was a funeral, he would help with the washing and shrouding of the corpse, con- duct the (special prayer performed before the burial of a Muslim and which is called the) namâz of janâza, and walk with the procession to the grave. When there was not a funeral to be attended, he would state, “If you have a dream to be interpreted, I will. Let me listen to it and interpret it!”

6-   He would serve his guests and his Sahâba, and would say, “The master and the most suerior member of a community is the one who serves them.”

7-   He was never seen in a burst of laughter. He would only smile silently. And when he smiled (sometimes) his blessed front teeth would be seen.

8-   He would never say anything unnecessary or useless. He would talk briefly, effectively, clearly, and when it was necessary. Sometimes he would repeat the same statement three times so that it should be understood well.

9-   He had such an awe-inspiring appearance that no one dared to look him in the face. A visitor who looked at his blessed face would sweat. Thereupon he would say, “Do not feel worried! I am not a king, and I am not cruel at all. I am the son of a woman who ate the broth of meat.” These words would expel the man’s fears and he would say what he wished to.

10- Although he was the darling, the most beloved one and the chosen Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ, he would say, “Among you I am the one who knows Allahu ta’âlâ best and fears Him most.” “If you saw what I have seen, you would laugh little and cry much.”407 When he saw a cloud in the sky he would say,

“Yâ Rabbî! Do not send us torment through this cloud!” Whenever a wind blew, he would pray, “Yâ Rabbî! Send us useful winds.” When he heard a thunder, he would invoke, “Yâ Rabbî! Do not kill us with Your Wrath, and do not perish us with Your Torment, and before this, bless us with abun- dance.” Whenever he performed namâz, sounds of sighing would be heard from his chest as if he was sobbing within. The same sounds would be heard when he recited the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

11- His heart had an astonishing degree of fortitude and valor. During the Holy Battle of Hunayn, the Muslims dispersed and only three or four people re- mained with him. The disbelievers launched a sudden attack. The Messenger of Allah stood against them and defeated them. The same incident took place several times. He never retreated.

12- Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was extremely generous. He would donate hundreds of camels and sheep without keeping a single head for himself. Many a hardhearted disbeliever observed his generous acts of charity and joined the Believers.

13- Sometimes he reserved an amount of barley and dates that would sustain his wives and a few servants for one year, giving some of that amount as alms to the poor.

14- Mutton, meat broth, squash, desserts, honey, dates, milk, cream, water melon, melon, grapes, cucumbers were the kinds of food (and drink) he especially liked.408

15- When he drank water, he would say the Basmala, take small swallows slowly, and make two pauses, (thus dividing an act of drinking into three). He would say, “Alhamdulillâh,” after drinking and he would pray.

16- He would wear whatever he found of the sorts of garments that were permis- sible to wear. He would cover himself with seamless garments made from thick material, like ihrâm, wrap waist cloths around himself, and wear shirts and long and ample robes. These garments were woven from cotton, wool, or animal hair. Usually he wore a white garment, and sometimes he was clad in green. There were also times when he wore sewn garments. On Fridays, on special days such as the days of Eid (religious festivals), when receiving dip- lomatic guests, and at times of battle, he wore valuable shirts and robes. His garments were mostly white. There were also times when he wore green, red or black garments. He would cover his arms down to the wrists and his blessed legs down to the mid-shins.

17- As it was customary in Arabia, he would grow his hair as long as to reach the mid-sections of his ears, having it trimmed when it grew longer. He applied special fragrant ointment to his hair.

405 Abû Dâwûd, “Adab”, 25.
406 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 255.
407 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 145; Munâwî, Fayd-ul-qadîr, V, 316.
408 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 884.

18- He would put musk and other sorts of fragrances on his hands and head, and incense himself with ud (scented wood) camphor.

19- His bed was made of tanned leather stuffed with date threads. When they of- fered him a bed stuffed with wool, he refused it, saying, “O Âisha! I swear in the name of Allah that Allahu ta’âlâ would keep piles of gold and silver with me everywhere if I wished.” Sometimes he slept on straw mats, on wooden beds, on the floor, on rugs woven with wool, or on dry soil.

20- Every night he put kohl on his eyes three times.

21- A mirror, a comb, a container for the substance that he put on his eyes every night, a miswâk, scissors, thread and needle were never absent from among his personal possessions at home. He would take these things with him when he went on a voyage.

22- After the night prayer, he would sleep until midnight, get up and spend the rest of the time worshipping till morning prayer. He would lie on his right flank, put his right hand under his cheek, and fall asleep reciting various suras (chap- ters of the Qur’ân al-karîm).

23- He would make tafa’ul (to draw good omen from events). In other words, when he saw something for the first time or all of a sudden, he interpreted it optimistically. He did not interpret anything as ominous.

24- At times of sorrow, he would think pensively, holding his beard.

25- Whenever he felt sad, he would begin performing namâz. The flavor and the pleasure he felt during the namâz would eliminate his sadness.

Our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm feared and worshipped Allahu ta’âlâ so much so that no other had the power to do so. He would perform ritual prayer until his blessed feet swelled. When they said to him, “O Rasûlullah! Why are you taking pain, even though all your sins, past or future, have been forgiven?” He replied, “Should I not be the most thankful slave of Allahu ta’âlâ?”

Virtues of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’

There are hundreds of books telling about the virtues of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. In this case virtue means superior qualities. Some of them are mentioned below:

1-   Of all the creatures, Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ nûr (light, halo) and soul were the first to be created.

2-   Allahu ta’âlâ wrote his name on the ’Arsh, on the Gardens of Paradise, and on the seven skies.

3-   The expression, “Lâ ilâha illallah Muhammadun Rasûlullah (There is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ, and Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ is His Messenger),” is written on the leaves of a rose growing in India.

4-   A fish that had been caught in a river in the vicinity of Basra had the name “Allah” on its right flank and the name “Muhammad” on its left flank.

5-   There are angels whose sole duty is to say the name of Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm’.

6-   The reason that angels were commanded to prostrate themselves before Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ was that he had the nûr of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ on his forehead.

7-   Allahu ta’âlâ commanded every one of His Prophets, “If Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm’ should be the Prophet in your time, tell your people to believe in him.”

8-   When he was about to come to the world, many omens were seen that foretold of his advent. They are written in history books as well as in books of mawlid, (i.e. books elaborating on the birth of the Best of Mankind and on the events that took place before the birth, during it, and afterwards.)

9-   When he came to the world his umbilical cord was cut, and he was circum- cised, by angels.

10- After he came to the world, devils could no longer ascend to the skies or steal information from angels.

11- When he came to the world, all the idols on the earth and the statues that had been worshipped fell flat on their faces.

12- Angels would rock his cradle.

13- As he was in his cradle he would talk with the moon, which would follow the movement of his finger.

14- He began to speak while in the cradle.

15- As a child, while outside, a cloud above his blessed head moved with him, continuously protecting him in its shade. This state continued until the begin- ning of his prophethood.

16- Each Prophet had his seal of prophethood on his right hand. Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm’ had it near his shoulder blade, in line with his heart.

17- He saw what was behind him as well as things before him.

18- He saw in the dark as well as in the light.

19- His spittle sweetened bitter water, cured diseased people, and fed babies like milk.

20- As his blessed eyes slept, his blessed heart stayed awake. This was the com- mon quality of all Prophets ‘alaihimus-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’.

21- Throughout his lifetime he never yawned. Nor had any other Prophet ‘alai- him-us-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’.

22- His blessed sweat had a fragrant smell, like that of a rose. A poor man came to him and told him that he needed help for his daughter’s matrimony. The blessed Messenger had nothing to give him at that moment. He put some of his sweat in a small bottle and gave the bottle to the man. Whenever that girl put a bit of the sweat on herself, her house would smell like musk. Her house became famous as “the fragrant house.”

23- Although he was medium of stature, he would look taller than those tall people who were standing next to him.

24- When he walked in the sunlight or in the moonlight, he would not have a shad- ow on the ground.

25- Flies, mosquitoes or other insects would not alight on his body or on whatever he was wearing.

26- His undergarments would never become dirty however long he wore them.

27- Whenever he walked, angels followed behind. Therefore, he would have his Sahâbîs ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’ walk ahead of him, telling them to leave the unoccupied space behind him “for the angels.”

28- When he stepped on a rock, his foot would make a print on the rock. When he walked on sand, on the other hand, he would leave no footprints behind. When he relieved himself, the earth would split apart, swallow that which was defe- cated, and radiate fragrant odors. This was the case with all the other Prophets as well.409

29- Of all the human beings and angels, he was given the most knowledge. Although he was ummî, i.e. he had not learned anything from anybody, Allahu ta’âlâ made him know everything. As Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ had been made to know the names of everything, so he was made to know the name and the knowledge of everything.

30- He was made to know the names of all his Ummat and all the events that would (and will) take place among them.

31- His aql (mental abilities) were superior to those of all other human beings.

32- He was endowed with all the beautiful moral qualities and habits that man- kind could possess. When the great poet ’Umar Ibn-il-Fârid was asked why he would never praise the Messenger of Allah, he answered, “I have realized that I will not be able to praise him. I cannot find words to eulogize him.”

33- In the Kalima-i shahâdat (the phrase beginning with “Ashhadu…” The first of the five fundamentals of Islam; declaring one’s belief in Islam), in the azân (or adhân) (the Muslim call to prayer), in the iqâmat (the words recited while standing before beginning one of the five daily fard prayers), in the (prescribed prayer recited during) tashahhud (sitting posture and saying prayers) prayers, in some acts of worship and khutbas (the homily delivered at the pulpit by the imâm during the prayers of Friday and during Islamic festivals, which must be read in Arabic all over the world), in advising, (in prayers said) at times of trouble or melancholy, in the grave, at the place of Judgment, in Paradise, and in languages spoken by all creatures, Allahu ta’âlâ put his name beside His Own Name.

409 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 69.

34- The highest of his superiorities is that he is the Habîbullah (the Beloved One of Allahu ta’âlâ). Allahu ta’âlâ made him a darling, a friend to Himself. He loves him more than He does any other person or any angel. Allahu ta’âlâ says in a hadîth-I qudsî, “As I have made Ibrâhîm (Abraham) Khalîl (to Myself), so I have made you Habîb to Myself.”

35- The fifth âyat-i karîma of Dhuhâ Sûra, which purports, “I shall give you all you want till you are contented, [i.e. till you say, ‘Enough’],”410 promis- es that Allahu ta’âlâ shall bestow on His Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ all sorts of knowledge and superiority, the Rules of Islam, help against his enemies and victory over them, conquests and victories that will be realized by his Ummat (community), and all sorts of intercession and man- ifestation on the day of Resurrection. When this âyat-i karîma descended, the blessed Messenger looked at Jabrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ and said, “I shall not be contented if one (single member) of my Ummat is left in Hell.”

36- Allahu ta’âlâ mentions all His Prophets by their own names in the Qur’ân al- karîm. As for Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’; He addresses him with expressions of praise such as, “O My Messenger, O My Prophet.”

37- His speech was extremely clear and easily comprehensible. He had visitors from various places, and he spoke to his Arabic visitors in their own dialect. People listened to him with admiration. He stated, “Allahu ta’âlâ has trained me beautifully.”411

38- With few words he communicated much. His more than one hundred thousand (utterances termed) hadîth-i sharîfs are a demonstration of the fact that he was Jawâmi-ul-kalîm. According to some scholars, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ stated the four essentials of Islam with four hadîth-i sharîfs, which are as fol- lows: “Actions are evaluated in accordance with the intentions (in doing them).”412 “Halâl (things permissible) is obvious, and harâm (things pro- hibited) is obvious.”413 “The plaintiff has to produce witnesses, and the de- fendant has to swear an oath.” and “Unless a person wishes for his Muslim brother whatever he wishes for his own self, he will not have perfect im- an.”414 The first of these four hadîth-i sharîfs form the basis for the knowledge pertaining to acts of worship, the second one for the knowledge pertaining to transactions, (e.g. buying and selling, renting, joint-ownership, etc), the third one for the knowledge pertaining to jurisprudence and politics, and the fourth one for knowledge pertaining to manners and ethics.

410 The Duha Sûra, 93/5.
411 Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XXXI, 237; Munâwî, Feyd-ul-qadîr, I, 224.
412 Bukhârî, “Bad’ul-Wahy”, 1; Abû Dâwûd, “Talaq”, 11; Ibn Maja, “Zuhd”, 26.
413 Abû Dâwûd, “Buyu’ ”, 3; Nasâî, “Buyu’ ”, 2.
414 Bukhârî, “Iman”, 7; Tirmidhî, “Sifat-ul-Qiyamat”, 59; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 176.

39- Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ was innocent. He never committed sins, neither intentionally nor inadvertently, neither grave sins nor venial ones, neither be- fore he was forty years old nor afterwards. He was never seen to behave in an unseemly manner.

40- For Muslims, while invoking a blessing on Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ by saying, “As-salâmu ’alaika ayyuha-n-nabiyyu wa rahmatullâhi,” during the sitting posture in prayer, it is commanded that they convey selams to Muham- mad ‘alaihis-salâm.’ It is not permissible, during prayers, to convey selams to another Prophet or angels.

41- It was declared in a hadîth-i qudsî, “If I had not created you, I would not have created anything!”415

42- Other Prophets themselves made their own refutations of disbelievers’ slan- ders. On the other hand, Allahu ta’âlâ defended Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ by answering the slanders perpetrated against him.

43- The number of Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ Ummat (community) is above the total number of other Prophets’ ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ ummats. They are more superior and more honorable than other ummats. It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf that two thirds of those who will enter Paradise will belong to this ummat.

44- The blessings that will be given to Rasûlullah are multiples of the blessings that will be given to the other Prophets.

45- It was harâm (forbidden) to call him by name, to talk loud in his presence, to shout beckon him from a distance, or to walk ahead of him. The ummats of other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ used to call them by name.

46- He saw Jabrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ in his own angelic guise twice. In contrast, the angel never appeared to another Prophet ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ in his own guise as an angel. Jabrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ paid him twenty-four thousand visits. Of all the other Proph- ets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât,’ Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ received the most visits. That was four hundred times.

47- It is permissible to swear an oath to Allahu ta’âlâ in the name of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm.’ It is not permissible in the name of any other Prophet or any angel.

48- After Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm,’ it was forbidden to marry his blessed wives ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna.’ Islam has declared them to be mothers of Believers.

49- Kinship through blood or through nikâh (marriage contract prescribed by Islam) will be of no use on the Day of Questioning. Not so is the case with Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ relatives.

50- It is beneficial to be named with the blessed name of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm in this and the next world. True Believers carrying his blessed name will never enter Hell.

51- Every statement he made is true, and so is everything he did. Every ijtihâd (meaning or conclusion drawn) he performed was made accurate by Allahu ta’âlâ.

52- It is fard for everybody to love him. He stated, “He who loves Allahu ta’âlâ will love me.” The indication of loving him is to adapt oneself to his religion, to his way, to his Sunna, and to his ethics. He was commanded to say, as is purported in the Qur’ân al-karîm, “If you follow me, Allahu ta’âlâ will love you.”

53- It is wâjib (indispensable) to love his Ahl-i Bayt (household). He stated, “He who feels enmity towards my Ahl-i bayt is a munâfiq (hypocrite).” His Ahl-i bayt are his relatives who are forbidden to be paid (Islam’s obligatory alms called) zakât. They are his wives and those Believers descending from his grandfather Hâshim’s lineage, that is the descendants of ’Alî, ’Uqayl, Ja’fer Tayyâr, and Abbâs.

54- It is wâjib (indispensable) to love all his Sahâba ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’. He stated, “Do not perpetrate enmity towards my Sahâba after me. To love them means to love me. Enmity towards them means enmity towards me. He who hurts them will have hurt me. He who hurts me will have hurt Allahu ta’âlâ. And Allahu ta’âlâ will torment those who hurt Him.”

55- Allahu ta’âlâ created four assistants to Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, two in heaven and two on the earth. They are Jabrâîl, Mikâîl, Abû Bakr, and ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în,’ respectively.416

56- Every person who dies after reaching maturity, male and female alike, will be questioned about Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ in their graves. The question, “Who is your Rabb,” will be followed by the question, “Who is your Prophet?”

57- It is an act of worship to recite the hadîth-i sharîfs of Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm.’ A person who does so will be given thawâb (blessings).

58- In order to take his blessed soul, Azrâîl ‘alaihissalâm’ (Angel of Death) came in human guise and asked if he could come in.

59- The soil in his blessed grave is more valuable than any other place, including the Kâ’ba and the Gardens of Paradise.

60- In his grave he leads a life unknown to us. He recites the Qur’ân al-karîm and performs namâz in his grave. So is the case with all the other Prophets ‘alaihi- mussalawâtu wattaslîmât.’

415 Suyutî, al-Laâli’l-masnûa, I, 272; Ajlûnî, Kashf-ul-hafâ, II, 164.
416 Tirmidhî, “Manâqib”, 17; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 290; Bukhârî, At-Târikh-ul-kabir, II, 158; Huzâî, et-Tahrîj, s, 39.

61- Angels hear the people reciting the Salawât for Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ all over the world, bring all the prayers of Salawât recited to his grave and convey them to him. Thousands of angels visit his grave daily.

62- Every morning and every evening, the deeds and the acts of worship per- formed by his Ummat are shown to him. He sees the people doing those acts, and entreats Allahu ta’âlâ for the forgiveness of sinners.

63- It is mustahab, also for women, to visit his grave. Women are permitted to visit other graves only when there are no men around, provided that they veil themselves in accord with Islamic dress code.

64- After the blessed Prophet’s death as well as when he was alive, Allahu ta’âlâ accepts the prayers and supplication of all those people who do so through him and ask for his sake, no matter in what part of the world they are.

65- On the Judgment Day, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ shall be the first to rise from his grave.417 He shall be wearing garments of Paradise. He shall ride (the beast of Paradise called) Buraq to the place of gathering (called the place of mahsher in Islamic literature), holding the flag ‘Liwâ al-hamd’ in his hand. All people, including Prophets, shall stand under this flag. All shall be exhausted from waiting there for one thousand years. People shall beseech the Prophets Âdam, Nûh (Noah), Ibrâhîm (Abraham), Mûsâ (Moses) and Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’to intercede for the commencement of the Last Judgment,. Each Prophet shall ask to be excused out of shamefulness before Allahu ta’âlâ or fear. Finally, they shall come to Rasûlullah, begging. He shall prostrate himself and pray, and his intercession shall be accepted. The Judgment shall begin, his Ummat (Muslims) being the first to have their ac- counts settled, to pass the Sirat (bridge that cannot be described with worldly experience) and to enter Paradise. Wherever they go they shall fill the entire place with haloes. As Hadrat Fâtima ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ’ passes the Sirât, a voice shall call, “Let everybody close their eyes! The daughter of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is coming.”

66- He shall intercede at six different places. First, with his intercession called Maqâm-i Mahmûd, he shall rescue all of humanity from the torment of wait- ing at the place of gathering.418 Second, with his intercession he shall cause many people to enter Paradise. Third, he shall rescue some Believers from the torment which they deserve (for their sins). Fourth, he shall rescue some gravely sinful Believers from Hell. Fifth, some people will be waiting at a place called A’râf, (which is neither Paradise nor Hell) because their thawabs (reward for pious deeds) and sins are equal. He shall intercede for those people so they can enter Paradise. Sixth, he shall intercede for the promotion of the people of Paradise.

417 Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 62.
418 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 217.

67- The rank which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ shall be occu- pying in Paradise is called Wasîla. It is the highest rank in Paradise. The roots of the tree of Paradise called Sidrat-ul muntahâ are there. The branches carry the blessings of all the people of Paradise to them.

Begging Allah for His forgiveness

As our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm is the most superior of all the creatures, he was the person who truly knew and feared Allahu ta’âlâ most. Even though Janâb-i Haqq protected him from committing a sin, he would ceaselessly worship, pray to and ask for forgiveness from Him. He would sleep in the first part of the night (after conducting the night prayer) and he would worship in the last part of the night.

Ibn-i Abbas explained as follows, “One night, I was a guest at the house of Hadrat Maymuna, mother of Muslims. Rasûlullah slept till around midnight. Then, he awoke and sat up. With his hands, he removed the signs of sleep from his face. He stood up, took the hanging water container and performed a ritual ablution. He recited ten âyat-i karîmas from the last part of the Al-i Imran sûra. Then, he started performing a ritual prayer. I also stood up and performed a ritual ablution like Rasûlullah did. Then, I started performing a ritual prayer next to him. He performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats. Then, he performed another two rak’ats and again he performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats. Then, he started performing the witr prayer. Then, he lied down until the call for morning prayer was performed. He got up up, performed another ritual prayer of two rak’ats. Then, he went out to the masjid and performed the fard of the morning prayer there.419

Our Mother Hadrat Âisha reported, “One night, our Master Rasûlullah ’alai- his-salâm was asleep. When he awoke, he said, “O Âisha, if you allow me, I will be busy with worshipping my Rabb this night.” Then, he got up. He recited the Qur’ân al-karîm. He wept. His tears wet his knees. He continued reciting. While he recited the Qur’ân al-karîm, his blessed tears wet everywhere that touches his body. This state went on until the morning.”

On the morning, when Bilal-i Habashi came and saw the situation, he said, “May my parents be sacrificed for you, O Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm! Has Allahu ta’âlâ not forgiven your past and future mistakes?” Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm replied:

“O Bilal! Should I not be a thankful slave that this night Allahu ta’âlâ descend- ed the âyat-i karîma (purporting): ‘In the creation of the heavens and the earth, in the succession of day and night, there are surely many signs for people who have ‘aql’ (intelligence).”420 421

419 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I 284; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, I, 89.
420 Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 3/190.
421 Ibn Hibbân, as-Sahih, II, 386; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, II, 185; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, IV, 142.

In a hadîth-i sherîf written in the book “Muslim”, Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm stated, “Such things come to my heart that, because of them, I make istighfâr (repent) to Allahu ta’âlâ seventy times each day and night” and “A curtain [that prevents divine lights from coming] becomes drawn across my heart. Therefore, I say istighfâr seventy times each day” and “I say one hundred istighfâr to Allahu ta’âlâ each day”.422

Our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm feared Allahu ta’âlâ so much that he did not laugh loudly.

In a hadîth-i sharîf 423, reported from Imâm-i Tirmizi’s work Abû Zar, it is declared, “Verily, I see what you do not. I hear what you do not. There is no empty place as much as four-finger-widths in the sky where the angels do not make sajda (prostration like in ritual prayer). I swear by Allah that if you knew what I know, you would laugh little and weep much. You would go out and at the top of your voice, implore Allahu ta’âlâ.”424

In a hadîth-i sherîf reported by Abû Hurayra, our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm said, “No one’s deeds take them to Paradise.” When he was asked, “Even you, O Rasûlullah?”, he replied, “Yes, my deeds also will not take me to Paradise. Howev- er, the Generosity and Mercy of Allahu ta’âlâ will cover me.”

Ibn Omar reported, “When we were in the presence of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm, we would hear him saying one hundred times, “O my Rabb! Forgive me and accept my repentance. You are the one Who accepts repentance and You are the Most Merciful.”425

Anas bin Mâlik reported: Rasûlullah ‘sallallâhu alaihi wa sallam’ would constantly say the prayer, “Allâhumma, yâ muqallibal-qulûb, thabbit qalbî ‘alâ dînik”426 [O Allah! You alone can change our hearts from good to evil, from evil to good. Make my heart fixed in Your religion, do not ever let it turn away from or abandon it!].

In a hadîth-i sherîf, reported by Tirmizi from Abû Sa’id-il-Hudri, our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm said, “Allahu ta’âlâ forgives the sins of any person who says ‘Astaghfirullah’al-azim allazi la ilâha illa huwal-hayyul-qayyum wa atubu ilayh’ three times when that person goes to bed, even if their sins are as the froth on the sea, or sand grains of the land of Tamim, or leaves of trees, or days of the world.”

According to the reports, written in the books Bukhari and Muslim, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm would make this istighfâr (prayer for repentance), “Allahummaghfirli hatîati wa jahlî, wa israfî fi emrî wa mâ anta a’lamu bihi minnî.”

(O my Allah! As You know the transgressions that I have committed (knowingly or) unknowingly, forgive my faults!)

“Allahummaghfirli hazlî wa jiddî wa hataî wa amdî wa kullu zâlika indî. Alla- hummaghfirli mâ kaddamtu wamâ anhartu wamâ esrartu wamâ a’lentu wamâ anta a’lamu minî ant-al mukaddamu wa ant-al mu’ahharu wa anta alâ kulli shay’in qadîr.”427

(O my Allah! Forgive all my possible faults that I have made whether in jest or se- riously, by forgetting or knowingly. O my Allah! As You know all my faults, forgive that which I have already made or will make, made secretly or openly. You are the Eternal. You are the Almighty.)

His intercession

Our Master Rasûl-i akram will intercede for his community and save them from troubles and sorrow on the Day of Judgment. He stated in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, “I was allowed to choose between having half of my community enter Paradise or to make intercession. I chose intercession. For, it is more comprehensive. Don’t think it is only for those who have piety, it is also for the sinners who have fallen into error…”428

Our Master, the Prophet said in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, which was related by Hadrat Abû Hurayra, “My intercession will be for those who say the kalima-i shahâdat, ‘La ilâha illallah’ with ikhlâs (for Allah’s sake) in a manner that their hearts attest their tongue.”429

In some hadîth-i sherîfs, our Master, the Prophet stated; “Of my Ummat (Community), I will intercede for those who love my Ahl-i bayt.”

“Of my Ummat, I will intercede for those who have committed grave sins.” “I can intercede for any Muslim, except those who malign my Companions.” “Of my Ummat, I will intercede for those who torment themselves and who are deceived by their nafs (an ardent enemy to Allahu ta’âlâ which is a force in man that wants him to harm himself religiously).”

“On the Day of Judgment, I will be the first intercessor.”430

“He who does not believe in my intercession cannot attain it.”431

422 Ibn Maja, “Adab”, 57; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, I, 438; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 148.
423 The hadîth-i sharîfs that were reported by the As’hâb-i Kirâm from our Master, the Prophet directly.
424 Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VII, 123; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II 554; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, I, 484.
425 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 89; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VI, 57; Suyutî, Jâmi-ul Ahâdis, XXXVI, 323.
426 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 257; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, I, 706.
427 Abû Dâwûd, “Salât”, 123; Tirmidhî, “Daawât”, 29; Dârimî, “Salât”, 169; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 94; Dâra
Qutnî, as-Sunan, III, 264; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, I, 692; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II 420.
428 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 29; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XVIII, 58; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XI, 308; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 290.
429 Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, XI, 39; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XI, 321; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 217.

430 Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 62.
431 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XII, 421; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XI, 324.

On the Day of Judgment, due to the blowing of the “Sûr,” people will be seized with fear, at a loss as to where to look, then Muslims and disbelievers will be driven to Mahshar for Last Judgment. This is a torment, which increases the severity of the Day of Judgment.

This time, eight angels shoulder and move the Arsh. Each of these angels, with each pace, move a distance of twenty thousand years journey of the world.

Angels and clouds, until the Arsh-i a’la stops moving, praise Allahu ta’âlâ in an un- intelligible way. In this manner, the Arsh-i a’la stops over the white ground that Allahu ta’âlâ has created for it. At this moment, heads are bowed, with fear of Allahu ta’âlâ’s punishment that none can bear. Being astonished and confined in their difficulties, all long for compassion.

Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Bagdadî is one of the most notable and famous persons who had gained a large share from that Ocean of Love. He wrote in one of his eulogies, in which he expressed his muhabbat (love) for our Master Rasûlullah, as follows:

I am burning with your love, O the Sarwar-i âlam!
I am always looking for your beauty, wherever I am.

I am nothing, you are the Sultân of the Qâba Qawsayn throne,
I deem it disrespectfulness to say that I am your guest.

Everything in this universe has been created for your sake,
When your mercy rains down on me, it is the time of my spring.

Everyone comes to Hedjaz to circumambulate the Kâ’ba,
I climb over the mountains with the enthusiasm of reaching to you.

I saw in my dream that I was crowned by the crown of bliss,
I suppose the soil of your foot dusted on my face.

O Jâmî, who is the nightingale of the lovers who praise your friend,
These excerpts express my feelings from your book of poetry:

“Like a dog which has mange and extremely thirsty,
I long for a drop from your sea of generosity.”

Fear comes to Prophets and scholars. Awliya [dear slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ] and mar- tyrs, fearing Allahu ta’âlâ’s punishment, which is unbearable to endure, cry. While they are in this condition, a light, which is much more intense than the sun’s light, surrounds them. People, who already cannot endure the heat of the sun, witness this. They fall into turmoil. They remain in this state for one thousand years. Nothing is said from Allahu ta’âlâ. This time, people go to Âdam ’alaihis-salâm, who is the first Prophet. They beg him, “O Âdam ’alaihis-salâm! You are a valuable and honorable Prophet. Allahu ta’âlâ created you and He made angels perform sajda (prostration) towards you. He blew from His Soul to you. Intercede for us so that He starts settling of accounts. Let us be judged as whatever Allahu ta’âlâ wishes. And let everyone go wherever He commands. Allahu ta’âlâ Who is the Ruler of and Owner of everything, does whatever He wishes.”

Âdam ’alaihis-salâm says, “I ate the fruit from the tree that Allahu ta’âlâ had pro- hibited. Now, I am ashamed before Allahu ta’âlâ. However, you go to Nuh (Noah).” Upon this, they consult among themselves for one thousand years.

Then, they go to Nuh (Noah) ’alaihis-salâm and beg him, “We are in an unbearable situation. Intercede for us that our accounts’ settlement takes place quickly. Let us get rid of that punishment at Mahshar.” Nuh ‘alaihis-salâm answers, “I had invoked Alla- hu ta’âlâ. All the people on the Earth drowned due to that invocation. For this reason, I am ashamed of Allahu ta’âlâ. However, you go to Ibrâhim ’alaihis-salâm, who is Khalilullah. Allahu ta’âlâ said in the last âyat of the Haj sûra, purporting, “Ibrahim (‘alaihis-salâm) named you Muslim, before you came into the world.” Maybe, he will intercede for you.”

In the same manner, they talk among themselves for another one thousand years. Then, they come to Ibrâhim ’alaihis-salâm. They say, “O father of Muslims! You are the person whom Allahu ta’âlâ has made Khalîl [friend] to Himself. Intercede for us so that Allahu ta’âlâ will make decree about His creatures.” Ibrâhim ‘alaihis salâm replies to them, “In the world, I spoke indirectly three times. By saying them, I strug- gled on the path of religion. Now, I am ashamed to request the permission to intercede here. You go to Mûsâ ’alaihis-salâm. For, Allahu ta’âlâ spoke to him and He showed him spiritual closeness. He will intercede for you”.

Upon this, consulting among themselves, they remain one thousand years again. However, at this time, their situation is very difficult. The Mahshar becomes very narrow. Then, they come to Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) ’alaihis-salâm and tell him, “O son of Imran! You are the Prophet to whom Allahu ta’âlâ spoke and to whom He descend- ed the Torah. Intercede for us so that the settlement of accounts starts! For, we have stayed here too long. Due to crowding, people are stepping on each other.”

Mûsâ ’alaihis-salâm tells them, “I prayed to Allahu ta’âlâ so that the Pharaoh’s na- tion would be punished with things they would dislike. Then, I begged Him that they would be an example for the next generations. Now, I am ashamed to intercede. How- ever, Allahu ta’âlâ has mercy and compassion. You go to Isâ (Jesus) ’alaihis-salâm.

Because, he is among the truest of the Messengers in respect of yaqîn (Absolute belief), he is among the most superior in respect of mârifat (Knowledge pertaining to Allahu ta’âlâ’s Dhât [Person] and Attributes) and zuhd (not setting one’s heart on worldly things) and hikmat (wisdom). He will intercede for you.”

To be free from the troubles of Mahshar, they go to Isa ’alaihis-salâm. They say, “You are the rûh (spirit) and the word of Allahu ta’âlâ. In Al-i Imran Sûra, the for- ty-fifth âyat, Allahu ta’âlâ revealed about you, “He is very valuable in the world and in the Hereafter.” Intercede for us before your Rabb!”

Isa (Jesus) ’alaihis-salâm says, “My people held the precept that my mother and I were gods other than Allahu ta’âlâ. Despite this, How can I intercede? They wor- shipped me too, they called me son and Allahu ta’âlâ as father. But, have you seen anyone among you who’s purse’s seal had not been broken, yet it was empty? Is it possible to reach that money without breaking that seal? Go to Muhammad sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam who is the last and most superior of the Prophets. For, he prepared his invitation and intercession for his community. Because, his people tormented him many times. They bloodied his blessed forehead. They broke his blessed tooth. They claimed he was insane, even though that great prophet was the best and the most honorable one among them. Against their unbearable torments and oppressions, he would say what Yusuf ’alaihis-salâm told his brothers, that was stated in the âyat-i karîma which purports, “Now, there will be no grudges held. Janâb-i Allah, Who is the Most Merciful, forgives you.”432 When Isa ’alaihis-salâm explains the supe- riorities of our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm, they all want to reach him as soon as possible.

432 Sûrat-u Yûsuf, 12/92.

Immediately, they come to the pulpit of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. They say, “You are the beloved of Allahu ta’âlâ. The beloved is the most useful of all intermediaries. Intercede for us! For, we went to Âdam ’alaihis-salâm, who is the first of the Prophets. He referred us to Nuh (Noah) ’alaihis-salâm. We went to Nuh ’alaihis-salâm. He referred us to Ibrâhim (Abraham) ’alaihis-salâm. We went to Ibrâhim ’alaihis-salâm, he referred us to Musa (Moses) ’alaihis-salâm. We went to Musa ’alaihis-salâm, he referred us to Isa (Jesus) ’alaihis-salâm. We went to Isa ’alaihis-salâm, he referred us to you. O Rasûlullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam! After you, there is no one left to recourse to.”

Our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm says, “If Allahu ta’âlâ consents and gives permission, I will intercede.”

He reaches the Suradikat-i jalal, that is, the curtain of jalal(greatness). He requests permission for intercession from Allahu ta’âlâ. The permission is granted. The cur- tains are removed. He enters the Arsh-i a’la. He makes sajda. He remains in the sajda for one thousand years. After that, he praises Allahu ta’âlâ in such a manner that no- body since the creation of the universe has praised Allahu ta’âlâ so perfectly. Some arifs (people of wisdom) said when Allahu ta’âlâ created the universes; He praised Himself with such extolments.

At Mahshar, the people’s situation becomes extremely worse. Their difficulties in- crease. Each of them shoulder the property that they clung to in the world. Those who did not pay the zakât of their camels, are burdened with a camel. It clamours and becomes so heavy that it is like a great mountain. Those who did not pay the zakât of cattle or sheep are in the same state. The wailing is like thunder.433

433 Muslim, “Iman”, 399; Tirmidhî, “ Sifat-ul-Qiyamat”, 10; Ibn Maja, “Zuhd”, 37; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 4.

Those who did not pay the ‘ushr, that is, the zakât of crops are loaded with bales of crops. They are burdened with the same kind of bales of which they did not give zakât for in the world. If it was wheat, they are burdened with wheat, if it was barley, they are burdened with barley. Under their weights, they yell “Wa wayla, wa-sabura”. (“Wayl” is a word expressing torment. People shout this word when they cannot en- dure the torment. The word “sabur” is also used at times of being perished.)

Those who did not pay their zakât of gold, silver, (paper) money and other commercial goods in the world are afflicted with a fearsome snake. They shout and ask, “What is this?” Angels reply, “These are your goods of which you did not pay their zakât while you were in the world.” This terrifying situation is declared in the one hundred and eighty second âyat of the Al-i Imran sûra, purporting, “What they withheld in the world will be hung from their necks on the Day of Resurrection.”

Pus flows from private parts of another group. Because of their bad smell, those around them become very annoyed. These are those who committed adultery and such harâm.

Another group is hung from tree branches. These are those who committed sodomy while they were in the world.

Another group’s tongues are out of their mouths and extended to their chests. They are in such an ugly state that people do not want to see them. These are liars and slanderers.

Another group’s abdomens are enlarged as much as high mountains. These are those who conducted trade without resorting to a permissible way of business transaction called muamala, using interest, without there being compulsion. The sins of such committers of harâm, are revealed.

Allahu ta’âlâ says, purporting, “O Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), raise your head from sajda! Tell, it shall be listened to. Intercede, it shall be accepted.” Upon this, our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm says, “O my Rabb! Separate the good and the evil ones of your slaves from each other, so that their (staying) time becomes greatly extended. Each, with their sins, being disgraced and discredited in the Arasat place.”

A voice is heard, “Yes, O Muhammad!” Janâb-i Haqq commands Paradise to be- come ornamented with all its ornaments. It is brought to Arasat field. It has such a beautiful scent that its fragrance is smelled from a distance of five hundred years’ journey. This state makes hearts pleased and souls revived. Those (disbelievers, apostates, people who make fun of Muslims, people who deceive youngsters and steal their faiths and) whose deeds are evil and bad do not smell the scent of Paradise.

Janâb-i Haqq commands the bringing of Hell and Paradise to Mahshar. Hell yells, roars, scatters fire and emits an intense cloud which will make all the sky extremely dark. Its noise, roar and heat are unbearable. Everyone loses their power and collapses in their place.

Even Prophets and Messengers cannot control themselves. Hadrat-i Ibrâhim, Hadrat-i Musa, Hadrat-i Isa cling to the Arsh-i a’la. Ibrâhim ‘alaihis-salâm forgets Ismâil ‘alaihis-salâm, whom he would have sacrificed. Musâ ‘alaihis-salâm forgets his brother Harun (Aaron) ‘alaihis-salâm. Isâ ‘alaihis-salâm forgets his mother Hadrat Maryam. Each of them say, “O my Rabb! Today I do not want anything except for my own safety.”

As for Hadrat Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, he says, “O my Rabb! Give safety and salvation to my community!” There is no one who could endure this. For, Allahu ta’âlâ informed of this and said in the twenty eighth âyat of the Jâsiya sûra, purport- ing, “You will see that every community has crouched down on their knees due to the fear of Janâb-i Haqq. Each of them will be invited to the book of their deeds which they performed in the world.”

Allahu ta’âlâ says, in the eighth âyat of the Mulk sûra, purporting, “Due to the enormity of its boiling and vehemence, the seething will nearly part into two.” Upon this, our Prophet ’alaihis-salâm shall appear and stop Hell. Saying, “Return in contempt and servility! So that, those who belong to you shall come to you group by group.”

Hell says, “O Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm)! Give me permission! For, you are harâm to me.” A voice comes from the Arsh, “O Hell! Listen to the word of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. And obey him!” Then, our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm pulls Hell and places it somewhere to the left of the Arsh-i a’la. Those at the place of Gathering tell each other of the good news of this merciful treatment and intercession of our Master, the Prophet. Their fear diminishes a little. The meaning of the one hundred seventh âyat-i karîma of the Anbiya sûra becomes apparent: “We have sent you as a mercy for all creation.”434

That is, our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm shall intercede at six different places. First, with his intercession called Maqâm-i Mahmûd, he shall rescue all of humanity from the torment of waiting at the place of gathering. Second, with his intercession he shall cause many people to enter Paradise. Third, he shall rescue some Believers from the torment which they deserve (for their sins). Fourth, he shall rescue some gravely sinful Believers from Hell. Fifth, some people will be waiting at a place called A’râf, (which is neither Paradise nor Hell) because their thawabs (reward for pious deeds) and sins are equal. He shall intercede for those people so they can enter Paradise. Sixth, he shall intercede for the promotion of the people of Paradise.

434 Muslim, “Iman”, 399; Tirmidhî, “ Sifat-ul-Qiyamat”, 10; Ibn Maja, “Zuhd”, 37; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 4; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 220.

lineHIS MIRACLES

There are innumerable witnesses testifying to the fact that Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm’ is the true Prophet. Allahu ta’âlâ commanded, “Had it not been for you, I would not have created anything!”435 All beings signify not only the existence and unity of Allahu ta’âlâ, but also the prophethood and the superior virtues of Mu- hammad ‘alaihis-salâm.’ All the miracles, (which are called karâmat,) that happen through the Awliyâ among his Ummat are, in actual fact, his miracles (which are called mu’jiza, that happen through prophets). For karâmats happen through people who follow him and adapt themselves to him. In fact, because all the other Prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’ yearned to be among his Ummat or, rather, be- cause all of them were created from his nûr (light, halo), their miracles, too, may be said to be Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ miracles.

435 Suyutî, al-Laâli’l-masnûa, I, 272; Ajlûnî, Kashf-ul-hafâ, II, 164.

With respect to time, the miracles of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ fall into three cate- gories: In the first category are those miracles that took place in the period beginning with the creation of his blessed soul and ending with his Bi’that (the time when Allahu ta’âlâ appointed him His Messenger). The second category consists of those which took place within the time from the Bi’that to his passing away. Into the third category fall his miracles that have happened since his passing away, as well as those which will take place till the end of the world. Miracles in the first category are called irhâs, i.e. at the beginning. Each category is divided into two classes: Miracles that were seen; and those which are inferred mentally. All these miracles are so many that it has never been possible to count them. Miracles in the second category are estimated to be around three thousand. We shall relate some famous ones of them as follows.

1-   The greatest miracle of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the Qur’ân al-karîm. All the poets and men of literature till today have acknowledged their shortcoming about and admiration for the poetic and semantic superiority of the Qur’ân al- karîm. They have not been able to replicate a literary piece approximating to the sublime standard of any one of its verses. With respect to eloquence and rhetoric, it is dissimilar to the human language. A single verbal addition or excision spoils the beauty in its phraseology and purport. Efforts to substitute even one of its words have proven futile. Its poetic style is unlike any one of those of Arabian poets. It informs about many a past and future event. The more you read it or hear it, the more enthusiastic you feel to read or hear it. Tired as you normally may be, you never feel bored. It is a fact established with innumerable events experienced that reading it or listening to someone reading it cures difficulties. Being awe struck or sudden feelings of fear upon hearing it being read or recited are not rare events, and some people have even died with its effect. Many implacably inimical disbelievers hearts became mollified when they heard the Qur’ân al-karîm being read or recited, and their owners became Believers.

2-   One day he visited his paternal uncle Abbâs in his home. He asked his uncle and his uncle’s children to sit beside him. Then he covered them with his ihrâm (Seamless garment warn by Muslim pilgrims in Mekka) and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! As I have covered my uncle and my Ahl-i bayt (household), protect them from Hell-fire.” A voice seemed to have come from the walls saying, “Âmîn,” three times.436

436 Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, IX, 226; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXVI, 311.

3-   One day he said to a man with an idol in his hand, “Will you become a Be- liever if the idol speaks to me?” The man defied, “I have been worshipping it for fifty years, and it has never said a word to me. How will it speak to you now?” When Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked, “O idol! Who am I?” a voice said, “You are the Prophet of Allah.” Upon this, the owner of the idol joined the Believers immediately.

4-   While Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was walking along a field, he heard a voice saying, “Yâ Rasûlallah (O the Messenger of Allah)!” three times. He turned to the direction where the voice came from, to see a deer tied up. By its side slept a man. He asked the deer what she wanted. “This hunter has captured me,” said the deer. “I have two babies on the hill over there. Please do let me go! I’ll go, milk them, and come back.” The Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked, “Will you keep your promise and come back?” The deer pledged, “I promise in the name of Allahu ta’âlâ that I shall come back. If I don’t, then may the torment of Allahu ta’âlâ be upon me!” The Messenger of Allah set the deer free. She ran away, coming back sometime later. When the man woke up and asked, “O the Messenger of Allah! Do you have any order or command for me?” The Prophet commanded, “Emancipate this deer!” The man untied the deer. The deer exclaimed, “Ashhadu an lâ ilâha illAllah wa annaka Rasûlullah” and went away.

5-   According to a report which is written in two different books called Sunan written by Tirmuzî and Nesâî, one day a man blind in both eyes came to him and implored, “Yâ Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Please pray to Allahu ta’âlâ so that I should regain my sight.” Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm pitied him, he told him to perform a perfect ritual ablution then to recite the following prayer, Yâ Rabbî (O my Allah)! I beg You. I ask of You through the intercession of Your beloved Prophet Muhammad ‘alai- his-salâm’. O Hadrat Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm,’ whom I dearly love! I beg my Rabb through you. I ask Him to accept my invocation for your sake. Yâ Rabbî! Make this exalted Prophet my intercessor! For his sake, accept my invocation!” The man made an ablution and said the prayer. His eyes opened. Muslims have always said this prayer and attained their wishes.

6-   A woman sent some honey as a present. The Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ accept- ed the honey, returning the empty container. The container arrived, full of honey again. The woman came and asked, “O the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Why do you not accept my present? What is my sin?” The blessed Prophet said, “We have accepted your present. The honey that you see is the barakat (abundance) which Allahu ta’âlâ has given you in return for your present.” The woman became pleased and brought the honey to her home. The woman and her children ate the honey for months. It never decreased. One day, without thinking, they put the honey into another container. When they ate it from that container, the honey was soon finished. They reported this event to the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam,’ he stated, “If the honey had remained in the container that I had sent back, there would be no decrease in the honey even if they ate it till the end of the world.”

7-   He foretold that a considerable number of his Ummat would go out for a Holy War at sea and that Ummu- Hirâm ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhâ,’ one of the Sahâ- ba, would be in that Holy War. During the caliphate of Hadrat ’Uthmân ‘radiy- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh,’ the Muslims sailed to Cyprus and fought a war there. That blessed woman mentioned above was with them. She attained martyrdom there.

8-   He said to Hadrat Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, “If you should dominate over my Ummat one day, reward those people who do goodness, and for- give the malefactors!” Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ was the governor of Damascus for twenty years during the caliphate of Hadrat Umar and Hadrat ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, and later he served as caliphate for twenty years.

9-   One day he looked at Abdullah bin Abbâs’s mother ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’an- hum ajma’în’ and said, “You are going to have a son. Bring him to me when he is born!” Later, when the baby was born, they brought it to him. He recited the azân and the iqâmat into its ears and put his blessed spittle into its mouth. He named him ‘Abdullah’ and gave him back to its mother. “Take the father of Caliphs with you!” he said. When hadrat Abbâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh,’ the father of the child, heard about that, he visited the blessed Prophet and politely asked him why he had said so. The Prophet explained, “Yes, I said so. This child is the father of Caliphs. Among them there will be (a person named) Saffâh, (one named) Mahdî, and a person who will perform ritual prayer with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’.” Many Khalîfas presided over the Abbasid state. All of them descended from Abdullah bin Abbâs.

10- He put his blessed hands on the forehead of his paternal uncle’s son, Abdullah bin Abbâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’ and made the following prayer: “Yâ Rabbî! Make this person a profound scholar in the religion and an owner of hikmat (knowledge pertaining to halâls and harâms)! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Qur’ân al-karîm!” From then on, he was peerless in his time in all branches of knowledge, especially in tafsîr (understanding murâd-i ilâhî -divine purpose- from the âyats in the Qur’ân al-karîm), in hadîth, and in fiqh. The Sahâba and the Tâbi’în learned from him whatever they wanted to know. He became well known and referred to as ‘Tarjumân-ul-Qur’ân’ (interpreter of the Qur’ân al-karîm), ‘Bahr-ul-’ilm’ (sea of knowledge), and ‘Raîs-ul-mufassirîn’ (scholars of tafsîr). His numerous disciples enriched the Muslim countries.437

437 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 266; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 365; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, XI, 234.

11- He pronounced the following benediction over Anas bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, one of his servants: “Yâ Rabbî! Make his property abundant and children numerous. Make his life long, and forgive his sins!” As time passed, there was a gradual increase in Anas bin Mâlik’s property. His orchards yielded plenty of fruit every year. He had many children. He lived for a hun- dred and ten years. Towards the end of his life he supplicated, “Yâ Rabbî! You have accepted three of the benedictions that Your Beloved one pronounced over me, and You have granted me all these blessings. I wonder if You will accept the fourth one and forgive my sins?” A voice was heard to say, “I have accepted the fourth one as well. Allow your heart to be pleased!”

12- During the Holy Battle of Qatfân in the third year of the Hijrat (Hegira), Rasûl‘alaihis-salâm’ was lying down under a tree, alone, a disbeliever named Da’sûr, who was also a wrestler, came with a sword in his hand and said, “Who will rescue you from me now?” “Allahu ta’âlâ will,” was Rasûlullah’s answer. When the blessed Messenger said so, Jabrâil ‘alaihis-salâm (Archangel Gabri- el) appeared in human guise and hit the unbeliever on the chest. He fell down and dropped the sword on the ground. Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ took the sword in his hand and said, “Who will rescue you from me?” The man begged, “There is not a person better than you, to rescue me.” The blessed Prophet forgave him and let him go. The man joined the Believers and caused many other people to embrace Islam.438

438 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II 35; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 4; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 890.

13- One day the Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ made an ablution, put on one of his mests (waterproof footwear covering the part of the foot which is fard to wash in ablution), and as he was about to put on the other one, a bird snatched the mest and shook it in the air. A snake fell out of the mest. Then the bird left the mest on the ground and flew away. From that day on, it has been sunnat (any behaviour which is not commanded by Allahu ta’âlâ but which is done and recommended by our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm’) to shake shoes before putting them on.

14- Anas bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ had a handkerchief with which the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ had dried his blessed face once. Anas would dry his face with that handkerchief and put it in a fire when it became dirty. The dirt would burn while the handkerchief would not burn and became extremely clean.

15- In the Holy Battle of Uhud, one of Abû Qatâda’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ eyes came out of its socket and fell on his cheek. They took him to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’. With his own blessed hand the Messen- ger put the eye back into its socket and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! Make his eye beautiful!” So this eye of Abû Qatâda’s was more beautiful than his other eye, and its sight was more powerful than the other one’s. (Years later,) one day one of Abû Qatâda’s grandsons was in the presence of ’Umar bin Abd-ul-’Azîz, the time’s Khalîfa. When the Khalîfa asked him who he was, he recited a couplet saying that he was the grandson of the person whose eye the Messenger of Allah had replaced with his blessed hand. When the Khalîfa heard the couplet, he treated him with utter respect and generous kindness.

16- One day, our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm visited the house of his daugh- ter Hadrat Fâtima and asked about their state. Hadrat Fâtima replied, “Father! For three days, my sons and I have not eaten or drunk anything. We endure hunger. My state is not important. However, the situation of Hasan and Husayn greatly saddens me”.

Upon this, our Master Sarwar-i âlam said, “O Fatima! My beloved daughter! You are hungry for three days. I am hungry for four days”. He became very sad that his blessed grandsons Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn were hungry…

Hadrat Ali set out to work and earn something to feed his blessed sons. When he went out of Medina, he saw a peasant who was trying to water his camels at a well.

Hadrat Ali approached that villager and asked, “O Arab! Do you need to employ anyone to water your camels?” The villager replied, “Yes, I have been looking for such a person. If you want, come and water my camels! I will give you three dates for each bucket of water you take out.”

Hadrat Ali accepted the offer. He started taking water out. When he had taken out nine buckets of water, the rope of the bucket broke. The bucket remained within the well. The villager that seen this incident stood up angrily and unfortunately he slapped Hadrat Ali’s face.

Then, he gave twenty four dates for the eight buckets of water. Hadrat Ali, being very sad, extended his arm towards the interior of the well. He took the bucket out and placed it near the well. Then, he left there.

The villager was shocked! How could his arm reach the bottom of that deep well?! Did that person belong to the religion which was said to come? In these thoughts, the amazed villager said, “His Prophet a true Prophet. I believe that!”

He was sorry that he had committed such a grave crime. He said to himself, “Hands that tried to hit such a person must be cut off, their bones must be broken.” He took his sword and struck his wrist. He cut off his hand.

He felt a great pain. However, his heart was calm now. He took his amputated hand and came to the Masjid-i Nabî directly. He asked the Ashâb-i kirâm where our Prophet ’alaihis-salâm was. They told him he had gone to the house of his daughter. He learned the location of Hadrat Fâtima’s home and went there.

At that moment, our Master, the Prophet sat his grandsons Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn on his blessed lap and fed them with the dates that were brought.

Thinking of the big mistake that he made, the villager nearly lost his senses and his tears flowed like a fountain.

In this condition, he came to the house of Hadrat Fâtima. He knocked on the door. The Master of the world, emitting lights as if he were the sun, came out of the house.

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AHL-I BAYT

His blessed wives

The villager begged immediately, “I believe that you are the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ! I am sorry for what I have done. Forgive me, O Rasûlullah!”

When our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm asked, “Why have you cut off your hand?”, he replied, “Because I felt ashamed to have this hand that hit a blessed face which believes you!.. May my soul be sacrificed for your sake, O Rasûlullah!”

Our beloved Prophet ’alaihis-salâm, sea of compassion, took the cut-off hand from the villager. Saying “Bismillâhirrahmânirrahîm,he united it with the villager’s bleeding wrist. With the permission of Allahu ta’âlâ, as a miracle of our Master, the Prophet, the hand returned to its previous state. Allahu ta’âlâ has unlimited power, He is Omnipotent.

Our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm, after the death of our Mother Hadrat Khadîja, married our Mother Hadrat Âisha. She was his second wife. Hadrat Âisha’s father was Hadrat Abû Bakr. Rasûlullah married her by the command of Allahu ta’âlâ. Until he passed away, he lived with her for eight years.

He married all the others either for religious or political reasons or out of mercy or as a blessing. All these women were widows. Most of them were old. For example, when the Meccan disbelievers’ persecution and harm to the Muslims had become un- bearable, a group of the Prophet’s companions migrated to Ethiopia. Najashî (Negus), the Ethiopian emperor, was a Christian. He asked the Muslims several questions, and, admiring the answers he received, he converted to Islam. He did the Muslims many favors. Ubaydullah bin Jahsh, who had a weak belief, in order to escape poverty, submitted to the priests and became a renegade by changing his faith for the world.439

439 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 223; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, III, 89; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 414; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, I, 379.

This accursed person, who was Rasûlullah’s paternal aunt’s son, incited and forced his wife, Umm-i Habîba, to dissent from the religion to become rich. Yet, when the woman said that she would rather die than dissent from Hadrat Muhammad’s ‘sall- Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ religion, he divorced her. He waited for her to die out of misery. But he himself died after a short while. Umm-i Habîba was the daughter of Abû Sufyân, who was commander-in-chief of the Quraysh disbelievers in Mecca. Meanwhile, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’ was busy with a very difficult armed struggle against the Quraysh armies, and Abû Sufyân was fighting with his utmost power in order to annihilate Islam.

Rasûlullah heard of Umm-i Habîba’s strength of faith and the dismal happenings which she had undergone. He wrote a letter to Najâshî, saying, “I will marry Umm-i Habîba, who is there; perform my nikâh (Marriage contract made in accordance with Islam)! Then send her here!” Najâshî had already converted to Islam. He re- spected the letter very much and gave a feast inviting many Muslims from that area to his palace. The nikâh was performed in the seventh year of the Hegira, providing many presents and gifts. Thus, Umm-i Habîba attained the reward of her îmân (faith) and became rich and comfortable there. Owing to her, the Muslims of that area be- came comfortable, too. Since women will be with their husbands in Paradise, she was given the good news of the highest grade of Paradise. All the pleasures and blessings of this world are almost nothing when compared to this good news. This nikâh was one of the reasons that contributed to Abû Sufyân’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anh’ being honored with becoming a Muslim afterwards. As it is seen here, this nikâh indicates the degree of wisdom, intelligence, genius, generosity, and mercy of the Messenger of Allah.440

A second example is that of Hadrat Hafsa; Hadrat ’Umar’s daughter was widowed. In the third year of the Hegira, when Hadrat ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anh’ said to Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu anhumâ,’ “Would you marry my daughter?” each of them said, “I’ll think about it.” One day when all three of them and others were present, Rasûlullah asked, “O ’Umar! I see you are sad. What’s the reason?” As it is easy to see the color of ink in a bottle, so Rasûlullah would understand everybody’s thoughts at first glance. When necessary, he would inquire. Since it is fard for us to tell the truth to him and even to others, Hadrat ’Umar an- swered, “O Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam’! I offered my daughter to Abû Bakr and to ’Uthman ‘radiy-Allâhu anhum.’ They wouldn’t marry her.” Rasûlullah, because he never wanted his most beloved companions to be hurt, immediately said, in order to please them, “O ’Umar! Would you like it if I gave your daughter to a person better than Abû Bakr and ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu anhum’?” Hadrat ’Umar was astonished. For, he knew there was no person better than Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Uthmân. He said, “Yes, O Rasûlallah.” Rasûlullah said, “O ’Umar, give your daughter to me!” Thus Hadrat Hafsa became the mother of Abû Bakr, ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu anhum’ and of all Muslims; and they became her servants, and Hadrat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar and Hadrat ’Uthmân became closer to one another. 441

A third example; in the fifth or sixth year of Hegira, Juwayriyya, daughter of Hâris, chieftain, was among the captives from the Banî Mustalaq tribe. When Rasûlullah

‘alaihis-salâm bought, emancipated and married her, all the Ashâb-i kirâm said, “We feel ashamed to use female slaves or servants that are the relatives of Rasûlullah’s wife, our mother.” All of them emancipated their captives. This marriage caused the emancipation of hundreds of captives. Hadrat Juwayriyya was mentioning this con- stantly. Hadrat Âisha said, “I have never seen a woman more blessed, more auspicious than Juwayriyya”. 442

440 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 607; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 258; Bayhaqî, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, II, 188; Safadî, al-Wâfî, I, 42; Huzâî, et-Tahrîj, s, 184.
441 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 237; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 83; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, V, 294; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz- -Zawâid, IV, 320.
442 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 277; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, I, 294; Tabarî, Târikh, II, 264; Ibn Habîb, al-Muhabbar, s, 90; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 18.

His other blessed wives

Hadrat Âisha: She is the second of Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm’s pure wives. She is the daughter of Hadrat Abû Bakr. She was very clever, wise, learned, fluent, chaste and pious. Since she had a very powerful memory, the Ashâb-i kirâm would ask and learn many things from her. She is praised in âyat-i karîma. Since her ijtihâd did not agree with Hadrat Ali’s ijtihad, she was among the Ashâb-i kirâm that fought Had- rat Ali in the Camel Incident. She became very sad when Hadrat Ali was martyred. Hurîfîs greatly slander her. They say she disliked Hadrat Ali. However, she was the person who reported the hadîth-i sherîf, “Loving Ali is from îmân”. Thus, she de- clared that she liked him and everyone should like him. She was born eight years before the Hegira. She passed away in Medina in the year of fifty-seven [H.] when she was sixty-five years old.

Sawda binti Zam’a: She is the third wife of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. She had become Muslim with her husband and they had migrated to Abyssinia. When they returned to Mecca, her husband passed away. Rasûlullah married with Hadrat Âisha first, and then Hadrat Sawda. He took Sawda to his house in Mecca and Hadrat Âisha in Medina. She was a very compassionate and chaste lady. She passed away in the era of Hadrat ‘Umar’s caliphate.443

Zaynab binti Huzayma: She would make many worships and give much in alms. Previously, she was the wife of Abdullah bin Jahsh. Abdullah’s mother was Umayma, Rasûlullah’s paternal aunt. He became a martyr in the Battle of Uhud. Although Zay- nab binti Huzayma was honored with the marriage with Rasûlullah, she passed away eight months later.444

Ummu Salama: Her name was Hind. She migrated to Abyssinia with her husband Abû Salama. Abû Salama was the brother of Ubaydullah bin Jahsh. Ubaydullah bin Jahsh’s mother was Barra, paternal aunt of Rasûlullah. Abû Salama passed away in the fourth year of Hegira, due to the wound he received in the Battle of Uhud. She did not accept marriage proposals of Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Umar. She became honored with marrying Rasûlullah. She passed away in Medina, in the fifty ninth year of Hegira. She was eighty four years old then. Of Rasûlullah’s wives, she was the one who passed away last.445

Zaynab binti Jahsh: She was daughter of Umayma, paternal aunt of Rasûlullah

’alaihis-salâm. Abdullah bin Jahsh was her brother. Her father’s name was Barra. Since he had not believed in Islam, he was called Jahsh. Zaynab was among the first of Muslims. Our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm had given her in marriage to his (step) son, Zayd bin Hârisa. They divorced in the third year of Hegira. Rasûl ’alai- his-salâm wanted to marry her. When Zaynab heard this, out of her joy, she performed a ritual prayer of two rak’ats and supplicated to Allahu ta’âlâ, saying, “O my Rabb! Your Messenger wants to marry me. If You have decreed that I will be honored by his marriage, You give me in marriage to him.” Her prayer was accepted. The thirty seventh âyat of the Ahzâb sûra descended. It purports: “After Zayd has done what he wished about her (that is, after he has divorced her), we have made her a wife to you.” Since her nikâh (Islamic marriage contract) had been made by Allahu ta’âlâ,

443 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 238; Ibn Habîb, al-Muhabbar, s, 79; Maqrîzî, Imtâu’l-asmâ, VI, 34.
444 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 115.
445 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 96; Ibn Habîb, al-Muhabbar, s, 85.

Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm did not perform another nikâh for her. Hadrat Zaynab was mentioning that every time and she would say, “Every woman is given in marriage by her father. As for me, my nikâh was made by Allahu ta’âlâ.” She was thirty eight years old then. She passed away in the twentieth year of Hegira, at fifty three years old.446

She was very generous, she loved giving alms. She was very capable in handicraft. She gave the things she handcrafted and everything she received to her relatives and the poor. Hadrat ’Umar would give twelve thousand dirham to each of the pure wives of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. She would give alms and distribute that amount to the poor as soon as she received it. She is the one who died first among the pure wives of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm after his passing away. Hadrat Âisha praised her much. The hadîth-i sherîf, “Among my wives, the first one to reach me is the one who is very generous.”447 had communicated that she would pass away. For, she was the one who gave alms most. (French poet Voltaire, was an immoral and slandering person. He had written a playbook about the marriage of Rasûlullah to Hadrat Zaynab. His book is contrary to history, facts and reports. It is full of slanders and fabricated stories. That nascent writing, which is not suitable for a man of literature, was liked by his vehe- ment enemy, the Pope. Although he had excommunicated him before, the Pope wrote a flattering letter to him. When Sultan Abdulhamid II, the Caliph of Muslims, heard that that play would be performed, he prevented it by giving ultimatums to French and British governments and he saved all humanity from disgraceful baseness.)

446 Dâra Qutnî, as-Sunan, III, 301; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 24.
447 Bukhârî, “Zakat”, 10; Muslim, “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 101; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII 108.

Hadrat Safiyya: Her father was Huyayy Ibn Akhtab, who was the head of the Jews of Khaybar. She was the fiancée of a Jewish man in Khaybar. Then, she was married to Kanâna bin Haqîq, who was a very rich person. When Khaybar was conquered in the sev- enth year of Hegira, Safiyya was captured. She was allotted to Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. Rasûlullah emancipated her. She became Muslim. She became honored with the marriage of Rasûlullah. She passed away in Medina in the fiftieth year of Hegira.

Hadrat Maymûna: While her name was Barra, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm changed it to Maymûna. When they went to Mecca for Umra (hajj-i asghar [minor pilgrim- age]) after the conquest of Khaybar, her husband had passed away. She was honored by the marriage of Rasûlullah. She became ill in the fifty third year of Hegira. She said, “Take me out of Mecca. Because, Rasûlullah said I will die outside of Mecca.” They took her out, she passed away where her nikâh (marriage) with Rasûlullah was performed.

Hadrat Mâriya: She became Muslim while she was a female slave of our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm. She was honored by the marriage of Rasûlullah. Mâriya had been sent as a present from Muqawqas, the ruler of Alexandria, Egypt. Therefore, her lineage (ancestry) and birth date are not known exactly. Our Master, Rasûl-i akram had a son from our Mother Hadrat Mâriya. His name was Ibrahim. Hadrat Mâriya was a very quiet and calm person. She passed away in the last years of the caliphate of Hadrat ’Umar. It was 637 A.D. (16 H.). She was buried in the Baqî’ cemetery.

Hadrat Rayhâna: While she was a female slave of our Master, the Prophet, she became Muslim. She was from the Jewish Banî Qurayzâ tribe in Medina. Her lineage (ancestry) is Rayhâna binti Sham’ûn ibn Yazid or Rayhâna binti Zayd ibn Amr ibn Hanafa bin Sham’ûn bin Yazid. Her birth date is not known clearly. She passed away in 631 A.D. (10 H.) in Medina, before the death of our Master, the Prophet. She was buried in the Baqî’ cemetery.

In a hadîth-i sherîf, it is purported, “All my marriages with my wives and giving my daughters in marriage to their husbands have been performed with the per- mission Allahu ta’âlâ descended through Jabrâil (’alaihis-salâm).”

One of the important reasons why Rasûlullah married many wives was to communicate Islam. Before the âyat of Hijâb was revealed, that is, before women were commanded to veil themselves, women also used to come to Rasûlullah to ask and learn what they did not know. When Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) went to the house of a person, they used to come and sit, and listen and obtain information. But, after the âyat of Hîjâb, it was prohibited for nâ-mahram (Within permitted degrees of relationship for marriage; not one of the eighteen women whom the Sharî’at has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa) women and men to sit together and talk, and Rasûlullah did not allow nâ-mah- ram women to come and ask questions afterwards. He ordered them to ask and to learn from his blessed wife Hadrat Âisha. There were so many women and so many questions that Hadrat Âisha was unable to find time to answer all of them. In order to ease this important task, and to reduce the weight on Hadrat Âisha, Rasûlullah married as many wives as necessary. He communicated to Muslim women hundreds of delicate pieces of informa- tion concerning women through his blessed wives. If he had had one wife, it would have been difficult, and even impossible, for all the women to learn from her. To communicate the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm shouldered the weight of marrying more than one woman too.

His Children

Our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm had seven children: Three sons and four daughters. Except Hadrat Fâtima, all of them passed away before the death of our Master, the Prophet. The lineage of our beloved Prophet continued through our moth- er Hadrat Fâtima. He had two grandsons (that survived), Hadrat Husayn and Hadrat Hasan. The descendants of Hadrat Husayn are called sayyid and the descendants of Hadrat Hasan are called sharîf. Respecting sayyids and sharîfs is tantamount to re- specting our Master, the Prophet. Loving sayyids and sharîfs causes one to die as a Muslim at his last breath.

Qâsim: He is the first one of the three sons Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm had. There- fore, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm was named Abû’l Qâsim (Father of Qâsim). He came into the world three years before the prophethood in Mecca. His mother is Khadîjat- ul-Kubrâ. He passed away when he was seventeen months old.448

448 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 16.

Zaynab: She is the first of the four daughters of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. She came into the world when our Master, the Prophet was thirty years old. Before Rasû- lullah was notified of his prophethood, she had been married to Abu’l-As bin Rabî who was son of the sister of her mother Hadrat Khadîja.449 At first, Abu’l-As did not become Muslim. He was captured in the Battle of Badr. He was freed on the condition that he would send his wife to Medina. He even sent her with his own brother, but on the way, the disbelievers sent Zaynab back. Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm sent Zayd bin Hârisa to Mecca and took Zaynab to Medina in the night. Abu’l-As became Muslim after the Battle of Hudaybiya. Zaynab was given to him again. She passed away in the eighth year of Hegira. She was thirty one years old then. Her son Ali was on the back of the camel of Rasûlullah in the conquest of Mecca. Hadrat Ali performed his nikâh with Ummâma, Zaynab’s daughter, himself.450

Ruqayya: She is the second daughter of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. She came into the world when our Master, the Prophet was thirty three years old. She was very beautiful. She had nikâh to Utba, son of Abû Lahab. When the sûra of “Tabbat yadâ” descended, Utba divorced her before the wedding. A wahy came and she had nikâh to Hadrat ’Uthmân. Together with Hadrat ’Uthmân, she migrated to Abyssinia two times. While she was twenty two years old, before the Battle of Badr, she became ill. Hadrat ’Uthmân was commanded not to come to the Badr and to serve his wife. She was buried the day the victory news of the Badr reached Medina.451

Umm Kulthum: She is the third daughter of Rasûlullah ‘alahis-salâm. Although she had nikâh to Utayba, the second son of Abû Lahab, when the sûra of “Tabbat yadâ” descended, Utabya divorced her before the wedding and said bitter words to Rasûlullah. Upon this, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm pronounced a malediction over him, “O my Rabb! Make one of your monsters attack this man!” A lion pulled him to pieces on the way to Damascus. After Ruqayya passed away, a wahy came and Umm Kulthum too, married to Hadrat ’Uthmân. She passed away in the ninth year of He- gira. Her janâza (funeral) prayer was conducted by Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. While she was being buried, he was standing near her grave and tears were coming down from his blessed eyes.452

Fâtima: She is the fourth daughter of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. She was the wife of Hadrat Ali and mother-in-law of Hadrat ’Umar. She was fifteen years old when she was married.453 It is written in the book “Mawâhib-i ladunniyya,in the chapter of Sawîk expedition, that her mahr was four hundred mithqal silver. (According to Islam, the mahr comprises things like gold, silver, banknotes, or any kind of property or any kind of benefit that is given by a man to the woman he is to marry.) That amount was equal to 57.14 mithqal gold. (Today’s 38 gold coins.) Ali ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ was twenty-one years old then. He is from the Ahl-i bayt. She was white and very

beautiful. She was born in Mecca, thirteen years before the Hegira. She passed away in the eleventh year of Hegira. She was twenty four years old. She had three sons – Hasan, Husayn and Muhsin – and two daughters – Ummu Gulthum and Zaynab.454 The lineage of Rasûlullah has continued through Fâtima. Zaynab was married to Abdullah bin Ja’far Tayyar and had two children: Ali and Ummu Gulthum. These are called Sharîf-i Ja’fari.

Abdullah: He is Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm’s last child from Hadrat Khadîja-tul- kubrâ. He came into the world after Rasûlullah was informed of the prophethood. He passed away while he was still a breastfed infant. He is called Tayyib and Tâhir as well. When Abdullah passed away, Âs bin Wâil said “Muhammad has lost his lin- eage.” Allahu ta’âlâ gave the reply to Âs, the disbeliever, by descending the Sûra of “Innâ a’taynâ”.455

Ibrâhim: He is the third son and the last child of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. His mother is Mâriya, who was sent as a present by Mukawkas, Heraclius’ governor of Egypt. He was born in the eighth year of Hegira and passed away when he was one and a half years old. While he was ill, Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm would embrace him and tears would come from his blessed eyes. Some people said due to his passing away, a solar eclipse occurred. When our Master Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm heard this, he said, “The Moon and the Sun are two creatures of Allahu ta’âlâ that indicate His Existence and Unity. They are not eclipsed due to anyone’s death or living. Remember Allahu ta’âlâ when you see them.” When Ibrâhim passed away, he said, “O Ibrâhim! We feel very sad because of your death. Our eyes are weeping, our heart is aching. But, we say nothing that will hurt our Rabb.”

His Ahl-i Bayt (Household)

All the family members of our beloved Prophet are called Ahl-i Bayt. His blessed wives, his daughter Hadrat Fâtima with Hadrat Alî and their blessed children Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn and all of their children as well, besides the Hâshim Family, which our Prophet’s pure descent belongs to are Ahl-i Bayt.

Allahu ta’âlâ declares to the Ahl-i Bayt in the Qur’ân al-karîm, purporting, “Allahu ta’âlâ wants to remove rijs, that is, all faults and smears from you and wills to cleanse you with a complete purity.”456

Ashâb-i kirâm asked, “O Rasûlullah! Who are Ahl-i Bayt?” Just then Imâm-i Alî came. He took him under his blessed coat. Then Fâtimat az-Zahrâ, Imâm-i Hasan and Imâm-i Husain came one after another. By taking them to each of his sides, he said, “Here, these are my Ahl-i Bayt.” These blessed persons are also called “Âl-i Aba and Âl-i Rasûl.”457

449 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 229; Abdurrazzâq, al-Musannaf, VII, 171; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 31.
450 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 31.
451 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 36.
452 Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXXIX, 37.
453 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 22.
454 Ibn Ishâq, as-Sira, s, 231; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 26; Ibn Kathîr, al-Bidâya, V, 293.
455 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, VIII, 16; Tabarî, Târikh, III, 175.
456 The Ahzab Sûra, 33/33.
457 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, III, 55; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 451.

Loving the Ahl-i Bayt an-Nabawî causes one to go to the Hereafter with îmân, to reach salvation at the last breath. Loving the Ahl-i Bayt is fard for each Muslim. Sar- war-i Âlam sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam declared in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs, “My Ahl-i Bayt are like Noah ’alaihis-salâm’s Ark. One who follows them will reach salvation. The rest will be perished.”458

The Ahl-i Bayt an-Nabawî have a myriad of virtues and perfections. They are countless. Manpower can not suffice to describe and eulogize them. Their value and grandness can only be understood by âyat-i karîma.

Imâm-i Shâfi’î affirms this in the most beautiful way by saying, “O Ahl-i Bayt al- Rasûl! In the Qur’ân al-karîm, Allahu ta’âlâ commands to love you. Rejection of the ritual prayers of those who don’t pray for you, shows your value and high degree. Your honor is so great that Allahu ta’âlâ greets you in the Qur’ân al-karîm.”

Hadrat Anas says, “It was asked of Rasûlullah, ‘Who do you love the most among the Ahl-i Bayt? He replied by saying, ‘Hasan and Husain’.”459

Hadrat Abû Hurayra says, “I was with Rasûlullah. Hasan came. He said “O my Rabb! I love him. You too love him and also love the ones who love him” and an- other time he said, “Hasan and Husain are my fragrance in the world.”

Again our Master, the Prophet said,

“I am leaving to you two things after me. If you adhere to them, you will not deviate. The first is greater than the second. One of them is the Qur’ân al-karîm, the Holy Book of Allahu ta’âlâ, which is like a strong rope extending from heaven down to earth. The second one is my Ahl-i Bayt. These two are inseparable. He who does not conform with them, will have abandoned my way.”460

458 Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, III, 45; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, II, 373.
459 Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, VII, 274; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XI, 153; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XI, 58.
460   Tirmidhî, “Manâqib”, 32; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, VI, 309; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, III, 66.

Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn had fallen ill. Our Prophet commanded Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fâtima, “Make a vow for these darlings of yours!” Hadrat Ali and our mother Fâtima and their servant Fidda made a vow to fast for three days. Those two fragrances of heaven recovered their health. But there was nothing to eat at their home. Hadrat Ali borrowed three sa’ 461 (a measure of capacity containing four muds of lentils. One mud is an amount of two handfuls) of barley from a Jew. The three made intention for the fast that they vowed.

461 sa’: A measure of volume which is equal to 4,2 liters. (Its weight equivalent is 3500 grams.) – See: Religious Terms Dictionary, II, 149 – Türkiye Newspaper Publications.

Hadrat Fâtima ground one scale of that barley and baked five loaves of bread. They were five persons. It was time for iftâr (time for breaking a fast). She put one of the five breads in front of Hadrat Ali and one in front of Hadrat Hasan and one in front of Hadrat Husain and one in front of the servant Fidda and one in front of herself. They were about to have iftâr. Just then one miskîn (one that is very poor) came and said, “O Ahl-i Bayt-i Rasûlullah! I am a mi- skîn among the miskîn Muslims. Please give me food. May Allahu ta’âlâ reward you with the blessings of paradise.” Then they gave him the bread in their hands as alms and broke their fast with water. The next day they fasted again. The servant ground one more scale of barley and baked five loaves of bread again. At iftâr time, as they were about to break their fast with the bread in front of them, an orphan came. The five of them made that orphan happy by giving all their bread to him, they broke their fast with water and slept. The following day, they fasted again. They again baked five loaves of bread from the remaining one scale of barley and put the bread in front of them. As they were about to have iftâr, a slave came and said that he was hungry for three days. “They bound me and did not give any meal, please pity me for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ,” he said. The five gave their bread to him and again made their iftâr with water. As a result of this, Allahu ta’âlâ declared in an âyat purporting, “These people have kept their vows. Since they are afraid of Judgment Day which is long and perpetual, they have given their food, which they so deeply hungered and desired for, to the poor, orphans and slaves. They said, ‘we gave to you these foods for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ. We didn’t expect thanks or anything in return from you, we demand nothing.’ Therefore, Janâb-i-Haqq has blessed them with the drink called sharâb-i tahûr…”462

Abû Hureyra said that our Prophet declared, “The good people among you are the ones who will be good towards my Ahl-i Bayt, after me.”

Hadrat Ali stated that our Prophet declared, “I will intercede on the Day of Judg- ment for those who have been good towards my Ahl-i Bayt.” “The ones, who pass the Sîrat Bridge without slipping, are the ones who love my Ahl-i Bayt and Ashâb very much.”

In a hadîth-i sherîf that Hadrat Imâm-i Rabbânî explains, it was declared, “The one, who loves Alî, will have certainly loved me. The one, who is inimical towards Alî, will have certainly been inimical towards me. The one, who hurts Alî, will have certainly hurt me. And who hurts me, will have certainly hurt Allahu ta’âlâ.”

Our Master Rasûlullah said, “Allahu ta’âlâ commanded me to love four people. He informed that He loves them.” As it was asked of him, “Who are those four peo- ple, could you please tell their names O Rasûlullah?” he said, “Ali is one of them, Ali is one of them, Ali is one of them; Abû Zer, Mikdâd and Selmân.”

“There will be bitter torment on those who hurt me because of my family.”

In one hadîth-i sherîf he declared that: “Fâtima is a part from me. The one, who hurts her, will have hurt me.” Hadrat Abû Hurayra said, “Our Prophet said to Hadrat Ali: ‘Fâtima is more beloved than you for me. You are more valuable (that is, you are precious!) than her for me.”463

462 Al-Insan Sûra, 76/ 7-21.
463 Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, IX, 100; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, XXXXII, 125; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, XI, 44.

Again he said, “I don’t want anything in return from you, for having brought the religion of Islam to you. I only want you to love my Ahl-i Bayt.”

Islamic scholars have considered the love of the Ahl-i Bayt necessary for keeping imân at one’s last breath. These people have motes of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. It is every Muslim’s duty to esteem and show respect to the Ahl-i Bayt.

Great Islamic scholar Imam-î Rabbânî (rahmat-Allahi ’alaih) said, “My father was a very profound scholar in apparent and concealed knowledge, that is, in spiritual knowledge. He would always recommend and encourage loving Ahl-i Bayt. He would say that this love greatly helps a person keep his imân at his dying breath. At his dying breath, I was at his bedside. At his final moments, when he was to lose his conscious- ness, I reminded him of these advices and asked how this love was effecting him. Even in that state he said, ‘I am swimming in the sea of the love of the Ahl-i Bayt.’ At once, I praised and eulogized Allahu ta’âlâ. The love of the Ahl-i Bayt is the capital of the Ahl as-Sunnat creed. And this capital will bring the gains of the Hereafter.”

Rasûlullah’s ’alaihis-salâm Ahl-i Bayt consists of three groups: First are his rela- tives by lineage, such as his paternal aunts. Second are his pure wives. Third are the maidservants who always stayed in the house for doing such housework as combing his wives’ hair, cooking the meals, sweeping the rooms, washing the clothes. Bilal, Selman and Suhayb who were doing outdoor work and reciting the azan would also have their meals in the House of bliss.

Hadrat Fâtima and her children who will come into this world until the Last Day are also from Ahl-i Bayt. One should love them, even if they are rebellious. Loving them, helping them from the heart, body and possessions, showing respect to and obeying them will cause one to die with îmân. (There was a court for Sayyids [descendants of Rasûlullah] in Hama, Syria. The children who were born from this blessed family would be recorded before a judge with two witnesses. Mustapha Rashid Pasha, the loyal friend of the British, terminated that court.)

The Companions of Rasûlullah

They are friends of our Prophet ’alaihis-salâm. A Believer who saw our Prophet

‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ at least for a moment, or who talked with him at least for a moment, if he was a blind person, is called a Sâhib or a Sahâbî, regardless of his age at that blessed moment. When they are more than one, they are called Ashâb, or Sahâba, or Sahb.

A person who was a disbeliever when he saw the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ and became a Believer after the Prophet’s passing away, or a person who was a Believer when he saw him and reneged Islam after the Prophet’s passing away, is not a Sahâbî. If a person who reneged Islam (after the blessed event that had made him a Sahâbî) became a Muslim once again, he is still a Sahâbî. Since our Mas- ter ’alahis-salâm is Prophet for the genies as well, a genie also may become a sahâbî.

The Ashâb-i kirâm are the most reliable authorities regarding religious rules. For, they had learned the Qur’ân al-karîm from our Prophet ’alaihis-salâm and they taught and explained it to other people. The knowledge about deeds and words of our Proph- et ’alaihis-salâm depends on the reports of these people who saw and heard them in person.

Thus, all the rules these people reported constituted the basis of the hadîth-i sherîfs. In Islam, ijmâ-i ummat, that is, the unanimity of scholars was realized entirely and completely in the time of the Ashâb alone. In addition, each and every one of the Ashâb is a mujtahid scholar whose words are a proof in the religion. They are superior to other mujtahids who lived afterwards.

Scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnat, classify the Ashâb-i kirâm ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’an- hum ajma’în’ in three categories in respect of superiority:

  1. Muhâjirîn (Migrators): Those who left their homes and countries, in Mecca or elsewhere, and migrated to Medina, before the conquest of Mecca. Those people embraced Islam either before or after joining Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ (in Medina). Hadrat ’Amr ibn al-’Âs was one of them.
  2. Ansâr (Helpers, Supporters): Muslims who lived in the city of Medina or in places near this blessed city, as well as those who belonged to the two tribes called Aws and Hazraj, are called Ansâr ‘ridwânullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în’. Indeed, these people promised all sorts of help and sacrifice for our Master Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam’ and those from Mecca and they kept their promises.

  1. The other Sahâbîs ‘ridwânullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în’: They are the peo- ple who became Believers upon the conquest of Mecca or afterwards in Mecca or elsewhere. They are not called Muhâjirîn or Ansâr. They are only called Sahâbîs.

The (earliest) four Khalîfas of the Messenger of Allah are the most superior of the Ashâb-i kirâm. In accordance with their chronological succession in caliphate: Had- rat Abû Bakr, Hadrat ’Umar, Hadrat ’Uthman and Hadrat Ali. The next most superior Sahâbîs are the remaining six of the ten fortunate people who were blessed with the Glad Tidings of Paradise (Talha, Zubayr bin Awwam, Abdurrahman bin Awf, Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas, Said bin Zayd, Abû Ubayda bin Jarrah) , and also Hadrat Hasan and Hadrat Husayn.

The most superior of the Ashâb-i kirâm, after the four great caliphs and those who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, are forty people who were the first to become Muslim. The next most superior Sahâbîs after them are the three hundred and thirteen (313) Sahâbîs who joined the Holy Battle of Badr. The next highest Sahâbîs are the seven hundred (700) heroes who fought in the Holy Battle of Uhud. The next high- est Sahâbîs are the fourteen hundred (1400) people who promised the Messenger of Allah, under a tree, saying, “We will rather die than go back,” in the sixth year of the Hegira. This well-known covenant is called “Bî’at ur-Ridwân”.464

464 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 59; II, 101, 120; Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 315; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, I, 279;

There were ten thousand Sahâbîs by the time Mecca was conquered, seventy thou- sand Sahâbîs during the Holy Battle of Tabuk, and ninety thousand during the blessed Messenger’s Farewell Hajj. The earth enjoyed carrying on its shoulders more than one hundred and twenty thousand living Sahâbîs by the time of the death of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm. There are other reports on this subject as well.

The following blessed Sahâbîs outlived all the others: Abdullah bin Awfâ ‘radiy- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ passed away in the city of Kûfa in the eighty-sixth year of the Hegira (A.D. 705). Abdullah bin Yesr passed away in Damascus in the eighty eighth year (of the Hegira) (A.D. 706). Sahl bin Sa’d ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ passed away in Medina in the ninety-first year of the Hegira (A.D.709), when he was a hundred years old. Anas bin Mâlik passed away in Basra in the ninety-third year (A.D. 711). Abû-t-tufayl Âmir bin Wâsila passed away in Mecca in the hundredth year of the Hegira (A.D.718).

After the death of our Prophet ’alaihis-salâm, in the era of the Four Caliphs too, the Ashâb-i kirâm kept their promise to spread the religion of Islam and to make jihad. They did not break their word. All of them left their homes and lands; they went out of Arabia and spread everywhere. Most of those who went did not return, they made jihad where they reached and spread the religion of Islam until they died. Thus, in a short time, many countries were conquered. Islam spread rapidly in the conquered lands.

All the Ashâb-i kirâm are just and fair. All of them are equal in respect to commu- nicating Islam. They were the ones who compiled the Qur’ân al-karîm. They were the ones who reported the Hadîth-i sherîfs from our Prophet ’alaihis salâm.

(Many books have been written and published that inform of the Ashâb-i kirâm’s services to Islam, their exemplary lives, their virtues, names of all of them and their biographies. The Turkish book “Ashâb-i kirâm” published by Hakikat Kitabevi is very valuable.)

After the Prophets and Angels, of all the creatures, the Ashâb-i kirâm are the most superior ones. Each one’s names must be mentioned respectfully.

Each and every one of the Ashâb-i kirâm is superior to all of this ummat. Those who believe that Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm is Prophet, that is all Muslims regardless of their ethnicity or country, are called the ummat of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm.

In the ayât-i karîmas regarding the virtue and superiority of the Sahabîs, it is pur- ported: “You are the most auspicious, the best of Ummats.”465 (Sûra Al-i Imran: 110)

The 100th âyat of Sûra Tawba purports: “First among Muslims which Allahu ta’âlâ is pleased with, are those Sahâbîs who, born and living in the blessed city of Mecca as they were, migrated to the illuminated city of Medina, and the Res- idents (of Medina), as well as with those Muslims who have been following their example in goodness. And they, too, are pleased with Allahu ta’âlâ. Allahu ta’âlâ has prepared Gardens of Paradise, underneath which rivers flow, for them. They will remain there for eternity.” 466

It is purported in Sûra Fath: “Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ is all the Ashâb-i-kirâm,] are harsh towards the disbelievers. Yet they are compassionate and tender towards one another. You will see them frequently making the rukû’ (bowing, with both hands on the knees during the performance of prayer) or making the sajda (prostration during prayer). They beg Allahu ta’âlâ to give all people all sorts of goodness and superiority (in this world and the next). They also wish for ridwân, (Allahu ta’âlâ being pleased with them). It will be seen on their faces that they have been making the sajda very much. These facts about their states and honors have been stated in the Torah (as well as in the Injîl) [the original, genuine Bible revealed to Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’]. As is stated in the Injîl, they are like crops. As a flimsy sprout appears from the soil, becomes thicker and taller, likewise, they were few in number and weak, yet they spread far and near in a short time. They filled everywhere with halos of îmân. As others marvel at a sprout’s growing in a short time, likewise, as these people’s beautiful manners and fame spread over the earth, those who saw it were astonished, while disbelievers became angry.”467

Some hadîth-i sherîfs about the Ashâb-i kirâm:

“Do not curse my companions! For those who live after my companions, even if they give gold as much as a mountain in the name of alms, they will not attain blessings equal to or even half of those which they (companions) attain for having given a handful of barley as alms! 468

My Ashâb are like the stars in the sky. If you follow any one of them, you will attain guidance (to the right path).469

Do not hold a grudge against my companions! Fear Allahu ta’âlâ! Those who love them do so because they love me. Those who are an enemy towards them are so, because they are an enemy to me. Those who hurt them will have hurt me. And those who hurt me certainly will have hurt Allahu ta’âlâ (by doing so).

The best of my ummat are the people of my time, [which means all the Ashâb-i kirâm]. Next are the Believers that will come after them, and next are those who will succeed them. The fire of Hell will not burn a Muslim who has seen me, nor any (Muslim) who has seen those who have seen me.”470

These âyat-i karîmas and hadîth-i sherîfs clearly show the superiority and virtues of the Ashâb-i kirâm.

He would not talk out of his own desires, his pure words were of revelation,
words were like pearls full of wisdom of the ocean, from that source of generosity

He was among people, though, his heart was with Allahu ta’âlâ only,
He would always find unity in plurality, that source of generosity

465 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 97; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 324.
466 Sûrat at-Tawba, 9/100.
467 Sûrat-ul-Fath, 48/29.
468 Bukhârî, “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 5; Abû Dâwûd, “Sunnat”, 11; Tirmidhî, “Manâqib”, 70; Ibn Maja, “Muqaddima”, 31;
Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 11; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 116.
469 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, X, 329; Safadî, al-Wâfî, II, 362.
470 Bukhârî, “Rikâk”, 7; Muslim, “Fadâil-us-Sahaba”, 319; Nasâî, “Iman”, 29; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 438.

lineSOME OF THE ZAWÂID 471 SUNNATS OF OUR MASTER RASÛLULLAH

His blessed beard and hair

Hadrat Anas bin Mâlik was asked to describe our Master Rasûlullah’s blessed hair:

– How was the blessed hair of our Master, Rasûlullah? Hadrat Anas replied as follows:

– It was between two sorts. It was not too curly, nor was it too straight. It was in the middle between the two of them. With regards to how long or short it was, its length was in the middle between his ears and the top of his shoulders.472

Hadrat Ibni Abbâs said, “Our Master, the Fakhr-i-’âlam used to comb his blessed hair over his forehead. Afterwards, he started to part his blessed hair.”473

Scholars declared that, “Parting the hair to two sides is a sunnat of our Master Fakhr-i kâinât. Because, he started doing so afterwards. They are both jâiz (permis- sible) to comb the hair over the forehead and to part it to two sides. But parting is superior.”

Our Mother Hadrat Âisha-i-Siddîqa said, “Our Master the Prophet’s hair was above the jumma and below the wafra.”474

471 Sunnat-i zawâid: Things which our Master the Prophet had done continuously not as ’ibâdat (worship) but as ’âdat (habit). It is not makrûh to omit the sunnat-i zawâid. For example, his clothing style, beginning auspicious deeds with the right-hand side are sunnat-i zawâid of our Master, the Prophet.
472 Bukhârî, “Libas”, 68; Abû Dâwûd, “Tarajjul” 9; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 31; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 51.
473 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 430; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 279.
474 Abû Dâwûd, “Tarajjul” 9; Tirmidhî, “Libas”, 21; Ibn Maja, “Libas”, 36; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 118; IbnSa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 428.

The hair that reaches below the shoulder is called jumma.’ And the hair that reaches the earlobe is called ‘wafra.’ In brief, according to the report of Hadrat Âisha (radiy- Allâhu anhâ), the length of our Master Rasûlullah’s hair was beyond the lobe of his blessed ears, but did not reach his shoulders. It was in between of them.

Hadrat Qadi Iyaz said, “Correlation of the above mentioned reports is as follows: His hair, at the side of his blessed ears, was long enough to reach to the lobe of his ears. As for his hair at the back, it would touch his shoulders.”

It was also said, “The reason for saying it would reach his ears in some reports and it would reach his shoulders in some others, is that, sometimes it was like this, and another time it was like that. However, all the reports are true. Sometimes our Master the Prophet used to grow his hair so that it would reach to his shoulders. Sometimes he used to have his hair cut so that it would reach his earlobes or the middle part of his blessed ears.”

Umm-i Hânî said, “Our Master Fakhr-i-’âlam once had visited us in Mecca. That time he had had four gadiras.”475

Gadira means to part the hair. That is, he had parted his hair into four and let it hang. To summarize, the blessed hair and hairs of the beard of our Master the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) were not too curly nor too straight, naturally curly. His blessed hair was long. In the earlier times he had bangs, later he started to part it to two sides. Sometimes he would grow his blessed hair and sometimes he would have his hair cut and shortened.

It is sunnat for men to shave the hair or to grow, comb and part the hair into two sides. One should behave according to the circumstances, custom and time. It is makrûh to curl or plait the hair.

Hadrat Anas informs about the characteristic of the blessed beard of our Master Rasûlullah as so: There were very little white in the blessed beard of our Master the Prophet. The number of white hairs in his hair and beard were not more than seven- teen or eighteen.

One day, Hadrat Abû Bakr Siddîq said,

– O Rasûlullah, you (your hairs) have whitened. Our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm replied,

– Hûd, Vâkia, Mursalat, Amma yatasaalune and Iza’sh-shamsu quwwirat (Naba’ and Takwir) sûras have whitened me (my hairs). 476

That is, the circumstances of Paradise and Hell are mentioned many times in those sûras. He said that his hair and beard had whitened from sorrow and sadness, thinking how the situation of his Ummat would be.

Amr bin Shuayb stated that, “Our Master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would shorten both the width and length of his blessed beard. Our Master, the Prophet declared in a hadîth-i sherîf reported by Hadrat Tirmizi, “One who does not trim his mustache is not from us.”477 In another hadîth-i sherîf it was declared that, “Keep your beard ample and make your mustache shortened.”478

Ibn-i Abdul-Haqîm stated that, “The mustache should be amply trimmed and the beard should not be trimmed too closely. Amply trimming the mustache does not mean to shave it.”

Hadrat Imâm-i-Nawawî said, “The proper way for trimming the mustache is to trim until the top of the lip appears, not to over trim it.”

475 Tirmidhî, “Libas”, 39; Ibn Maja, “Libas”, 36; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 59; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 279; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 54.
476 Tirmidhî, “Tafsir-ul-Qur’an”, 56; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 435; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 74; Suyutî, Awsaf-unNabî, s, 60.
477 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 280.
478 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 449; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 280.

Scholars deemed it hideous to trim the upper part of the mustache and to leave the ends down from two sides. Ibn-i ’Umar relates as follows,

“Our Master Rasûlullah, explained about those called Mecusi (fire worshippers). Regarding this, our Master Rasûlullah said, “They grow the end of their mustache and shave their beard. So, act contrary to them.”479

When Abû Umâma said, “O Rasûlullah! The people of the book trim their beard and grow their mustache,” our Master Rasûlullah replied,

– You trim the ends of your mustache and grow your beard.

According to the information received from scholars, it is sunnat to shorten by trim- ming the mustache as much as the eyebrow. In addition, it is sunnat to grow the beard as long as a handful (four fingers in width) clasping the part of the chin (beginning from the lower edge of the lower lip) and to cut the part exceeding this length.

It is sunnat to grow the beard as long as a handful and to cut the part exceeding the handful. Growing the beard, less than a handful is not compatible with the sunnat. Maintaining a beard shorter than a handful with the intention of following the sun- nat is bid’at (innovation). It is harâm (forbidden by religion). Growing a beard is a sunnat-i zawâid. It becomes jâiz (permissible) and even necessary to shave the beard completely in order to make amr-i ma’rûf (duty to teach Allahu ta’âlâ’s command- ments and prohibitions), to earn a living, to prevent fitna (disorder, sedition). These can be excuses to omit a sunnat, but they are not excuses for committing bid’at.

The sleeping of Rasûlullah

When our Master, the Prophet wanted to sleep on his bed, he would lie on his right side, put his right hand under his right cheek, and then pray as follows,

“O my Allah! I have surrendered myself to You. I have turned my face towards You. I entrust my work to You. I lean my back towards You (I rely on You). I fear Your torment, I expect Your mercy. There is no refuge other than Your mercy. There is only Your torment, to be protected from.

Refuge can only be attained in Your mercy and salvation can only be attained through Your mercy.

I believe in Your Book that You sent and in Your Prophet You sent.

O My Rabb! With Your name, I lay myself down. If You keep and capture my soul, treat it with Your mercy! If You release it, protect it, as You protect Your pious slaves!

O My Allah! With Your name I die, With Your name, I revive from the dead. Praise be to Allah Who lets us eat and drink, meets and fulfills all our needs, and shelters us! There are many who have no one to meet their needs or shelter them! O my Allah! Protect me from Your torment on the day You bring Your servants together in Your presence.” When he woke and stood up, he would pray as follows:

479 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 439; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 281.

“Praise be to Allah Who has resurrected us after death. On the Day of Judg- ment, our return will be to Him.”

When our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm went to bed, he would pray as follows:

“O My Allah, Who is Rabb of the skies and the earth; Rabb of everything; Who cracks and germinates the seed and the grain of the fields; Who revealed the Torah, Bible and Qur’ân! I take refuge in You from evils of all evildoers! For You are the One Who holds them from their forelocks!

O my Allah! You are the pre-eternal! There is nothing that existed before You! You are the eternal! There is nothing that exists after You! You are the evident! There is nothing other than You!”

When he woke, he would pray as follows:

“There is no other ilâh but You! I mention Your name and glorify You, saying that You are free of any defects. O my Allah! I beg You to forgive my sins and beg for Your mercy.

O my Allah! Increase my knowledge! Do not deviate my heart after You have shown me the right way! Bestow mercy upon me through Your Exaltedness! Be- cause only You, You are the one who is the most gracious!”

Berâ’ bin Âzib said, The Master of the worlds told me that, “When you go to sleep, perform an ablution as you perform it for namâz! Then lie down on your right side and say, ‘O my Allah! I have surrendered myself to You. I have turned my face towards You. I entrust my work to You. I lean my back towards You (I rely on You). I fear Your torment, I expect Your mercy. There is no refuge other than Your mercy. There is only Your torment, to be protected from.

Refuge can only be attained in Your mercy and salvation can only be attained through Your mercy. I believe in Your Book that You sent and in Your Prophet You sent.’

If you die during that night, you would die in accordance with the way of Is- lam. Whoever says this prayer and dies during that night, they die in accordance with to the way of Islam!”

Our Master the Prophet said, “When one rises from his bed and returns for sleep during the night; let him shake his bed three times. For, one cannot know what had happened after him and what came and took his place.

When lying down in bed, lie facing to the right side. While lying down on the right side, say, “O my Allah! ! I mention Your name and glorify You, saying that You are free of any defects.

O My Rabb! With Your name, I lie on my side on the bed. With Your name, I rise again. If You keep and capture my soul, treat it with Your mercy! If You release it, protect it, as You protect Your pious slaves!

When wakening, say, “Praise be to Allah Who caused me to have a healthy body, returning my soul to me and allowing me to invoke Him.”

When our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm came across a man lying face down- wards, he said, “See, this is a lying that Allah never likes!”

According to information by Sharid bin Suwayd, Coming across a man sleeping while his face was downwards, our Master, the Prophet touched him with his toe and said, “This is a sleep that Almighty Allah dislikes the most!”

That sleeping person, who was Abdullah bin Tahfa from the Ashâb-i Suffa said, “While I was sleeping with my face turned downwards, in the masjid before the morning prayer, someone touched me with his foot.

– He asked “Who is this?”.

– I said “I am Abdullah bin Tahfa!”

Then I realized that it was the Master of the worlds!

– He said, “This sleeping is most disliked by Almighty Allah!”480

Our Master the Prophet would never be without ablution.

It was never seen that our Master Rasûlullah did not perform a ritual ablution after he went to the toilet.

The sitting of our Master Rasûlullah

Hanzala bin Hizyam said, “I went to see our Master, the Prophet; I saw him sitting with his legs folded and crossed.”

According to Jabir bin Samura, after performing the Morning Prayer, our Master, the Prophet would sit in his prayer room with his legs folded and crossed until sunrise.

It was never seen that our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would extend his legs towards the people who were in his presence.

Sharid bin Suwayd said, “The Master of the universe had visited me. At that time, I had been sitting, in such a way as to put my hand in back of me and lean on half of the palm. Then the Master of the universe said to me, ‘Are you sitting like those who incurred the wrath of Allahu te’âlâ?!’” (Those who incurred the wrath are Jews.)

Qayle bint-i Mahrama relates, “I saw our Master, the Prophet whilst sitting in a qurfusa posture. I saw our Master, the Prophet whilst sitting so, in khushû (deep and humble reverence).”481

480 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 262; V, 426; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, VIII, 16.
481 Bukhârî, “Isti’zân”, 34; Abû Dâwûd, “Adab”, 25; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, I, 273; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz- -Zawâid, V, 423; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 355; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 80.

(Qurfusa: Is to sit on the ground on the buttocks, lifting both knees in an upright position, and pulling the thighs to the abdomen and fold both arms around the legs.)

Our Master the Prophet’s sitting while eating was also unpretentious. He would neither go behind closed doors, nor stand behind curtains, nor had he been served his food separately from others.

Our Master, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would sit and eat his meal on the ground. He would say, “I sit and eat as a born slave. I am just a born slave! He who turns away from my sunnat, is not from me!” 482

While our Master, the Prophet had been eating while leaning against a place that was located above Mecca, Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm came and said, “O Muhammad (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)! So, you are eating like kings do?!” Immediately, our Mas- ter, the Prophet sat on the ground.483

One day an angel who had not previously come, came to our Master the Prophet along with Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm.

That angel said, “Your Rabb is sending His greetings to you and leaves you free to chose between being a Prophet-Sultan or a Prophet-Slave. If you wish, you will be a Prophet-Sultan or a Prophet-Slave!”

Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm, having given a sign to “act modestly!”, our Master, the Prophet replied, “Let me be a Prophet-Slave!” After this, our Master, the Prophet neither ate standing nor leaning against anywhere.

The manner of eating and drinking of Rasûlullah

Abû Juhayfa relates, “The Master of the worlds said, “I do not eat while leaning on something.”484 Leaning is of three sorts: leaning on the side of something, sitting with one’s folded legs crossed, leaning on one hand while eating with the other.

The third sort of leaning has been criticized and condemned.

Our Master Rasûlullah would eat by using three fingers, which are his index finger and the two other closest fingers.

Our Master, the Prophet said, “The blessings of food is in performing a ritual ablution before a meal and performing another ritual ablution and washing the hands after the meal!” 485

“If something unexpected and terrible happens to somebody who sleeps with- out having washed off the smells of meat and oil from the hands, they shouldn’t blame anyone except themselves!”

Our Master, the Prophet had a food container called Gharra. At the time of Duhâ, after he performed the namâz of Duhâ (a calculated time between sunrise and noon time), that food container holding Sarid (Tharid) would be brought and placed in the middle. (Tharid is a food, made with breads chopped in small pieces and with an abundance of meat.)

By the time Muslims gathered around the food container, a Bedouin (desert villager) who saw our Master, the Prophet sitting in a kneeling position, asked, “What kind of a sitting is that?!”

482 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 381.
483 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 380.
484 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 164; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 86.
485 Tirmidhî, “Atima”, 39.

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm said, “There is no doubt that, Allah has made me a born slave having generosity, He did not make me a oppressor and stubborn! Come on, come around, let’s start to eat! Give up eating from the middle of the top.

The blessings of the food is at the top and in the middle! When one eats, do not eat from the middle. Eat from the underside, because, the blessings descend from the middle of the food!”

’Umar bin Abû Salama says, “I was a child under the tutelage of the Master of the worlds.

While eating, my hands were all over the plate. The Master of the worlds said to me:, “O son! Recite the Basmala. Eat with your right hand! Eat from what is in front of you!”486 Ever since, I have eaten so.”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “When a servant who has endured the heat and smoke of preparing a meal, and brings the food, the servant should be allowed to join the meal and eat together. If he refuses, or there is little food, the servant should be given at least one or two morsels from that food.”

Our Master, the Prophet, had never slighted nor disparaged any food.

If he liked a food, he would eat it; if he did not like it, he would not eat it and keep silent.

He would show respect for even the smallest of blessings, he would never disparage any of the blessings.

He would neither praise a blessing, that he liked; nor disparage a blessing he disliked. When the food was placed before them, our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would only start eating after saying the prayer, “Allahumma barik lanâ fimâ razaqtanâ waqinâ azabannâr. Bismillâh!”

Our mother Hadrat Âisha (radiy-Allâhu anhâ) stated, “The Master of the worlds said, “When one starts to eat, say Bismillah, mention the name of Allah Almighty. If it is forgotten before starting the meal, say “Bismillah during the beginning to the end of the meal!”487

Umayya ibn Machshi reported that once our Master the Prophet was sitting and watching a man who was eating.

He did not recited the basmala until only one morsel of his food remained. When he lifted it to his mouth, he said, “For the beginning to the end of this meal, Bismillah!”

Then our Master, the Prophet laughed and said, “The Satan was eating with him. When he mentioned the name of Allah Almighty, the Satan vomited all that was in his stomach!”

486 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 204.
487 Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, XIII, 62; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, VII, 170.

Our Master, the Prophet would begin, as frequently as possible, from the right side, in ablution, in ghusl, when putting on his shoes and combing his hair; when taking or giving something, he would use his right hand and would begin from the right side in all things he started.488

He said, “When putting on shoes, start with the right foot! And when removing them, start with the left foot! When putting on shoes, the right foot should be first, when taking off the shoes, the right foot should be last!”

Abdullah bin ’Umar reported that our Master, the Prophet said, “When one of you starts eating, eat with the right hand. When drinking, drink with the right hand, because the Satan eats and drinks with his left hand!”489

According to Salama bin Akwa, his father related that when our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm saw that a man near him, named Busr ibn Raiyul’ir of the tribe of Ash- ja,’ was eating with his left hand, he told him to “Eat with your right hand!”

That man told a lie by saying, “I am not able to do this, I cannot eat with my right hand!”

Then our Master, the Prophet said, “Then may you be unable to do it! It is only his arrogance and pride that prevents him from eating with his right hand!”

From then on, that man was unable to raise his hand to his mouth any more!490

Our Master, the Prophet said, “Allah the Aziz and Jalil, will certainly be pleased with His slave who praises Him after he eats that which is edible or drinks that which is potable.”

Abu Said Al-Khudri relates that our Master, the Prophet would pray as follows when he ate or drank something, “Alhamdu lillahillezi at’amana wa sakana ve jaalna Muslimin = Praise be to Allah Who lets us eat, drink and become Muslim.”491

Abu Umamtulbakhili, related that our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would pray as follows, when he finished eating and the meal was cleared, “Alhamdu lillahi kesiren tayyiban mubârakan fihi gayra makfiyyin wala mu- waddain wala mustagnan anhu Rabbana = Thanks solely to Allah.

O our Rabb! We, who’s every fault You so frequently cleanse, filling us with abun- dance and blessings without rejection or abandonment, inadequately give thanks upon thanks!”

“Alhamdu lillahillezi kafana wa arwana gayra makfiyyin wala makfurin = We praise Allah Who allows us to eat and drink sufficiently, and Who does not refuse us and does not make us among those that are ungrateful.”

It was related from Abu Hurayra that our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would wash his hands after a meal.

Our Master, the Prophet would not attach importance to anything worldly.

Abdullah bin Mas’ud relates, “The Master of the worlds had slept on a straw mat and it was seen that the straw mat would make marks on his flank.”

When he woke, I rubbed his flank and said, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for your sake O Rasûlullah! If we would have informed, couldn’t we have spread something on the straw mat to protect you?”

We said, “Shall we get a soft bed for you?”

The Master of the worlds said, “What have I to do with the things belonging to this world? My state in this world is like that of a rider who briefly seeks shade under a tree and then proceeds on his way!”492

Abu Umamtulbahili reported, “Our Master, the Prophet said “My Rabb the Aziz and Jalil offered me to convert the Valley of Mecca into gold. I said, No! O my Rabb! Allow me to be satiated one day and hungry the next. When I am hungry, let me supplicate You and mention Your Name. When I am satiated, let me praise, offer thanks to You!”493

Our Mother, Hadrat Âisha relates, “The family of our Master, the Prophet had nev- er eaten their fill of wheat bread for three days in a row, from the time he arrived in Medina until he passed away.”494

What our Master, the Prophet and his family had most often eaten consisted of bar- ley bread and palm dates, which were not very abundant.

Before his death, our Master Rasûlullah had pawned his shirt of armor to a Jew named Abu Shahma and borrowed from him one wesk (one wesk means a camel-load) or thirty sa’ (a sa’ is a measure of capacity equal to 4,2 liters) of barley for bread for his family.495

Our mother Hadrat Âisha said, “I say, swearing by Allah who has sent Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) with the true religion and Book, that: He had neither seen a sieve, nor eaten bread made from sifted flour, from the time Allah Almighty sent him as a prophet until He took his soul!” As she was asked, “So, how could you eat barley then?” she replied, “We would blow away its husk!”

Until the death of the Master of the worlds, neither he nor his family had ever eaten their fill of barley bread two days in a row.

I swear by Allah that in the home of the Master of the worlds, we would wait and for forty nights; without a candle or a fire being lit!496

488    Bukhârî, “Wudû”, 41.
489    Muslim, “Ashriba”, 142; Abû Dâwûd, “Atima”, 20; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 8, 33; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 43.
490    Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 45.
491    Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 315.
492    Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 344; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, II, 166; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 334.
493    Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 381; Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu›l-Hudâ, VII, 75.
494    Nasâî, “Dehâyâ”, 37; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 42; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 487; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân,
II, 166; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 877.
495    Bukhârî, “Buyu’ ”, 33; “Rahn”, 5; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 160; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, IV, 271;
Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 334; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 299; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 307.
496    Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 71; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 119; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, VII, 314.

Months would pass without any fire being lit or smoke being seen any in any of the homes of Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm)!

Two months would pass, neither a bread would be made nor even something cooked in a pot would be prepared for the family of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). 497

When we ate our fill of Aswadayn, that is dates and water, the Master of the worlds died.498

Our Master, the Prophet would not have two sorts of food together in his stomach in a day; he would not eat his fill of bread when he had eaten his fill of dates, and he would not eat his fill of dates when he had eaten his fill of bread! And this is what makes me weep!”499

Anas bin Malik said, “I have no knowledge that our Master, the Prophet ever ate food on an hiva (small table on which foods are put when eating), nor thin bread made of pure wheat flour nor roasted lamb, even until he met his Allah!”500

Hadrat Abu Hurayra reported that our Master, the Prophet prayed as follows, “O my Allah! Give enough sustenance to my family, the family of Muhammad (’alai- his-salâm), to survive; make the sustenance of Muhammad’s (’alaihis-salâm) family just enough to survive!”

Our Master Rasûlullah would eat on the sufra when he ate. Sufra was prepared food wrapped for the traveler, mostly carried in a round shaped leather case.

Our Master Rasûlullah would not say make this that. He would eat whatever was available. Our mother Hadrat Âisha related, “Our Master the Prophet would come and ask me, “Do you have any food with you?” and I would say, “No!” Thereupon, he would say, “Then, I am fasting!”501

One day, the Master of the worlds came to us. I said, “O Rasûlullah! We received a gift.” He asked, “What is it?” I said, “It is hays!” Then he said, “But I am fasting.” (Hays is a food made by mixing dates, oil and curd.)502

Our Master Rasûlullah would like halvah and honey, bread tharid, date tharid and vegetable meals. When milk was brought and offered to our Master, he would say, “There are two blessings in milk.”503

Abdullah bin Abbas relates, “Khalid bin Walid and I went with the Master of the worlds to the house of my maternal aunt, Maymuna binti Haris. Ummu Hufayd had given the Master of the worlds butter and milk as a gift.

497    Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 306.
498    Bukhârî, “Atima”, 41; Muslim, “Zuhd”, 39; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 71; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 366.
499    Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 306.
500    Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, II, 169; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, IV, 81.
501    Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 196.
502    Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 97.
503    Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 393.
504   Abû Dâwûd, “Ashriba”, 21; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 284; Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 397; Bayhaqî, Shu-ul-îmân, V, 104; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 220.
505   Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 391-393; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 188; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 310.
506   Ibn Sa’d,  at-Tabaqât, I, 393.
507   Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 213; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 99.

My maternal aunt asked, “Shall I give you from the milk that was given as a gift?” The Master of the worlds said, “All right!” My maternal aunt went and brought the milk in a vessel.

The Master of the worlds took it and drank from it. I was at the right side of the Master of the worlds. Khalid bin Walid was at his left side of him. Rasûlullah gave me the remaining milk in the vessel and said, “You, drink! If you would wish, offer it to Khalid!”

I said, “Regarding what remains from your drinking, I would never chose anybody other than myself!”

Upon this, our Master Rasûlullah said, “The one to whom Allah feeds, should say, Allahumma barik lana fihi wa at’amna khairan minhu, (O my Allah! Bestow abundance in this food for us! May we eat even more auspicious food as well)!

The one whom Allah lets drink milk should say, Allahumma barik lana fihi wa zidna minhu, (O my Allah! Bestow abundance in this milk for us and increase that which You grant from it to us!) For, there is nothing that substitutes food and drink, except milk.”504

When the Muslims of Medina saw the first crop of dates, they would bring them to our Master, the Prophet and our Master Rasûlullah; taking them into his hands, after saying the prayer for abundance, would call the youngest children he saw and give those dates to them. He would say, “If there are no dates in a house, that household will be hungry.”

It was related from Anas bin Malik that our Master, the Prophet liked food with squash. When a food that included squash was brought, the pieces of squash would be gathered and placed before our Master, the Prophet. Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm said that the most delicious part of the mutton is from the back of the sheep.505

It was asked of Ummu Ayyub, “Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) had stayed in your house for seven months. What food did the Master of the worlds like the most?”

Ummu Ayyub said, “I never saw that he ordered a food to be cooked for himself or criticized a food that he disliked. We would prepare kharisa, kashkak for him and see that he enjoyed it, this food would be cooked once every five, six or ten days.” 506

It was reported that Abu Musa’l-Ash’ari said, “I saw the Master of the worlds eating the meat of chicken.”

Our Master, the Prophet would enjoy eating the food remains. He would say, “If someone eats every morsel of food on his plate; that food begs for forgiveness on his behalf!”

Our Master, the Prophet used to eat melon with green dates and cucumber with green dates. He would say, “We temper the heat of this with the coolness of that, and the coolness of that with the heat of this!”507

It was also reported that our Master, the Prophet said, “O Abu Zer! When you cook meat, make plenty of broth and consider your neighbors, share what you have cooked with them.”508

“He, who eats his fill while his neighbor is hungry, is not a perfect Mu’min.” “Worship Allah! Feed people! Propagate selams, so that you will enter Paradises!”509

“The food of one person suffices for two. The food of three suffices for four. The food of four suffices for eight persons!”510

Asma bint-i Abi Bakr would advise that the food be kept covered until its boil- ing and smoking finishes, say, I heard that the Master of the worlds said, “That is the biggest abundance!”

At the time of the conquest of Mecca, our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm visited the house of Hadrat Ummuhani, his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib’s daughter. He asked, “Do you have anything to eat with you?” Ummuhani said, “No! We have only dried breadcrumbs and vinegar! But I feel ashamed to offer them to you!”

Our Master, the Prophet said, “Bring them. Crumble them into water. Also bring salt!” Pouring the vinegar on it, he ate it and praised Allah Almighty.

He said, “O Ummuhani! What a nice additive is vinegar! A home with vinegar will never be devoid of additives!”511

When he was asked, “Which beverage is more delicious?” our Master, the Prophet replied by saying, “Sweet and cool water!”512

Our Master, the Prophet would drink sweet water brought from Buyutussukya. The water of Buyutussukya was two days’ distance from Medina.513

Our Master, the Prophet said, “When one of you eats something, use the right hand and when drinking, use the right hand. Because the Satan eats and drinks with his left hand!”514

508 Tirmidhî, “Atima”, 30; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, V, 149; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 232.
509 Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 14; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 259; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, III, 424; Haythamî, Majmâ›uz–Zawâid, V, 29.
510 Ibn Maja, “Atima”, 2; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XII, 320.
511 Tirmidhî, “Atima”, 35; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 59; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XXIV, 437; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Di- mashq, IV, 243; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 181; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 307; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 91.
512 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 391.
513 Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 100; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, IV, 154.
514 Muslim, “Ashriba”, 142; Abû Dâwûd, “Atima”, 20; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 8, 33; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 43; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 315.

“When one of you drinks something, do not breath into the vessel.” As he forbade breathing onto food and drink, he also absolutely forbade eating from vessels made from gold or silver.

Our Master, the Prophet would take a breath two or three times while drinking and say, “This way is more beneficial and satisfactory.”

“When one of you drinks something, he should not drink it all in one breath.”

“Do not drink all in one breath like camels! Drink by taking two or three breaths! Say ‘Bismillah” before drinking and ‘Alhamdulillah’ when finished!”515

Nawfal bin Muawiya said, “The Master of the worlds would take three breathes when he drank something. He would first mention the name of Allah Almighty, recite the Basmala, and finish by praising, saying, Alhamdulillah.”516

It was related from Hadrat Âisha that our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would drink the stum (unfermented grape-juice), which was prepared in a water skin for him in the morning, in the evening. He would drink the stum, which was prepared in the evening, in the morning.

It was Rasûlullah’s custom to wash the hands before and after a meal and to eat and drink with the right hand. Before the meal, the young would wash their hands first and after the meal, the elders would wash their hands first.

It was customary for Rasûlullah to eat from the sides of the dish, to eat what was in front of him and to raise the right knee while sitting on the left foot. One should not eat nor smell food which is too hot. Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm deemed it inappropriate to be silent while eating. It is a custom of those who worship fire. One should speak cheerfully. Beginning and finishing a meal with salt is a custom of Rasûlullah and it is a curative.

Learning the knowledge of eating and drinking has precedence over learning the knowl- edge of worship. One of the earliest bid’ats (innovations) in Islam is eating until being full. Eating meat everyday strains the heart. Angels do not like those that do so. Eating too little meat spoils morals. Eating at a sufra, that is on a cloth laid on the ground, is a good act. The sufra used to be made from leather. Eating vegetables is very good. A sufra, where vegetables are absent, has been likened to being as an unwise old man.

Imam-i Ja’far-i Sadiq said, “He who wants an abundance of properties and children should eat many vegetables!” Sit at the sufra first, then serve the food. Our Master, the Prophet said, “I am a slave (of Allahu ta’âlâ) and I eat sitting on the ground like slaves.”517

One should not eat unless one feels hungry, one should not eat much, and should stop eating before becoming full, one should not laugh unless there is something amusing. Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm said, “Goodness begins with being hungry and evil begins with being full.” The flavor of food increases with the degree of hun- ger. Being full causes absentmindedness, it causes the heart to be insensitive; it spoils blood like alcoholic beverages do. Being hungry cleans the mind, brightens the heart.

Do not eat nor drink with fâsiqs (sinful Muslims) or evil people. Boiled food should be cooled while being covered. Our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm said, “Eat with your right hand. Drink with your right hand.” While eating watermelon, our Prophet would take bread with his right hand, and then eat the watermelon with his left hand. Break bread with both hands, not with only one.518

515 Tirmidhî, “Ashriba”, 13; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, XII, 166; Bayhaqî, Shu’ab-ul-îmân, V, 116.
516 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 228; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 100.
517 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 381; Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 86.
518 Muslim, “Ashriba”, 142; Abû Dâwûd, “Atima”, 20; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 8, 33; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 43; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 315.

Morsels of food should be small and should be chewed well. Do not look around, but rather at the morsels of food in front you. Do not open your mouth widely, Do not wipe your hands on the sufra cloth. Turn the head toward the back, when coughing or sneezing.

Do not sit at a sufra to which you are not invited. At the sufra, do not eat more than the others. When full, pray to avoid using the fullness for committing sins. Think of the accounting on the Day of Judgment. Eat with the intention of being strong enough to perform worships. Even when hungry, eat slowly. Elders should start to eat first. Do not insist by telling them to “eat” more than three times. When eating with guests, do not give up eating, unless the guests are full.

Our Master, Rasûlullah strongly emphasized on not eating too much.

“The heart of the human is like the crop on the farm. Food is like the rain. As too much water spoils the crop; too much food kills the heart. He would say, “Allahu ta’âlâ does not like those who eat and drink too much.”

Rasûlullah advised that to reserve one third of the stomach for the food, one third for the drink while reserving the one third of the stomach for air, that is keeping it empty, is the lowest grade. The best grade is to eat and sleep little. Eating too much is the beginning of illnesses and eating little is the beginning of medicines. Food of one suffices for two. The guest should not expect anything from the host other than salt and bread. The host should serve the food to the guest and pour the water.

Khalîfa Khârûn Rashîd would serve his guests by pouring water from an ewer onto their hands. Put food that the guest likes in the guest’s mouth. Morsels dropped in a clean place can be offered to the guests. If it is dirty, it should be left for the cat or other animals. The benediction of such a house increases and even reaches to one’s grandchildren. If the morsels dropped on the ground are not collected, Satan eats them. It is sunnat to eat and finish the remaining food on the dish. It is a very good deed to swirl residual fruit compote and ayran (drink made of yoghurt and water) with water and to drink it. It is jaiz (permissible) to leave leftovers on the dish or in the glass. Rasûlullah preferred that Muslims finish what was on their dish.

It is Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sunnat to clean the teeth with mis- vak and toothpick after a meal. It is cleanliness. Cleanliness strengthens the îmân (belief, faith). After a meal, prayer is said with benediction, mercy and forgiveness for the host. Then permission is requested to leave. The host, in turn, is invited to a meal.

Disgusting subjects should not be spoken about during the meal. Death and illness should not be mentioned. One should not stare at the foods brought to the table. One should not take another morsel into hand before the previous one is swallowed. One should not leave the sufra during the meal for anything, even in order to perform namâz. He should have performed the namâz beforehand.

Eat before performing namâz, if the prepared foods will become cold or spoiled and the time of namâz is suitable for performing it after the meal. Leave the sufra after the meal is cleared. Do not eat while travelling, while standing or while walking.

One should not go to sleep while the smell of meat or food is on the hands or mouth. Children’s hands should be washed, too. One should not sleep while full. Sufficient foodstuff should be bought by measuring and should not be excessive. Otherwise, it is israf (wastefulness). Food and drink containers should have lids. One should not stoop to drink water directly from a river or pool. Do not drink through the nozzle of a ewer or a pitcher either. Do not drink from the broken part of a cup or glass.

In summer, cool drinks should be drunk. Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm would like drinking cool sherbet. Zamzam water may be drunk while standing. It has been said that a traveler may drink any form of water while standing. Water should not be drunk on an empty stomach. Water should be sipped slowly.

Our Master Rasûlullah would like eating kashkak. Jabrâil ’alaihis-salâm taught our Master, the Prophet how to cook harissa, that is kashkak. Harissa makes people very strong. Every prophet had eaten barley bread. Rasûlullah would like eating sweet squash, lentil soup, wild game and mutton. He would like eating the shank, brisket and shoulder of the sheep. He very much liked eating kid shoulder. Kid meat is easy to digest. It is suitable for everyone.519

Meat of a male animal is easier to digest than meat of a female animal, and red meat is easier to digest than white meat. Regarding ease of digestibility and flavor, mutton meat and milk of a cow are better. The best among game meat is venison. Rabbit meat is halâl to eat. Our Master, the Prophet had eaten rabbit meat. It causes increased passing of urine, eating too much causes insomnia. It is suitable for anyone. Bird, chicken meat is good for everyone. The best among poultry meat is chicken.

Our Prophet said, “What a nice food vinegar is.” Vinegar is the most beneficial food. Date is a food, too. That is, it is eaten with bread. Grape is both a food and a fruit. It is sunnat to eat grapes with bread. It is sunnat to eat dates without anything else.

It is sunnat to eat dried grape, walnut and almond. Honey is a curative. For it’s bless- ings, seventy of the prophets had used honey with their prayers. Our Master Rasû- lullah ‘alaihis-salâm would like eating dates very much. He would eat dates together with melon and watermelon. Melon and watermelon clean the kidneys and relieves headaches. They rid of worms and strengthen the eyes. Rasûlullah would like drinking cool sherbets very much. Salawât-i sharîfa should be read while eating rice.

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm commended eating the broad bean with its pod. He said, khabbatussawda, that is black cumin, is a remedy for diseases. Eating walnut with cheese is a curative. It is harmful to eat them alone. They should be eaten together with something else. The grape stone is harmful. Our Master would take a bunch of grapes in his left hand and eat the grapes with his right hand.520 Quince removes distress from the heart. There is one drop of water from Paradise in each melon, watermelon and pomegranate. A pomegranate should be eaten alone; even one drop of it should not go to waste. Pomegranate is good for palpitation. It strengthens the stomach. If it is squeezed with its pulp and then drunk, it cleans the gall bladder and relieves constipation. Figs relieve the heart. It removes pains of the digestive tract.

519 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 188.
520 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 884.

It is Rasûlullah’s sunnat to eat green cucumber by salting it and to eat walnut in dates with honey.521 Our Prophet praised eggplant and said it should be prepared with olive oil. He commended purslane, also. Celery removes absentmindedness. It has a diuretic effect, helps the body to produce blood and milk, and cleans the liver. Al- kharshaf, that is artichoke, dissolves gallstones, cleans the blood, is good for athero- sclerosis. It eliminates the smell of sweat.

When returning from a journey, it is good for the health to eat some uncooked on- ion. Onion increases resistance against microbes. If celery is eaten after the onion, it removes the bad smell of onion. It has been said that having the herb rue in food rids the bad smell as well. There was onion in the last meal that Rasûlullah ate. He would say, “Eat onion and garlic cooked.” Angels are disturbed by the smell of them. Radish has a diuretic effect. It eases digestion.

Rasûlullah’s behavior in and out the home

Hadrat Husayn relates, “I asked my father about the behavior of our Master, the Prophet at home. My father replied as follows:

Our Master, the Prophet separated his time at home into three: for worshipping Allah, caring for household concerns and for his personal affairs.

Of the time separated for his personal affairs, some time was shared for himself and others. Within that portion of time, only the notable Companions would enter his presence. He would communicate religious matters to the people through them, and never keep information that was related to the people to himself.

It was our Master, the Prophet’s ‘alaihis-salâm custom to divide the time belonging to his Community, among the people of virtue, according to their religious superiority, and invite them to his presence accordingly. Some had one need, some two and some had many needs.

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would busy himself with their religious mat- ters, give the necessary answers to their questions and then he would say, “Those who are present here should communicate to those who are not present! Submit to me the needs of those who themselves are not able to come to submit their needs. Certainly, on the Day of Judgment, Allah will make the feet of those, who convey the needs of others that are not able to convey their needs, stable on the Sirat Bridge!”

Nothing else would be mentioned or expressed near our Master, the Prophet. As it was, he would not accept any questions from anyone else.

Those who enter the presence of our Master, the Prophet, would enter seeking guidance and leave having tasted the pleasure of the greatest knowledge to which they had desired!”

521 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 884.

Hadrat Husayn asked of his father what our Master, the Prophet would do when he went out of his home. He replied as follows:

“The Master of the worlds would not speak outside. He would only speak when his words would be useful for Muslims, warm them towards one another, remove disunity and remove their coldness towards each other.

He would show respect towards those of each tribe who had superior moral char- acter and make that person governor over his tribe 522 and would make that tribe obey that person who also had to obey himself. He would never begrudge anybody of his smiling face and his beautiful disposition.

If he did not see his Companions, he would seek and gather them and ask if they ended their squabbling. He would praise and reinforce kindness; criticize and cause to weaken evil. All of his actions were temperate and noncontroversial. To prevent Muslims from falling into forgetfulness, he would never refrain from warning them. All his behaviors were habitual.

Our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm had a precise and natural ability for worship- ping and praying. He would neither infringe on nor fail to fulfill a right. Those who were close to him were the most blessed ones among the people.

In his sight, the most superior among his Companions was the one whose advice was the most comprehensive, and the one who had the greatest degree was the one who did the best favors and deeds for the needy. The Master of the worlds would nev- er sit or stand without mentioning the name of Allah.

He would never reserve any special place for himself at a gathering and prohibited from doing so. No matter where; when he met with a group of people sitting, he would never try to sit at the most distinguished place, but would rather sit at the back of the gathering and command the Muslims to continue.

He would give share to everyone who was sitting with him. He would treat people so kindly, that they would suppose that there was nobody more precious than themselves in the sight of Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm. He would endure everything from those who sat with him or those who came with their needs, until they would leave.523

When someone requested something from him, he would not refuse their request, he would either give what was requested or reply with sweet and soft words. His beau- tiful morals were greater than that of all humanity combined.

He had become their compassionate father. Everybody was equal in his sight re- garding their rights. The community of our Master, the Prophet was a community of knowledge, modesty, patience and trust.

In his presence, no one would raise their voice nor would anyone accuse another nor would anyone disclose faults or mistakes of another. Those who were present in the presence of the Master of the worlds were treated in balance with their superiority among one another, with respect to taqwâ (abstaining from harâm). They were all humble.

They would show respect to elders, have compassion and pity on the young, prefer to meet the needs of those that were helpless, over the needs of others, and they would protect and look after the destitute and those who were strangers.

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would always smile and be soft tempered. He was very protective and forgiving. He was not hardhearted.

522 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 254; Wâqidî, al-Maghâzî, III, 925; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 262; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, II, 289; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 364.
523 Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 880.

He would never argue with anybody. He would never yell or say bad words. He would never accuse anybody. He was not stingy. He would ignore something that he disliked. He would not dishearten the expectant. He would not disclose his displeasure about something.

Our Master Rasûlullah would refrain from three things:

Disputing with people,

Talking too much,

Engaging in things that were useless and empty.

For people, he would set aside his own feelings for three things:

He would never condemn nor blame anybody to their face or behind their back. He would never search for the shameful deeds or faults of anybody.

He would never utter anything unless it was meritorious and beneficial.

While our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm was speaking, those in his presence were so silent that it was as if birds had landed on their heads and remained so until he finished speaking, only then they would speak but never argue nor dispute near him.

When someone was speaking with our Master Rasûlullah, others that were present would remain silent until he finished speaking. In the sight of our Master Rasûlullah, there was no difference between those that spoke first and those that spoke last.

If anyone in his presence laughed at something, accordingly he would laugh too. If they became astonished at something, accordingly he would be astonished too.

He endured the rudeness and harshness of the comments and questions of those that were destitute and strangers, so that his Companions would emulate themselves after him.

He would say, “When you see one in need requesting help, as best you can, help him to attain his needs!”

Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm would not accept false praising. He would never interrupt anyone’s speaking, unless that person was infringing on someone’s rights. When one would infringe on another’s rights, he would either interrupt their speaking, forbid- ding them from doing so, or leave that place. The Master of the worlds was silent about four things: hilm (tenderness, mildness, moderation), hazar (abstention), taqdir (appreciation) and tafakkur (contemplation of one’s sins and surroundings, taking les- sons from things Allahu ta’âlâ created).

Taqdir was apparent as he would, with equality, look and listen to people and tafakkur was apparent when he would be thinking of affairs of the world and the Hereafter. He had gathered hilm and patience in himself. Nothing from this world would ever anger him.

As for hazar, four traits were gathered in himself:

He would take the best, in order to be able to depend on it. He would avoid ugly things so that they would be refrained from. He would spend effort for those things that would be useful for his ummat (Community).

He was zealous over those things that would provide his ummat’s happiness in this world and the Hereafter.

The Master of the worlds ‘alaihis-salâm never said “No!” for anything. If something that he liked was requested from him, he would say “All right!” and if something was requested that he did not want to perform, then he would remain silent, so it would be understood that he would not like to do it.

He would endeavor towards everyone’s bliss for this world and the Hereafter. Dur- ing a holy battle when he was asked to pray for the annihilation of the disbelievers,’ he said, “I have not been sent to curse people or to cause their suffering torment. I have been sent to do favors for everyone and for their attaining peace.”

It is declared in the hundred and seventh âyat of the Anbiyâ Sûra, which purports, “We sent you as a mercy, as a blessing for beings.” That is why he would always strive for the good of everyone.

Hind bin Abi Hâla related how our Master, the Prophet would walk as follows: While walking, the Master of the worlds would lively raise his feet off the ground, he would not sway from side to side and he would comfortably take wide steps as if stepping down from a high place with ease and with dignity.

He would entirely turn his body toward the direction to which he would like to look. He would not look around without purpose.

His would look longer at the ground than looking skyward. His looking at the ground would be only with a glance. He would walk behind his Companions.

Whenever he came across somebody, he would be the first to greet. Hadrat Abu Hurayra relates as follows:

Regarding his walking, I have never seen anybody faster than the Master of the worlds. While he was walking, it was as if the ground would roll under his feet!

We would strive and strain ourselves in order to catch up with him. As for the Mas- ter of the worlds, he would not need to strain himself at all while walking.524

524 Tirmidhî, “Manâqib”, 12; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 350; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 380; Ibn Asâkir, Târikh-i Dimashq, III, 267; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 352; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 282.

It was related by Anas bin Mâlik that, when our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm came across somebody, he would make musâfaha (when two persons coming across with each other, look at each other in the face, and they clasp their palms together) with that person and unless that person withdrew his hand first, our Master, the Proph- et would not withdraw his own hand; unless that person turned away his face, our Master, the Prophet would not turn his face away from him.

Anas bin Mâlik related that, “We asked of our Master, ‘O Rasûlullah! Shall some of us bow before others?’ He said, ‘No!’ Then we asked, ‘Shall we embrace each other?’ He said, ‘No! But make musâfaha!’.”525

Bara bin Azib relates that our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm said, “When two Muslims come across each other, if they greet and make musâfaha, they are for- given before they depart each other!”

The Master of the worlds was always contemplative. His times of silence would last longer than his speaking. Rasûlullah would not speak unnecessarily. He would mention the name of Allah both when he was to start and finish his words.

When speaking, he would use short and concise words. Rasûlullah’s words were always true and appropriate. When speaking, Rasûlullah would neither use more or less words than necessary.

He would never break anybody’s heart nor despise anybody. He would show regard for even the merest blessing, nor disparage any blessing. He would neither praise a blessing which he liked, nor disparage a blessing he did not enjoy.

Our Master Rasûlullah would never become angry about this world or it’s affairs. However, if a right was infringed upon, his outrage would not subside unless justice was realized.

He would never become angry nor take revenge for himself. When he was to point out something, he would do so by using his entire hand, not just his finger. When he was astonished and surprised he would reverse the position of his hand, that is, if his palm was skyward, he would turn it ground ward and if it was towards the ground he would turn it skyward. While speaking, he would stress a point by gesturing with his hands; by striking his right palm with the inner part of his left thumb. When he would become angry, he would immediately leave his anger and would not show it.

When he was happy and cheerful, he would close his eyes. His laughter was a smile at most. While he was smiling, his teeth could be seen like beads of pearls.526

Abu Said Al-Khudrî relates, “Our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm would feed grass to animals. He would tie the camels. He would sweep his home. He would milk the sheep. He would mend the tears of his shoe. He would patch his clothes.527 He would eat with his servant. He would help him, when his servant tired of using the hand-mill. He would buy goods from the market and bring them home in a sack. He would be the first to greet, when he came across the poor, the rich, the elder and the young. To make musâfaha with them, he would extend his blessed hand first.

He considered the slave, the master, the black and the white as equal. He would accept all invitations and go to where he was invited, no matter who had invited him. He would not look down on anything no matter how small or slight. He liked doing favors. He would get along with everybody. He always had a smiling face and always spoke sweetly. He would not smile while saying something.

He would seem sorrowful. However, he would not scowl. He was humble. He was awe-inspiring, causing fear and respect. However, he was not rude. He was polite. He was generous, but he was not wasteful nor would he give anything that was not bene- ficial. He would feel pity for everybody. He would not expect anything from anybody. Those who desire bliss and comfort should be like him.

Every Muslim should exemplify these beautiful habits of Rasûlullah! Every Mus- lim must adapt their ethics with their behavior to that of Allahu ta’âlâ; for Râsulullah ‘alaihis-salâm declared, “Acquire the ethics of Allahu ta’âlâ!”

For example, one of Allahu ta’âlâ’s Attributes is “Sattâr.” That is, He covers sins. It is necessary for a Muslim to cover the faults and defects of his religious brother, too. Allahu ta’âlâ forgives the sins of His slaves. Therefore, Muslims should forgive one another of their faults. Allahu ta’âlâ is kerîm and rahîm. That is, His blessings are plentiful and His mercy is extensive. A Muslim must be generous and merciful. The same applies to all beautiful ethics.

Rasûlullah had many beautiful habits. Every Muslim should learn them and form habits similar to them. Thus, they will be blessed with the lot of escaping disasters and troubles in this and the next worlds by attaining the intercession of that Master of both worlds.

The clothing of Rasûlullah

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm had one hibara garment. Hibara is striped yemeni cloth, woven with cotton and linen thread. Our Master, the Prophet enjoyed wearing his Hibara garment very much.

Our Prophet also had two izârs that were made in Oman. Izâr is a fota (lighter fab- ric) and loincloth outer garment worn below the waist. Our Prophet also had a izâr like fota garment, woven from hair, having some stripes, similar to the covering cloth for camel saddles, which he preferred to wear when going out.

Abu Burda said, “When we visited Hadrat Âisha she brought and showed us a garment made of felt, called mulabbada, and a course izâr that was made in Yem- en, swearing that “Rasûlullah’s ’alaihis-salâm soul was taken while wearing these clothes!”528

525 Ibn Maja, “Adab”, 15; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, IV, 197.
526 Qâdî Iyâd, Shifâ-i Sharîf, s, 132; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 85.
527 Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 343; Ghazâlî, Ihyâ, II, 877.
528 Muslim, “Libas”, 57; Abû Dâwûd, “Libas”, 7; Ibn Maja, “Libas”, 1; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, V, 174; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 453; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 326; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 78.

Our Prophet would perform his prayers in the cold winter nights, wearing an izar that had a weave which was neither so hard nor so soft.

Our Prophet had said that Muslim men could extend their izârs from below their waist to halfway down their calves, and a little bit lower than this, but they should not extend it down to the heels.

He informed that on the Day of Judgment Allah Almighty would not treat with mer- cy, those men who showed arrogance by dragging their izâr on the ground, and told Jabir bin Sulaym:, “Raise your izâr halfway up your calf! If you are not able to do this, extend it down to your heels. Beware of extending it so much that it sweeps the ground. For, this is a sign of arrogance. Allah does not like arrogance!”529

Because of this, Abdullah bin ’Umar would extend his izâr down to the mid of his calves, put his shirt over it and his rida530 (khirqa) over his shirt.

The Hadramî rida that our Prophet would wear when he met with formally dressed envoys, had a length of four ells (1 ell = 65.25 cm.) and a width of two ells and one hand span. It had a value of one dinâr and it was green.

During the time of the Caliphs, the rida of our Prophet was kept folded in a package for the Caliphs. The Caliphs would wear it during the Ramadan and Kurban (sacrificial) Holidays.

Our Prophet had two sets of clothing that were made in Suhar. Suhar is a town in Oman. Our Prophet also had a shirt made in Suhar. Shirts made in Suhar are called Suhari. The clothing, which our Prophet would very much like, was a qamîs (shirt). Qamîs is a shirt made of cloth woven only with cotton yarn. The sleeve length of the shirts of our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm came to the wrist. There was also a shirt among the gifts that Negus had sent to our Prophet.

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm had a shirt made of cloth woven with single plied cotton yarn. Garments, produced from cloth which is woven with single plied cotton yarn, are called Suhuliya. Suhul is a village of Yemen. There were also under- clothes among the gifts that Negus sent to our Prophet.

Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm also had clothes that were white. Our Master said, “Have white clothes among your clothing! Let those that are alive wear white. Enshroud your dead in white! For, that clothing is your auspicious and good clothing!”531

It had been seen that our Prophet had also worn green clothing. Abû Rimsa said that he had seen our Prophet wearing green clothes that consisted of one part for the upper and one part for the lower body.532

529 Abû Dâwûd, “Libas”, 27; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 325; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 321; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 78.
530 A kind of garment.
531 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 449.
532 Tirmidhî, “Adab”, 48; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 450; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 97; Abû Nu’aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyâ, IX, 40.

Our Prophet would also wear (mottled) red hulla (a kind of clothing consisting of two pieces). Bara’ bin Azib said, “I have never seen anyone more beautiful than Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm among those who wear a (mottled) red hulla, and whose hair reaches their earlobes!”533 Our Prophet had a red jubba (long robe with full sleeves), which he would wear on Fridays and religious holidays. Our Prophet also had a jubba which was made in Yemen. During his travels, our Prophet would wear a jubba that was made in Damascus, which had tight wristbands.

Our Prophet would wear a jubba made as a taylasan (ceremonial attire), the type of which Iranian Shahs would use, the collar of the jubba had atlas (embroidery with gold and silver thread) on it, as did the border hemming on the opening of the two open sides of the robe and on the hemming on the cuff of its sleeves; this would be worn during wartime when encountering the enemy.

This jubba had been kept by Hadrat Âisha until her death, and then Asma bint-i Abi Bakr had taken it. The water used in the washing of this jubba, which our Prophet had worn, would be used to bathe the ill and they would recover their health.

The Ruler of Dumatuljandal, Uqaydir, sent the jubba of his slain brother Hassan, to our Prophet. The atlas of the jubba was made from satin woven fabric, with gilt gold processing in the design of palm leaves.

Our Prophet wore that jubba, ascended the mimbar, sat, and soon after, without saying a word, descended the mimbar. Muslims were touching it, looking at it and admiring its beauty.

Our Prophet asked, “Are you amazed at its beauty? Do you like it very much?”

They replied, “We have never seen more beautiful clothing than this!”

Our Prophet said, “I swear by Allah, whose Power holds my soul, the handker- chiefs of Sa’d bin Muaz in Paradise are more beautiful and comely than what you see now!”

Our Prophet performed namâz while he was wearing a caftan made of atlas. Upon completing the namâz, he loathingly threw it off.

He said, “This is unseemly for muttaqis (believers who fear Allahu ta’âlâ and abstains from sins)!” Then he sent it to Hadrat ’Umar. When asked, “O Rasûlullah! Why were you in a hurry to remove that caftan?”

Our Prophet said, “Jabrâil prohibited me from wearing that!” Hadrat ’Umar came weeping and said, “O Rasûlullah! You gave me something that you did not want to wear!? What shall I do with this?”

Our Prophet said, I did not give this to you in order for you to wear it. I gave it to you in order to sell it.” Then Hadrat ’Umar sold that caftan for two thousand dirhams.

The Byzantine Emperor had sent fur made with atlas, as a gift to Our Prophet, which had golden lace and long sleeves. When our Prophet wore it, people asked, “O Rasû- lullah! Has this come to you from the skies?”

Our Prophet said, “Do you like it very much? I swear by Allah, whose Power holds my soul, even one of the handkerchiefs of Sa’d bin Muaz in Paradise is more auspicious and more beautiful than this!”

533 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 450.

Then he sent that fur to Hadrat Jafar bin Abi Tâlib. When Hadrat Jafar wore it, our Prophet said, “I did not send it to you in order for you to wear it!” Hadrat Jafar asked, “What shall I do with this, if I shall not wear it?” Our Prophet replied, “Send it to Negus!”

Our Prophet had been given a gift that was a set of top and bottom clothing made of a silk cloth named siyara, with yellow stripes. Our Prophet sent that clothing to Hadrat Ali.

When he saw that Hadrat Ali was wearing it, a sign of anger appeared on the face of our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm. He said, “I did not send it to you in order for you to wear it. I sent it to you to tear it into pieces and use it as head-scarves for women.”

Upon this, Hadrat Ali tore it into pieces and distributed it among the Ahl-i Bayt women. There was also a coat made in Egypt, among the gifts that Negus sent to our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm.

Our Prophet would also wear a black woolen garment. Hadrat Âisha said, “A black woolen garment had been made for Rasûlullah ’alai- his-salâm. Having sweated while wearing it, the smell of wool came to him. He imme- diately discarded that garment; because, he would only like pleasant odors.”

Hadrat ’Umar, having seen a two piece silk like type istabraq (brocaded) siyara (mantle) for sale at the gate of the Masjid, brought it to our Prophet.

He said, “O Rasûlullah! If you buy this, wear it on the days of Jum’a (Friday), on Eids and when you meet with envoys!”

Our Prophet said, “This is a garment for those who do not have a share in the Hereafter! Only those who have no share in the Hereafter wear it!” At another time, he sent an Atlas Jubba that he had to Hadrat ’Umar. Hadrat ’Umar took it and came to our Prophet. He said, “O Rasûlullah! You said, ‘This is the clothing of those who have no share in the Hereafter! Only those who have no share in the Hereafter wear this clothing!’ Then you sent it to me!?” Our Prophet said, “I sent it to you in order for you to sell it and benefit from that recompense by meeting one of your needs. I did not send it to you in order for you to wear it!”

Our Prophet said, “Allah turns away from the one who wears clothing for fame and show, until he removes that clothing!” “On the Day of Judgment, He makes him wear a clothing of abasement!”

“Allah makes the one who wears clothing for fame and show, wear the same type clothing on the Day of Judgment.” “Then, He ignites it with fire!”

Sahl bin Sa’d said, “A woman brought a burda (a striped cloth made in Yemen, which covers the body like ihram. Also, a coarse woolen cloth called aba and khirqa (cardigan) are called burda) with selvedge that she had woven.

She said, ‘O Rasûlullah! I wove this with my own hands and brought it to clothe you.’ Since our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm needed it, he accepted it.

He came to us wearing that burda. One of those among us there, touching it, said,

‘O Rasûlullah! There cannot be another burda more beautiful than this! Will you put it on me?’ Our Master, Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm said ‘All right!’

After having sat in the masjid, he returned home. He rolled up the burda and sent it to that person who wanted it. All those there reprimanded that person by saying, ‘What you have done was not good at all! You requested something from Rasûlullah that he was wearing and that he needed! Though you know that Rasûlullah ’alai- his-salâm never rejects or refuses a request!’

That person said, ‘I swear by Allah that I did not want this in order to wear it. I just wanted it to be my shroud on the day of my death!’ Indeed, that burda became his shroud on the day of his death.”534

The khirqa that he gave to Ka’b bin Zuhayr

When our Master Rasûlullah gave the Firman decreeing the safety of the people of

Ayla in Tabûk, he then gave a burda (khirqa) as a sign of their safety. Abul ’Abbas Abdullah bin Muhammad bought that burda from them for one hun- dred dinârs. The sons of Abbas kept that khirqa through inheritance from predecessor to successor.

Whenever the caliphs went out for Eid, wearing our Prophet’s khirqa and carrying Asâ (the rod of our Prophet), hearts would shudder and the light of their eyes would fade.

When Ka’b bin Zuhayr, one of the famous Arabian poets, recited to our Prophet the eulogy of Banat Suad, which included the couplet, “There is no doubt that, Rasûlullah is a nûr enlightening the right way, annihilating evil, a sharp, unsheathed sword of Allah!”, in order to apologize and become Muslim; our Prophet took off his burda (khirqa) that he was wearing and made him wear it.535

534 Ibn Maja, “Libas”, 1; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, V, 333; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 454; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, VI, 169; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 346.
535 Ibn Hishâm, as-Sira, II, 514; Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, III, 673; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, I, 381; Suhaylî, Rawzu’l-unuf, IV, 33; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 708.

Hadrat Muâwiya, during his caliphate, sent a message to Ka’b bin Zuhayr saying, “Sell Rasûlullah’s cardigan to us!” and sent him ten thousand dirhams.

Ka’b bin Zuhayr refused the request of Hadrat Muâwiya by saying, “I cannot choose anybody other than myself for wearing Rasûlullah’s khirqa!”

When Ka’b bin Zuhayr died, Hadrat Muâwiya bought it from the sons of Ka’b for twenty thousand dirhams. That blessed khirqa was passed on by inheritance from one caliph to another.

After the collapse of Amawî (Umayyads) reign, it was bought by the first Abbasid Caliph named Abul’Abbas Saffah bin Abdullah bin Muhammad, for three hundred dinârs

It had been worn by the caliphs on the Eid days. When Caliph Muqtadir was killed, his blood smeared it. Abbasids took it with them when they went to Egypt. When Yâvûz Sultan Selim Khân conquered Egypt and became the caliph, this blessed khirqa was among the “Sacred Relics” that were brought from Egypt to Istanbul.

This blessed khirqa, which all can see in the Chamber of Khirqa-i Seadet of Topkapi Palace, has a length of 124 cm., with wide sleeves and made of black woolen fabric. The inner part of the khirqa is covered with coarse woven cream-colored woolen fabric. At the right side of the front part of this khirqa, an area the size of 23 x 30 cm is missing. There are also some missing parts on the right sleeve. The khirqa is threadbare in some places.

Bundled several times, it is stored in a golden drawer with an opening lid on top, the size of 57 x 45 x 21 cm. There is also a golden case, made during the time of Sultan Murad the Third, with the same dimensions as Khirqa-i Sa’âdat. This stunning case, ornamented with emeralds, is an unrivaled work of art.

Our Prophet had a wrap dyed with saffron. He would cover himself with this wrap when he was in the homes of his wives. He also had a four cornered black cloak with designs on both sides, called hamisa. Before he became ill, our Prophet would perform namâz on the hamisa.

It was narrated by Hadrat Âisha that: Once, when our Prophet was performing namâz on the hamisa, the ornamentation attracted his attention, and after he complet- ed his namâz he said, “Send this hamisa to Abu Jahm, because a little while ago it distracted me during my namâz. He said that it was sent to him from Abu Jahm bin Huzayfa bin Ganim by Adiy bin Ka’bs of Anbijan’!”

When Abu Jahm asked, “O Rasûlullah! Why did you send it?”, our Prophet replied, “Because its ornamentation took my attention during my namâz.” Abu Jahm had given this hamisa to our Prophet as a gift.

The non-adorned fabric woven from wool, coming from the city Anbijan, is called Anbijani. Also a hamisa had fallen to our Prophet’s share from the spoils of war of Khaybar.

Our Prophet would also perform namâz on this worn down hamisa. During his last illness, when our Prophet felt distressed, he would often cover his face with this ha- misa. When this hamisa discomforted him, he would put it aside and open his face.536

536 Bukhârî, “Salât”, 19; Abû Dâwûd, “Salât”, 93; Dârimî, “Salât”, 101; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, I, 269; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, I, 256; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 468.

Since the soil of Medina is humid and arid, this hamisa was laid on the ground of our Prophet’s grave at his death.

When Hani’ bin Habîb from the envoy of Banî Dar, came to Medina in the ninth year of Hegira, he had given a brocaded garment to our Prophet as a gift.

Our Prophet gave this garment to his uncle Hadrat Abbas. Hadrat Abbas asked, “What shall I do with this?” Our Prophet said, “Unravel its gold, then use it for or- namentation for your wife or use it for your subsistence needs. Sell its atlas and take the money!” Then Hadrat Abbas sold this clothing to a Jewish man at a cost of eight thousand dirham.

Anas bin Malik said, “King Ziyazan sent a hulla, which he had bought in exchange for thirty three mature, female camels, to Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) as a gift, and Rasûlullah (’alaihis-salâm) accepted it.”

Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Kharis said, “Our Master Rasûlullah sent a hulla as a gift, which he had bought in exchange for about twenty nine young camels, from King Ziyazan.”

A two piece set of clothing, consisting of rida and izar, both of which having the same quality, made of Yemen Burud or from another type of cloth, is called hulla. One-piece clothing is not called hulla.

The golden ring sent by Negus

Among the gifts sent by Negus Ashama, to our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm, there was a golden ring with a (black Abyssinian) Habash stone in it.

Our Prophet sent for Umama, who was Abul’ As’ daughter’s daughter, and told her,

“O my daughter! You wear this ring!”537

Our Prophet explained that for men it is only halâl (permitted) to wear a silver ring and harâm (forbidden) to wear a ring made of gold, iron or brass. Our Prophet himself had only used a silver ring until his death.

Rasûlullah would wear his ring on his right hand. It was also seen that he wore it on his left hand. It is jâiz (permissible) to wear a ring on either the right or left hand. A ring is worn on the little finger or the finger next to it. It is mustahab for everybody to wear a ring on the days of Eid. It is harâm to wear a ring for show or boasting.

One day, Nu’man bin Bashîr came to Rasûlullah. He was wearing a golden ring on his finger. Our Prophet said, “Why have you been using an ornament of Paradise before you enter Paradise?” Then he started to use an iron ring. When our Prophet saw this, he said, “Why are you carrying something from Hell?” Then he removed it and started wearing a bronze ring. When our Prophet saw it, he said, “Why do I smell the smell of an idol from you?”

He asked, “O Rasûlullah! What kind of a ring should I use?” Our Prophet replied, “You may use a silver ring. Its weight should not exceed one mithqâl (four grams and eighty centigrams – 4.8 grams) and wear it on your right hand!”

537 Abû Dâwûd, “Hâtim”, 8; Ibn Maja, “Libas”, 40; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 119; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 407; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 121.

Amr ibni Shuayb says, “Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm would have golden and iron rings removed, but not silver rings.”

When our Prophet wanted to write letters to the Persian Shah, the Byzantine Kaiser and Negus, he was told,

– O Rasûlullah! They do not read a letter unless it is sealed! Upon this, our Prophet acquired a silver ring, the stone of which had three lines on it: “Muhammad’ur’Rasûlullah” had been engraved. The inscription on the seal ring, from the bottom to the top, was in three rows as follows;

“Muhammad” on one row, “Rasûl” on one row and, “Allah” on one row.

The stone on the silver ring of our Prophet was an Abyssinian stone.538

It has also been related that the seal of that silver ring was from silver.

Amr bin Said had come to our Prophet. When our Prophet saw the ring on his finger, he asked, “What is this ring on your hand?” Amr bin Said replied, “O Rasûlullah! This is a ring. I made it.” Our Prophet asked, “What is the engravement?”

Amr bin Said said, “Muhammad’ur’Rasûlullah” Our Prophet said, “Let me look at it!” He took it and started to use it as a Personal Seal and prohibited others from engraving “Muhammad’ur ’Rasûlullah” on their rings.539

Our Prophet died while wearing this ring with his Seal on his finger. Our Prophet would wear this ring with his Seal on the little finger of his left hand. Sometimes he would wear it on his right hand.

Our Prophet would turn the part with the Seal towards his palm and keep it so. Be- fore entering the toilet, he would remove his ring from his finger.

After our Prophet’s death, Hadrat Abû Bakr, then Hadrat ’Umar, after Hadrat ’Umar, Hadrat Uthmân wore our Prophet’s ring with his Seal.

One day during his caliphate, Hadrat Uthmân, while sitting near the edge of the well known as Eris, removed the ring from his finger and while turning it over in his hand, he dropped it into the well.

Although all the water of the well was drained out and the ring was sought for, for three days, this blessed ring could not be found.540

538 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 471, 473; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 123; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 74.
539 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 474.
540 Bukhârî, “Libas”, 50; Nasâî, “Ziynat”, 82; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, II, 22; Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 476-477; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 239; Haythamî, Majmâ’uz-Zawâid, V, 184; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 75.

Engraving on the stones of rings continued after our Prophet. “Ni’mal qâdir Allah” (The Almightiness of Allah is beautifully sufficient) was written on Hadrat Abû Bakr’s ring; “Qafâ bil-mavt wâ’izan yâ ’Umar” (advice of death is enough, O ’Umar) was written on Hadrat ’Umar’s ring; “Le-nasbiranna” (we will certainly be patient) was written on Hadrat ’Uthmân’s ring; “Al-mulku lillah” (possessions belong only to Allah) was written on Hadrat Ali’s ring; “Al-izzatu lillah” (magnificnce, greatness belongs to Allah) was written on Hadrat Hasan’s ring; “Rabbigfir-lî” (O my Rabb! Forgive me) was written on Hadrat Muâwiya’s ring; “Ad-dunya garûrun” (the world is deceptive, a liar) was written on Ibni Ebî Layla’s ring; “Qul-il-khayr wa illâ fasqut” (speak properly or keep silent!) was written on Imâm-i a’zâm Abû Hanifa’s ring; “Man amila bi-ra’yihî nadima” (the one who acts according to his own view, becomes regretful) was written on Imâm-i Abû Yusuf’s ring; “Man sabara zafira” (one who is patient, attains victory) was written on Imâm-i Muhammad’s ring; “Al-Barakatu fil qanâ’a” (blessings are in contentment). They would use their rings as their seals.

The bed of our Prophet

The bed on which our Prophet would sleep, had been made from leather. It was filled with date palm fibers. He and his wife would sleep on it. Also the pillow that our Prophet put under his head had been made from leather and filled with date palm fibers.

Our Mother Hadrat Âisha related, “A woman from the Ansâr tribe came to me. When she saw the bed of Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm, she went and sent a bed filled with wool.

Rasûl alaihissalâm came and asked of me, “What is this?” I said, “O Rasûlullah! A woman from the Ansâr tribe came to visit. When she saw your bed, she went and sent this bed to you.” Our Prophet said, “Send this back to her immediately!”

However, I did not send it back to her. I wanted it to be in my house. Rasûl ’alai- his-salâm repeated his words three times. At last, he said, “I swear by Allah, O Âi- sha! If I had wanted, Allah would have made gold and silver mountains walk with me!”541 The Prophet’s mats consisted of two abas (coarse woolen fabric).

One night, when he came next to me, I folded and made narrow that aba. He slept on it. Then he asked, “O Âisha! Why was my bed not as usual tonight?” I said, “O Rasûlullah! I folded and made it narrow for you.” He said, “Make it the same as it was before!”542

541 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 465.
542 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 465.

It was also related by Hadrat Âisha, “For Qurayshs people, there is nothing more lovely than sleeping on a bed in Mecca. When Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm came to Medina and settled in Abû Ayyûb’s house, he asked of him, “O Abû Ayyûb! Don’t you have a bed?” Abû Eyyûb said, “I swear by Allah that I do not!”

“When Sa’d bin Zurara from the Ansâr heard of this, he sent a wooden bed to Rasû- lullah ‘alaihis-salâm, the beams of which were made from black juniper and covered by a mat the upper part of which was woven with linen fibers.”

“Rasûlullah had slept on it until he moved into his house. He slept on it until his death.”

“When Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm was washed and shrouded, he was placed on this bed and his janâza prayer was performed while he was on it. People would want it from us for carrying their dead and we gave donations. Hadrat Abû Bakr’s and Hadrat

‘Umar’s corpses were also carried on it.”

Hadrat Âisha said, “Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm had a mat on which he would perform namâz during the night and lay it on the ground to sit with people during the day- time.”543

The walking staff of Rasûlullah

While our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm was saying the khutba (sermon) on Fridays he would lean on a walking staff or a bow. While travelling, he would say the khutba while leaning on a bow.

Our Prophet would say that leaning on a walking staff was from the habits of the Prophets. He himself would lean on, and recommend leaning on, a walking staff. During the caliphate of Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, our Prophet’s walking staff was with Sa’dul’Karaz.

In the fiftieth year of Hegira, Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan came for pilgrimage. He wanted to have the mimbar (pulpit), which was in our Prophet’s masjid, removed and conveyed to Damascus.

He wanted the walking staff that was with Sa’dul’Karaz. Jabir bin Abdullah and Abû Hurayra went and said to him, “O the Amîr-ul-mu’minîn! Having the pulpit of Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm removed from its place, and having his walking staff conveyed to Damascus, are not a proper action!”

Upon this, Hadrat Muawiya left them and apologized.

One day our Prophet took Abdullah bin Unays from the masjid to his house, he gave him a walking staff and told him, “Keep this walking staff with you O Abdullah bin Unays!”

When Abdullah bin Unays went among the people with that walking staff, he was asked, “What is this walking staff?” He replied, “Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm gave it to me and ordered me to keep it with me.”

They said to Abdullah bin Unays, “Will you go to Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm and ask him why he gave this walking staff to you!” Upon that Abdullah bin Unays went to our Prophet and asked, “O Rasûlullah! Why did you give me this walking staff?”

Our Prophet said, “This is a sign among us on the Day of Judgment! At that time, few people will lean on a walking staff in Paradise! You shall lean on this in Paradise!”

Abdullah bin Unays kept it with him along with his sword and never left it. When he was in his deathbed, he willed that those in his home put the walking staff into his shroud and that he be buried with it. The walking staff was put between his body and his shroud, so, his will was fulfilled.

Seven things that our Prophet would hold

Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm had a mihjan the length of which was one arshin (about 71 cm.) or a little bit longer.

Mihjan is a rod with a curved end. Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would perform the istilâm (onset) of Hajar-al-aswad (where tawaf starts) by pointing it out from a dis- tance, using that rod.

When mounting his camel, our Prophet would hang it in front of him. Our Master had a mihsarra (rod), which was named Urjun. While our Prophet was going to Bak- iulgarqad, he would keep it with him, lean on it and turn it over and over in his hand while he was sitting.

Our Prophet would give the khutba while holding this mihsarra. Our Prophet also had a Qadib’i rod named Mamshuq cut from trees in the mountains.

While Hadrat Uthmân was giving the khutba at the mimbar, holding the Qadib’i of our Prophet, Jahjah bin Said or Jahjah bin Qays came there, took the Qadib’i from Hadrat Uthmân’s hand, bent it over his knee and broke it. Those who were there shouted at him. Hadrat Uthmân descended from the mimbar and went to his house.

Upon this, Allah Almighty gave a disease named akila (itching) on Jahjah’s hand or knee. Not more than one year after Hadrat Uthmân’s martyrdom, Jahjah died of itching.

When our Prophet would travel, he would take his comb, mirror, miswâk, rose oil, kohl and scissors, neither would he leave them when he was travelling or settled.

Hadrat Âisha said, “For Gazâ (holy battles), I would prepare the rose oil, comb, mirror, two scissors, kohl box and miswâk of Rasûl (’alaihis-salâm).”

Again our mother Hadrat Âisha said, “Rasûl (’alaihis-salâm) would never leave these seven things while travelling or while settled: 1. Bottle of rose oil, 2. Comb, 3. Mirror, 4. Kohl box, 5. Miswâk, 6. Two scissors, 7. a bone for parting hair.” 544

Our Prophet would comb his beard twice a day.

Anas bin Malik said, “Rasûl (’alaihis-salâm) would often apply rose oil on his hair and comb his beard with water.”545

543 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 468.
544 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 484.
545 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 484.

He placed a great deal of importance on orderliness

Our Master, the Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm would place a great deal of importance on cleanliness, order and tidiness. He would say, “He who has hair, should take care of it!” Once, while our Prophet was in the masjid, a man with dishevelled hair and beard came in.

Our Prophet said, “Is there any rose oil for tidying his hair?” and then motioned to him to immediately go out and tidy his hair and beard. After he had done so and came back, our Prophet said, “Which is better: One coming here with tidy hair and beard like this, or with messy hair and beard like Satan?”

Our Prophet would trim his beard a little from its length and sides. Before going to Friday Prayer, he would trim his moustache and cut his nails. He commanded Mus- lims to trim their moustaches as well.

Whenever our Prophet looked into the mirror, he would praise Allah and say, “O my Allah! As you have created my appearance beautiful, beautify my ethics, too!”

Our Prophet would put kohl on his eyes three times every night, before he went to sleep. He would put kohl three times on his right eye and two times on his left eye. He would say, “Put kohl on your eyes! Because it polishes the eyes and increases hair (eyelash) growth.”546

The scholars of Islam say that it is permissible for a man to put kohl on his eyes for medical purposes, but not for ornamentation. The words of jamâl (beauty) and zînât (ornamentation) should not be confused with each other. Jamâl means to show the blessings in order to remove ugliness, protect dignity and thank Allahu ta’âlâ. Showing off blessings for boastful purposes does not mean jamâl, but rather kibr (arrogance).

Rasûlullah would attach great importance on using a miswâk (a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the arak tree). He would always have it with him. Our Prophet would say, “Apply miswâk, using the twig of the arak tree!” It gives a pleasant scent to the mouth. Our Prophet said, “It is both my miswâk and that of the Prophets before me!”

Our Prophet said, “If it would not have given difficulty to my Community, I would have absolutely commanded them to use miswâk before each ritual prayer!”547

“I strongly recommend you to use miswâk!”

“Miswâk is cleanliness of the mouth and consent of my Rabb!”

When our Prophet entered his home, he would first clean his teeth with a miswâk. He would not go to sleep unless he had a miswâk with him and when he woke up, he would first clean his teeth with a miswâk. He would also clean his teeth with miswâk when he got up for Tahajjud namâz (namâz which is performed after two-thirds of the night has elapsed).548

Hadrat Âisha said, “There was never a night or a day that Prophet (’alaihis-salâm), when awakening, did not use miswâk before performing a ritual ablution!”

The swords of our Master, Rasûlullah

Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm had nine swords: The sword named Ma’sur, was inherit- ed from his father. This sword was with our Prophet during his migration to Medina.549

The sword named Abd: Sa’d bin Ubada had given this sword to our Prophet as a gift and our Prophet took it with him when he went to the Holy Battle of Badr.

Zulfikâr: The sword of a polytheist of the Quraysh, either Munabbih bin Hajjaj or As bin Munabbih, was taken as ganîmat (war booty) in the Holy Battle of Badr. Since the back side had notches on it, it was called as Zulfikâr. Our Prophet gifted Zulfikâr to Hadrat Ali. The head of its hilt, its rings and chains were made of silver.550

After our Prophet’s death, Hadrat Abbas appealed to Hadrat Abû Bakr, expressing his wish to take Zulfikâr from Hadrat Ali. Hadrat Abû Bakr said,

“I have only seen that sword in his hand. I do not find it appropriate to take that sword out of his hand!” So, Hadrat Abbas left it to Hadrat Ali.

Our Prophet’s spears were as follows: Three spears had fallen share to our Prophet as ganîmat from the booty taken from the Jews of Banî Kaynukâ.

One of the spears of our Prophet was named Muswi and another was named Musna. Our Prophet had a large javelin named Bayza and a smaller javelin named Anaza, which was smaller than a spear.

This javelin, also known as Nab’a, had been given to Zubayr bin Awwam by Negus of Abyssinia. While returning from the Holy Battle of Khaybar, our Prophet had obtained it from Zubayr bin Awwam.

Negus of Abyssinia, Ashama, had sent three Aneze (spears) to our Prophet. Our Prophet took one for himself, gave the second to Hadrat Ali, and the third to Hadrat ’Umar.

On Eid al-Fitr (Eid of Ramadan) and Eid al-Adha (Eid of Qurban), Bilâl-i Habashî would carry our Prophet’s Aneze on the way to the masjid in front of our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm and when they arrived there, he would thrust it erect in the ground in front of our Prophet.

Our Prophet would conduct the Eid prayer, placing himself such that by turning toward the direction of prayer, the Aneze was in line with it.

After our Prophet’s death, Bilâl-i Habashî would carry this Aneze in front of Hadrat Abû Bakr and when they arrived at the masjid, he would erect it in front of him. After Hadrat Abû Bakr, for Hadrat ’Umar and after him, Hadrat ‘Uthman, this duty had been performed in the same manner by the muezzin (one who calls to prayer) Sa’d’ul Qarz. During the times of the Medina Governors, this duty was performed in the same manner.

546    Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 485.    
547    Tirmidhî, “Purification”, 18.    
548    Ibn Maja, “Purification”, 7.    
549    Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 484; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 135, Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 245.
550    Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 484; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 245; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 76.    

The bows and shields of our Master, Rasûlullah

Our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm had six bows. Three of them, ar-Rauha, al-Bayda and as-Safra, were taken as ganîmat from the Jews of Banî Kaynukâ. The as-Safra Bow was made from a wood from trees known as Neb’.551 The bow known as al-Katum had also been made from Neb’ and was broken in the Holy Battle of Uhud. Qatada bin Numan took this broken bow. Our Prophet also had bows known as as-Saddad and az-Zawra.552

Our Prophet had three shields: The shield az-Zalluq had a ram head figure on it. This shield had been given to our Prophet as a gift. However, our Prophet did not like having the figure on it. When he woke in the morning, he saw that Allahu ta’âlâ caused the figure on the shield to disappear. 553

Our Prophet had seven coats of armor:  Dhat al-Fudul was given to our Prophet as a gift by Sa’d bin Ubada at the outset of the Holy Battle of Badr.554

Two coats of armor known as as-Sa’diyyah and Fidda were among the weapons, which he had as ganîmat from the Jews of Banî Kaynukâ.

In the Holy Battle of Uhud, our Prophet wore Dhat al-Fudul and Fidda one over another.555

There were two silver rings on the chest and back of the coat of armor of our Proph- et. The coat of armor as-Sa’diyyah was the ancient coat of armor which had been worn by Hadrat David (’alaihis-salâm) when he fought Jâlût (Goliath).

At our Prophet’s death, one of his coats of armor had been pawned for thirty Sa’ of barley, to meet the needs of our Prophet’s family, to a Jew named Abushahm from the tribe of Banî Zafar. That coat of armor was Dhat al-Fudul.556

Other coats of armor of our Prophet were Dhat al-Wishah, Dhat al-Hawashi, al-Ba- tra’ and al-Khirniq.557

Our Prophet had worn Dhat al-Fudul and as-Sa’diyyah in the Holy Battle of Hunayn. One of our Prophet’s helmets was al-Muwashah. This helmet was from the ganîmat from the Jews of Banî Kaynukâ.

Other helmets were named as-Sabugh or Dhu as-Sabugh or Mashbugh. The helmet that our Prophet was wearing in the Holy Battle of Uhud, had shattered and two of its rings stuck in his cheek. During the siege for the conquest of Mecca, our Prophet had worn a helmet.

551 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 489; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 246.
552 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 246.
553 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 489.
554 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 487.
555 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 487; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 138; Suyutî, Awsaf-un Nabî, s, 77.
556 Bukhârî, “Buyu’ ”, 33; “Rahn”, 5; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, VI, 160; Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf, IV, 271; Tirmidhî, Shamâil-i Sharîf, s, 334; Baghawî, al-Anwâr, I, 299; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 307.
557 Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 246.

The flags and banners of our Prophet

Our Prophet’s flag, known as Râya, was black and his banner, known as Liwâ, was white. Yunus bin Ubayd, who had been emancipated by Muhammad bin Qâsim, said, “Muhammad bin Qâsim sent me to Bara bin Azib in order to inquire about the flag of Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm.”

Bara bin Azib said that the flag was black, made of four cornered namira (black and white striped, woolen) cloth.

This flag, similar to the broad soft saddle used by Hadrat Âisha for riding her camel, was embroidered, of woven wool and was black. It was called Uqab.

Our Prophet’s flag was in the possession of Hadrat Ali. In the Holy Battle of Khay- bar, our Prophet said, “I will give the flag to such a courageous person that loves Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger and whom Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger love too!” and called Hadrat Ali. He then gave his flag to him.558

Allah Almighty granted the conquest of Khaybar to Hadrat Ali. On the Liwâ (ban- ner) of our Prophet, it was written, “Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammad’ur Rasûlullâh.

Our Prophet had tied on the white banner for Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs in the Kharrar Expedition. When our Prophet was to send Hadrat Ali to Yemen, he tied a turban on the head of a spear and said, “A banner is like this!” Only the army commander would hold and carry the banner.

Hadrat Hamza had carried our Prophet’s white banner at Abwâ, the Holy Battle of Waddan. In the Holy Battle of Buwat, Sa’d bin Abî Waqqâs had carried the banner. Hadrat Ali had carried the banner in the pursuit of Qurz bin Jabir’ul’Fihrin and Hadrat Hamza had carried it in the Holy Battle of Zul’usayra.

At the outset of the Holy War of Badr, our Prophet gave his white banner to Mus’ab bin Umayr. Hadrat Ali had carried our Prophet’s black flag (Uqab) in front of our Prophet.559

Our Prophet’s white banner had been carried by Hadrat Hamza in the Holy Battle of Banî Kaynukâ; by Hadrat Ali in the Holy Battles of Karkaratulkudr, Uhud and Badrul Maw’id; and by Zayd bin Hârisa in the Holy Battle of the Trench (Ghazwah al-Khandaq).

Our Prophet had conquered Mecca while he had his white banner. During the Expedition to Tabûk, our Prophet made Hadrat Abû Bakr carry his larg- est banner and Zubayr bin Awwâm carry his largest flag.

The horses of our Master, the Prophet

Our Prophet’s first horse, which he had bought for ten uqiya (one uqiya is approx. one ounce) silver in Medina from a Bedouin of the Banî Fazara tribe, those of the desert called it Daris and our Prophet called it Sakb. Our Prophet had ridden it in the Holy Battle of Uhud.560

558 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, II, 80; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, III, 354.
559 Tabarânî, al-Mu›jamu›l Kabîr, I, 105, 120; Ibn Kathîr, as-Sira, II, 388.
560 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 489.

There was some white on the lip of Sakb. Three of its legs had patches, but one right leg did not. Sakb was a swift horse. It would ride smoothly. Our Prophet had bought his horse named Murtajiz from a Bedouin of the Banî Murra tribe. Murtajiz, was beau- tiful, handled nicely and would neigh as though it was saying a poem.561

Muqawqas, the ruler of Alexandria, had sent a horse named Lizaz to our Prophet as a gift. Lizaz was swift.562 The horse named Zarib had been given by Farwa bin Umayr’ul’Juzami to our Prophet as a gift. Zarib was a very powerful and strong horse.

Rabia bin Abi Bara’ul Qalbi had given a horse named Lahif (or Luhaif) to our Prophet as a gift. Lahif had a long tail. Its tail would sweep the ground. Ya’sub was the best of our Prophet’s horses. Murawih was a racehorse and had been given by Ubayd bin Yasir to our Prophet as a gift in Tabûk. Murawih would run like the wind.

The representatives of the Banî Raha’ tribe, who came to Medina in the tenth year of Hegira, had given the horse named Mirwah to our Prophet as a gift. When a rider would mount and ride Mirwah in front of our Prophet, our Prophet would enjoy this very much.

Ward was a horse that had been given to our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm as a gift by Tamim-i Dari. The color of Ward was reddish-brown. Our Prophet gave it to Hadrat ’Umar as a gift. Hadrat ’Umar fought for the sake of Allah while riding Ward. Our Prophet would have three of his horses race. Sahl bin Sa’d was the rider of Zarib and Abû Usayd’us’Saidi was the rider of Lizaz. Lizaz would rank first; Zarib would fol- low Lizaz and Sakb would be behind Zarib.

Rasûlullah also had a donkey and a mule. Muqawqas, the ruler of Alexandria, had sent our Prophet a grey mule and a grey donkey as gifts. The mule was called Duldul and the donkey was called Yafur or Ufair. The first grey mule to be seen in Islam was Duldul. Our Prophet’s mount in the Holy Battle of Khaybar, was this grey mule and in the Holy Battle of Hunayn, another grey mule was his mount. When our Prophet prodded his mule in order to speedily advance towards the Hawazin tribe in a holy battle; Hadrat Abbas and Sufyan bin Kharis tried to slow down the mule by holding the bridle and the stirrup and prevented our Prophet from thrusting into the enemy lines. According to another report, it is said that in the Holy Battle of Khaybar, our Prophet rode Yafur with a saddle, and a bridle that was made from date palm fiber. Yafur had already died by the time our Prophet had come back from the Farewell
Hajj (Pilgrimage), and Duldul had been passed on to Hadrat Ali when our Prophet had died. Hadrat Ali had ridden it until his martyrdom. After that, Hadrat Hasan and then Hadrat Husayn; afterwards Hadrat Muhammad bin Hanafiyya rode it. Duldul lived until the time of Hadrat Muâwiya.

The camels of our Master, the Prophet

Quswa: This camel of our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm was also called Jad’a and Adba. Previously belonging to the tribe of Banî Qushayr bin Ka’b bin Rabia bin Âmir or Huraysh bin Ka’b, Hadrat Abû Bakr bought it for four hundred dirhams and in turn sold it to our Prophet for the same price.

It was also related that Hadrat Abû Bakr gifted it to our Prophet. Our Prophet migrated to Medina while on Quswa. He went to Hudaybiya Umra on it. He also conquered Mecca while he was on it. Our Prophet would have Quswa race, but no other camels could pass it. However, a Bedouin had raced with a two years old camel and won the race.

Our Prophet performed his Arafat khutba (sermon) during his Farewell Hajj while he was on Quswa. At the time of Hadrat Abû Bakr’s caliphate, Quswa was left at Baki’ Cemetery. Left free to roam, it died there. 563

The camel, that had been taken as ganimet (war booty) from Abû Jahl: Our Prophet had taken Abû Jahl’s well-known camel as his right of commander in chief in the Holy Battle of Badr. Until the time of Hudaybiya Umra, he would go to holy battles on this camel, as well. He marked it to be sacrificed for umra. The polytheists wanted to buy it for one hundred camels.

Our Prophet said, “Had we not assigned and determined it as sacrificial, I would have instead granted your wish.”

Camels for Milking:

Our Prophet had seven milking camels named Hanna, Samra, Urays, Sa’diyya, Ba- gum, Yasira, and Dabba’, which grazed in the meadows of Zuljadr and Jamma. Our Prophet’s family would consume two water skins full of the milk from these camels, every night. 564 However, by the time of our Prophet’s death, none of these camels were alive.

561 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 490; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 247.         
562 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 490; Qastalânî, Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya, s, 247.
563 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 492-493.    
564 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 494.  

The house of bliss of Rasûlullah

When our Prophet had his masjîd constructed in Medina, he also had two adobe rooms constructed near the masjîd and had the rooms covered with date palm logs and branches.

The door of Hadrat Âisha’s room faced towards the masjîd. The door of the room constructed for Hadrat Sawda faced the gate of Al-i Uthman, which was the third gate of the masjîd.

 As our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm married other wives, the number of rooms increased, constructed between Hadrat Âisha’s room and the qibla, that is, on the east side of the masjîd. Some of these rooms were made from adobe and some were made from stone.

Some of them were constructed with date palm branches, they were mortared with mud and the roofs were formed with date palm branches.

Hasan bin Abilhasan says, “When I was at the age of maturity, I went to the house of Rasûlullah and I was able to reach and touch the ceiling. Rasûlullah’s room only had a cypress or juniper tree stump that had a hair cloth cover stretched over it.”

According to Imâm-i Bukhâri, “There was no knocking ring on the door of Rasû- lullah’s house, so the door would be knocked on with the end of a bow.”

Muhammad bin Khilal and Ataul’Khorasânî had seen the rooms of our Prophet’s wives and said that they had been constructed from date palm branches and black hair drapes as a door.

According to what Dâvûd bin Qays had seen, the width of each room, from door to door, was 6 or 7 zrâ’ 565 and the inside length was an estimated 10 zrâ’.

Hadrat Sawda had bequeathed her room to Hadrat Âisha. As for Hadrat Safiya’s room; Hadrat Safiya’s parents had sold her room to Muawiya bin Abî Sufyan for one hundred eighty or two hundred thousand dirhams on the condition that she would reside in it until her death.

When the script of caliph Abdulmalik was read out in Medina, regarding the adjoin- ing of the rooms of our Prophet’s wives to the Masjîd, by expropriating them, most of the people shed tears like they did the day our Prophet died. 566

Said bin Musayyab expressed his sorrow by saying, “I swear by Allah that I desire that they be left as they were! Thus, the younger adults and new comers in Medina would understand what our Prophet had been contented with and realize that people should not desire for too much property nor to be boastful about them.”

The properties made waqf by Rasûlullah

The first waqf (endowment) in Islam, consisted of seven gardens and orchards named 1. Misab, 2. Safiya, 3. Dalal, 4. Husna, 5. Burqa, 6. A’waf, 7. Mashraba. These were previously owned by Muhayrik, a Jewish scholar and wealthy man, who swore that if he died while fighting in the Battle of Uhud, his properties should be surren- dered to our Prophet. This was accepted by our Prophet and made waqf.567

The waqfs of our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm in Medina were mostly from the properties of Muhayrik. Ibn-i Humayd says, “Caliph ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz had wanted dates to be brought from the waqf date palm gardens of Muhayrik. They were brought on a plate.

When ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz said, “Abû Bakr bin Hazm wrote to me that these dates are from the date palm trees remaining from the time of Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm and Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm would eat from them,” I said, “O the Emir of Muslims! Divide them among us!” He divided nine dates each among us.”

’Umar bin Abdul’azîz said, “While governor of Medina, I entered the date palm garden, I ate dates from those trees. I had never eaten another date as delicious and sweet as those dates!”

Amr bin Muhâjir says, “The properties of Rasûl ’alaihis-salâm were with ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz in a room and he would look at them every day. When the people of Quraysh had gathered with him, he would let them go in this room and say, by turning towards these properties, “Here is the inheritance of the person with whom Allah had honored you!” These consisted of:

  1. One bed, woven from date palm leaves,
  2. One head pillow filled with date palm fiber and covered with leather,
  3. One somewhat large dish,
  4. One drinking cup,
  5. One garment,
  6. One hand mill,
  7. One quiver for arrows,
  8. One velvet (blanket).

The sweat of our Prophet’s blessed head, permeated this blanket, it smelled more beautiful than musk.

Whenever ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz became ill, he would take a bath with water used in washing the blanket and recover. ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz was one of the Tâbiîn (those who lived immediately after the Ashâb-i kiram, but never saw Prophet Hadrat Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm) a scholar of Medina and imam, a faqîh (scholar of ilm-i fiqh [commands and prohibitions of Islam]), a mujtahîd and who knew the sunnats very well. His mother was ummu Asim bint-i Asim bin ’Umar bin Khattab. His justice and piety were an example of piousness.

Imâm-i Shâfi’î (The imam of the Shâfi’î madhhab, which is one of the four right- eous madhhabs in Islam) would say, “Khulefâ-i râsihidîn consists of five people: 1) Abû Bakr, 2) ’Umar, 3) ’Uthman, 4) Ali, 5) ’Umar bin Abdul’azîz!” ’Umar bin Ab- dul’azîz would follow Hadrat ’Umar regarding justice; Hasan’ul Basrî regarding taq- wa (avoiding haram) and zühd (not setting ones heart on worldly things); and Imâm Zuhrî regarding ilm (religous knowledge).

565 zra’: A unit of measure of length. It is equal to 48 cm. – See: Religious Terms Dictionary, II, 317 – “Türkiye” New- spaper Publications.
566 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 499.
567 Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqât, I, 503.

May blessings and salutations be upon him and his Companions,

For, he, who is the source of generosity, befriended them.

Come O Haqqi, forget about the people and learn morals from the beloved of Allah,

For, he, who is the source of generosity, freely gained good morals from Allah.

IBRÂHIM HAQQI OF ERZURUM       

line   THE ISLAMIC RELIGION

Islam is the way and rules which Allahu ta’âlâ sent to His beloved Prophet Hadrat Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm through an angel named Gabriel. Islam causes people to have comfort and happiness in this world and the next. Everything superior and useful is within Islam. Islam has gathered within itself all the visible and invisible excellenc- es of the past religions. All sorts of happiness and success are within it. It consists of that which is essential and moral to unerring, unfailing minds.

People with a faultless nature will not refuse or hate it. There is no harm in Islam. There is no benefit outside of Islam, nor can there be any. To think of any benefit outside of Islam would mean to expect to be satiated from a mirage. Islam commands us to improve our country and care about people, and asks us to respect the command- ments of Allahu ta’âlâ and pity creatures.

It absolutely commands agriculture, trade and arts. It attaches due importance to knowledge, science, technology and industry. It asks men to help and serve one an- other mutually. It teaches us the rights of individuals, children, families and peoples, and it observes rights and responsibilities towards the living, the dead and the coming generations, towards everybody. It is Sa’âdat-i dârayn, that is, it includes the happi- ness of this world and the next.

Islam brought the principles, which will outstandingly provide the moral and mate- rial wellbeing of people. It has arranged human rights and duties in the widest sense. In brief, the Islamic religion has the fundamentals of belief, worship, munâkahât (subdivisions of Islamic knowledge, such as marriage, divorce, alimony and many others), muamalât (many subdivisions of Islamic knowledge, such as purchase, sale, rent, joint-ownership, interest, inheritance etc.), uqûbat (Penal code, composed of five main subdivisions: qisâs [lex talionis], sirqa [theft], zinâ [fornication and adultery], qadhf [forgery] and ridda [case of becoming an apostate]).

Belief

Imân (faith, belief) is to believe in the fact that Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is Allahu ta’âlâ’s Prophet; that he is the Nabî, the Messenger chosen by Him, and to say this with the heart; and to believe in brief what he transmitted briefly and to believe in detail what he transmitted in detail from Allahu ta’âlâ; and to say the Kalimat ash-shahâda whenever and as frequently as possible. Strong îmân is such that, as we know for certain that fire burns, snakes kill by poisoning and we avoid them, we should deem Allahu ta’âlâ and His attributes great, be fully certain of this by heart, strive for his consent (ridâ’) and run to His beauty (jamâl), and beware of His wrath (ghadab) and torture (jalâl). We should write this îmân on the heart firmly like an inscription on marble.

There are six fundamentals of îmân, in which we must believe absolutely. The first of these six fundamentals is that Allahu ta’âlâ is the Wâjib alwujûd and the Real Ma’bûd (the One Worshipped) and the Creator of all creatures. It should be believed for certain that He alone creates everything in both this world and the next without material, time or similarity, out of nonexistence. He is the Creator, Owner, Absolute Ruler of all creatures. It has to be believed and acknowledged that there is nobody to dominate Him, to command Him or to be superior to Him. Every type of superiority, every attribute of perfection, belongs to Him only. No defect, no deficient attribute ex- ists in Him. He is able to do what He wills. What He does is not intended to be useful to Him or to others. He does not do something for a reward. In everything He does, however, there are hidden causes (hikma), uses, blessings and favors.

Allahu ta’âlâ does not have to do what is good and useful for His creatures, nor does He have to reward some people or torture some others. It would befit His superiority and benevolence if He would bring all the sinners to Paradise. And it would become His justice if He would put all of those who obey and worship Him into Hell. Yet He decreed and declared that He would put Muslims, those who worship Him, into Paradise and grant them favors, and that He would eternally torture disbelievers in Hell. He does not go back on His word. It would be of no use for Him if all the living creatures believed and worshipped Him, nor would it give Him any harm if all crea- tures became disbelievers, became excessive or disobeyed Him. He will forgive, if He wills, a person who has committed any great sin and has died without repentance, except if it is polytheism or disbelief. He will torture him, if He wills, for a merely venial sin. He declared that He would never forgive those who die as disbelievers and apostates and that He would torture them eternally.

He will torture in Hell those Muslims who worship Him yet whose faith (i’tiqâd) is not compatible with the faith of the Ahl as-Sunna and who die without repentance. Yet such Muslim people of heresy (bid’a) will not remain in Hell eternally.

It is possible (jâ’iz) to see Allahu ta’âlâ with the eyes in this world, but no one ever has. On the Day of Judgment He will be seen by disbelievers and sinful Muslims in His Wrath and Glory, and by pious Muslims in His Kindness and Beauty. Angels and women, too, will see Him in Paradise. Disbelievers will be deprived of this. There is a sound report conveying that genies also will be deprived of this.

The elapse of time, day or night, cannot be related to Allahu ta’âlâ. There can be no change in Him in any respect, nor can it be said that He was in this manner in the past or He will be like that in the future. He does not penetrate (hulûl) into anything. He does not unite with anything. He never has an opposite, reverse, likeness, partner, assistant or protector. He does not have a father, mother, son, daughter or wife. He is

always present with everybody, surrounds and overlooks everything. To everyone He is closer than the big artery in his neck. However, His surrounding us, His presence or togetherness or closeness, is not like what we understand from these words. His closeness cannot be comprehended with the knowledge of ‘ulamâ’ (scholars), with the intellect of scientists or with the kashf or shuhûd of Awliyâ’ (dear slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ). Human reason cannot understand their inner meanings. Allahu ta’âlâ is unique in His Person and in His Attributes. No change or differentiation takes place in any of them.

Allahu ta’âlâ’s Names are infinite. It is well known that He has one thousand and one Names; that is, He revealed one thousand and one of His Names to human beings. In the religion of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), ninety-nine of them, called “al-Asmâ’ al-husnâ” were revealed.

The second of the six fundamentals of îmân is to believe in His angels. Angels are material but ethereal (latîf), more ethereal than the gaseous phase of matter. They are nûrânî (luminous, spiritual). They are alive. They have reason (’aql). Evils peculiar to human beings do not exist in angels. They can take any shape. As gases turn into liquid and solid and take any shape when becoming solid, so angels can take beautiful forms. Angels are not souls that have parted from the bodies of great men. Christians presume that angels are such spirits. Unlike energy and power, they are not immateri- al. Some ancient philosophers supposed so.

Malak (angel) means envoy, messenger or power. The plural form of the word malak is “Malâ’ika.” Angels were created before all other living creatures. Therefore, we were commanded to believe in them before believing in the holy books, which come before the belief in prophets; and in the Qur’ân al-karîm the names of these beliefs are given in this succession.

Belief in angels has to be as follows: angels are the slaves of Allahu ta’âlâ. They are not His partners, nor are they His daughters as disbelievers and polytheists suppose. Allahu ta’âlâ is pleased with all angels. They obey His commands and never commit sins or disobey the commands. They are neither male nor female. They do not get married. They do not have children. They have life; that is, they are alive. When Allahu ta’âlâ announced that He was going to create human beings, angels asked, “O Allah! Are You going to create those creatures who will corrupt the world and shed blood?” Such questions, called dhalla, from angels do not change the fact that they are innocent.

Of all creatures, angels are the most numerous. No one but Allahu ta’âlâ knows their number. There is no empty space in the skies where angels do not worship. Every place in the skies is occupied by angels in rukû’ (bowing during salât) or in sajda (prostrating). In the skies, on the earth, in grass, on stars, in every living and lifeless creature, in every rain-drop, plant leaf, atom, molecule, in every reaction, motion, in everything, angels have duties. They carry out Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commands everywhere. They are intermediaries between Allahu ta’âlâ and creatures. Some of them are the commanders of other angels. Some of them brought messages to the prophets among human beings. Some angels bring good thoughts, called “ilhâm” (inspiration), to the human heart. Some others are unaware of all human beings and creatures and lost themselves in Allahu ta’âlâ’s Beauty. Each of these angels stays in a certain place and cannot leave its place. Angels belonging in Paradise stay in Paradise. Their superior is Ridwân. Angels of Hell, Zabânîs, carry out in Hell what they are commanded. The fire of Hell does not harm them, as the sea is not harmful to fish. There are nineteen leading zabânîs. Their chief is Mâlik.

For each human being, there are four angels who record all the good and evil deeds. Two of them come at night and the other two come during the day. They are called kirâman kâtibîn or angels of hafaza. It has also been said that the angels of hafaza are different from the kirâman kâtibîn. The angel on one’s right side is superior to the one on the left and records the good deeds. The one on the left writes down the evil deeds.

There are angels who will torture disbelievers and disobedient Muslims in their graves, and angels who will ask questions in graves. The questioning angels are called Munkar and Nakîr. Those who will question Muslims are also called Mubashshir and Bashîr.

Angels have superiority to one another. The most superior angels are the four arch- angels. The first of them is Jabrâ’îl (’alaihis-salâm). His duty was to bring wahî (revelation) to prophets, to inform them of the commandments and prohibitions. The second one is Isrâfîl (’alaihis-salâm), who will sound the trumpet called Sûr. He will sound the Sûr twice. At the first sound every living being but Allahu ta’âlâ will die. At the second sound all will be resurrected. The third one is Mikâ’îl (’alaihis-salâm). It is his duty to cause cheapness, expensiveness, scarcity, abundance and to move every object. The fourth one is Azrâ’îl (’alaihis-salâm), who takes the souls of human be- ings. After these four, with regards to superiority, there are four classes of angels: four angels of Hamalat al-’Arsh, who will be eight on the Resurrection; angels in Divine Presence, called Muqarrabîn; leaders of torturing angels, called Karûbiyûn; and angels of Mercy, named Rûhâniyûn. All these higher angels are also higher than all human beings except prophets (’alaihimus-salawâtu wa’t-taslîmât). The sulahâ’(those who are pious and refrain from sins) and Awliyâ’ among Muslims are higher than common grade angels. And common angels are superior to common, that is, disobe- dient, sinful Muslims.

The third of the six fundamentals of îmân is to believe in the Books revealed by Al- lahu ta’âlâ. He sent these Books to some prophets by making the angel read to them. To some He sent books inscribed on tablets, and to some others by making them hear without the angel. All these Books are the Word of Allahu ta’âlâ (Kalâm). They are eternal in the past and everlasting. They are not creatures. They are not words made up by angels, nor are they words of prophets. All the Books sent by Allahu ta’âlâ are right and true.

The Qur’ân al-karîm replaced all the Books and abolished the validity of their rules. There will never be any mistakes, additions, forgotten or missing points in the Qur’ân al-karîm until the end of the world. All knowledge of the past and the future exist in the Qur’ân al-karîm. For this reason, it is higher and more valuable than all the Books. The greatest mu’jiza (miracle) of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is the Qur’ân al-karîm. If all human beings and genies were to assemble and try to say something similar to the shortest sûra of the Qur’ân al- karîm, they would not be able to do it.

One hundred and four of the heavenly Books were made known to us: it is well- known that ten suhuf (pl. of sahîfa, little book) were revealed to Âdam (’alaihis-salâm), fifty suhuf to Shis (Shît) (’alaihis-salâm), thirty suhuf to Idrîs (’alaihis-salâm) and ten suhuf to Ibrâhîm (’alaihis-salâm); the Tawrât (Torah) was revealed to Mûsâ (Moses) (’alaihis-salâm), the Zebûr (Psalms) to Dâwûd (’alaihis-salâm), the Injîl (Bible) to ‘Îsâ (Jesus) (’alaihis-salâm) and the Qur’ân al-karîm to Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). The fourth of the six fundamentals of îmân is to believe in Allahu ta’âlâ’s prophets, who were sent for people to attain the way He likes and to guide them to the right path.

They are noble, respectable persons whose nature, character, knowledge and intellect are higher than those of all the people of their time, having no bad trait in their char- acter and no disliked manner. Prophets had the attribute ’Isma, that is, they did not commit any grave or venial sins before or after they were informed of their nubuwwa (prophethood, prophetship). After they were informed of their nubuwwa and until their nubuwwa was known and spread, they did not have such defects as blindness, deafness or the like. It has to be believed that every prophet had seven attributes: Amâna (trustworthiness), Sidq (devotion), Tablîgh (communication), Adâla (just- ness), ’Isma (purity), Fatâna (super intelligence) and Amn al-’azl (security against dismissal from prophethood).

A prophet who brought a new religion is called a Rasûl (messenger). A prophet who did not bring a new religion but invited people to the previous religion is called a Nabî. In the communication (tablîgh) of commands and in calling the people to Allahu ta’âlâ’s religion, there is no difference between a rasûl and a nabî. We have to believe that all prophets, without exception, were devoted and truthful. He who does not believe in one of them is regarded as not believing in any.

Nubuwwa cannot be attained by working hard, by suffering hunger or discomfort, or by worshipping very much. It is possessed only with Allahu ta’âlâ’s favor and selection. Religions were sent through the mediation of prophets in order to arrange a useful life for people in this world and the next, and to prevent them from harmful acts and make them attain salvation, guidance, ease and happiness. Though they had many enemies and were mocked and treated harshly, prophets did not fear the enemies and showed no hesitation in communicating to people Allahu ta’âlâ’s commands. Al- lahu ta’âlâ supported His prophets with mu’jizas to show that they were devoted and truthful. No one could stand against their mu’jizas. The community of a prophet is called his umma. On the Day of Judgment, prophets will be permitted to intercede for those who were gravely sinful of their ummas, and their intercession will be accepted. Allahu ta’âlâ will also permit the ulamâ’ (scholars), sulahâ’ (those who are pious) and awliyâ’ (those who are loved and protected by Allahu ta’âlâ) among their ummas to intercede, and their intercession will be accepted. Prophets (’alaihimus-salawâtu wat-taslîmât) are alive in their graves in a life we cannot know; earth does not cause their blessed bodies to rot. For this reason, it was said in a hadîth-i sherîf, “Prophets perform salât (ritual prayer) in their graves.”

While the blessed eyes of a prophet slept, the eye of his heart did not sleep. All prophets (’alaihimus-salâm) were equal in performing their duties as prophets and in possessing the excellences of nubuwwa. The above-mentioned seven attributes existed in all of them. Prophets were never dismissed from nubuwwa. The Awliyâ’, however, may be deprived of Wilâya. Prophets (’alaihimus-salawâtu wat-taslîmât) are human beings. Genies, angels and women can never be prophets for human beings. Genies and angels can never attain the degree of prophethood. Prophets had superiority to, and honors above, one another. For example, due to his umma, and the countries to which he was sent, being larger, and because his knowledge and ma’rifa spread in a vaster area, and because his miracles were more plentiful and continual and because there were special blessings and favors for him, the Prophet of the Last Age, Muham- mad (’alaihis-salâm), is superior to all other prophets. The prophets called Ulu’l-’azm are superior to the others. The rasûls are superior to the nabîs who are not rasûls.

The number of prophets (’alaihimus-salâm) is not known. It is well known that alive till the time of Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), who, among creatures, was His Darling Elect, they should believe him and assist him. In turn, all prophets ordered their ummas to do the same in their last request. Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) was the “Khâtam al-anbiyâ” (the Last Prophet), that is, no prophet will succeed him.

The fifth of the six fundamentals of îmân is to believe in the Last Day (al-Yawm al-âkhir). It begins on the day when a person dies and continues till the end of Dooms- day. It was not made known when Doomsday will occur. No one could predict its time. Nevertheless, our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) pointed out many of its harbingers and precedents: Hadrat Mahdî will come; ’Îsâ (Jesus) (’alaihis-salâm) will descend to Damascus from heaven; Dajjâl will appear; people called Ya’jûj and Ma’jûj will put the whole world into turmoil; the sun will rise in the west; violent earthquakes will occur; religious knowledge will be forgotten; vice and evil will increase; irreli- gious, immoral, dishonest people will become commanders; Allahu ta’âlâ’s orders will be forbidden; harâms will be committed everywhere; fire will come out of Yem- en; skies and mountains will crack into pieces; the sun and the moon will darken; seas will mix with each other, boil and dry up.568

A Muslim who commits sinful acts is called a fâsiq. Fâsiqs and all disbelievers will be tormented in their graves. These facts must certainly be believed in. After interment, the deceased will have an unknown life and will be either in blessings or in torment. As it was declared in hadîth ash-sherîfs, two angels named Munkar and Nakîr, in the guise of two unknown horrifying people, will come to his grave and there were more than one hundred and twenty four thousand. Among them, 313 or question him. 569

Questions in the grave, according to some scholars, will be on some 315 were rasûls; the six superior rasûls among them, called Ulu’l-’azm, are: Âdem (Adam), Nûh (Noah), Ibrâhîm (Abraham), Mûsâ (Moses), ’Îsâ (Jesus) and Muham- mad Mustafâ (’alaihimus-salâtu was-salâm).

Ibrâhîm (’alaihis-salâm) is Khalîlullah, because there was no love for creatures and there was only love for Allahu ta’âlâ in his heart. Mûsâ (’alaihis-salâm) is Kalîmullah, because he spoke with Allahu ta’âlâ. ’Îsâ (’alaihis-salâm) is Rühullah and Kalimatul- lah, for he did not have a father and was born only upon al-Kalimat al-ilâhiyya (the Divine Word) “Be!” Furthermore, he preached Allahu ta’âlâ’s words, which were full of Divine Wisdom, and communicated them to the ears of people.

Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), who is the reason for the creation of all creatures and the most superior, the most prominent, the most honorable of mankind, is Habîbullâh (Allahu ta’âlâ’s Darling). There are many evidences proving his greatness and supe- riority and that he was Habîbullâh. For this reason, such words as “was overcome” or “was defeated” cannot be said about him. At Resurrection, he will rise from his grave before everybody. Before all others, he will go to the place of Judgment. He will enter Paradise before everybody. The degree of his beautiful moral character cannot be estimated, human power is insufficient to do so.

On the Day of Judgment all prophets will shelter in the shade of his banner. Al- lahu ta’âlâ commanded all prophets (’alaihimus-salâm) that, if they would remain fundamentals of îmân, or on the whole of îmân according to some others. For this reason, we should teach our children the answers to the following questions: Who is your Rabb (Allah)? What is your religion? Whose umma (which prophet’s commu- nity) do you belong to? What is [the name of] your Holy Book? Where is your qibla? What are your madhhabs in îmân and in ’ibâdât (or ’amal)? It is written in Tadhkirat al-Qurtubî that those who are not Ahl-i sunnat wal jamâ’at will not be able to answer correctly. The graves of those who will give beautiful answers will enlarge and a window will be opened to Paradise. Every morning and every evening they will see their places in Paradise, and angels will do them favors and give them good news. He who cannot answer correctly will be beaten with iron mallets so severely that every creature but humans and genies will hear him cry out. His grave will become so tight that he will feel as if his bones would intertwine. A hole will be opened to Hell. In the morning and in the evening he will see his place in Hell. He will be tormented bitterly in his grave till the Resurrection.

It is necessary to believe in life after death. After the flesh and bones rot and turn into earth and gas, they will come together again; the souls will enter the bodies they belong to, and everybody will rise up from his grave. Therefore, this time is called the Day of Qiyâma (Day of Rising).

568 Bukhârî, “‘Ilm”, 21; Ibn Maja, “Fitan”, 25; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, III, 108.
569 Ibn Maja, “Fitan”, 25.

All living creatures will gather at the place of Mahshar (place of gathering). The deed-books will fly to their owners. Almighty Allah, the Creator of the earth, heavens, stars and all particles; will make all these happen. Allahu ta’âlâ’s Messenger (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) reported that these will happen. It is for certain that what he said is true. All will certainly happen.

The deed-books of the pious (sâlih), good people, will be given from their right, and those of the sinful (fâsiq), bad people will be given from their back or left. Every action, good or evil, big or small, done secretly or openly, will be in that book. Deeds, even those unknown to the kirâman kâtibîn angels, will be revealed by the witnessing of human organs, and by Allahu ta’âlâ, Who knows everything, and there will be questioning and settlement of accounts on every action. During the Day of Judgment, every secret action will be revealed if Allahu ta’âlâ wills it so. Angels will be ques- tioned on ‘what they have done on the earth and in the heavens,’ prophets (’alaihi- mus-salâm) on how they communicated Allahu ta’âlâ’s commands and His religion to His slaves, and people on how they adapted themselves to prophets, how they lived up to the duties revealed to them, and on how they observed one another’s rights. At Mahshar, those who have îmân and whose actions and morals are beautiful will be rewarded and blessed, and people with evil tempers and wrong deeds will be punished severely.

Allahu ta’âlâ, with His Justice, will torment some Muslims for their venial sins and He will, with His Mercy, forgive all grave and venial sins of some other Muslims whom He wills. Except disbelief (kufr) and polytheism (shirk), He will forgive every sin if He wills, and He will torment for a venial sin if He wills. He declares that He will never forgive those who have died with disbelief and polytheism. Disbelievers with or without a heavenly Book, that is, those who do not believe that Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is the Prophet for all human beings and who disapprove even one of the rules [orders and prohibitions] he communicated, will certainly be put into Hell and tormented eternally, if they die with disbelief.

On the Day of Judgment, there will be a Mîzân (balance), different from those we know, for weighing deeds and conduct. It will be so large that one of its scales can hold the earth and the sky. The scale for good deeds will be bright and to the side of the ’Arsh where Paradise is, and the scale for sins will be dark and to the side of the

’Arsh where Hell is. Actions, words, thoughts and looks that are done in the world will take shapes there, and the good deeds in bright figures and the evils in dark and disgusting figures will be weighed on this balance, which does not resemble worldly balances; it was said that the scale carrying the heavier load will go up and the one carrying the lighter load will go down. According to some scholars, there will be various balances.

There will be a bridge called Sirât, which will be built over Hell upon Allahu ta’âlâ’s command. Everybody will be ordered to cross that bridge. That day, all prophets will entreat as, “O Allah! Give safety!” Those who are to go to Paradise will cross the bridge easily and reach Paradise. Some of them will pass with the speed of lightning,

some with that of wind, and some others like a galloping horse. The Sirât Bridge will be thinner than a hair and sharper than a sword. Adapting yourself to Islam in this world has a similar aspect; adapting yourself precisely to Islam is like crossing the Sirât. Those who withstand the difficulty of struggling with their sensual desires (encouraged by the nafs) here will cross the Sirât easily there. For this reason, Allahu ta’âlâ called the right path, pointed out by Islam, the “Sirât al-Mustaqîm.This sim- ilarity in names shows that staying within Islam’s path is like crossing the Sirât. Those who deserve Hell will fall off the Sirât down into Hell.

There will be a body of water called Hawd al-Kawthar reserved for our master Mu- hammad Mustafâ (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). It will be vast like a journey of one month. Its water is whiter than milk, and its scent is more pleasant than musk. The drinking glasses around it are more plentiful than stars. A person who drinks its water would never become thirsty again, even in Hell.

There will be the right to make shafâ’a (intercession). Prophets, Walîs, pious Mus- lims, angels and those who are allowed by Allahu ta’âlâ will intercede for the forgive- ness of the venial and grave sins of those Muslims who die without having repented, and their intercession will be accepted.

Paradise and Hell exist now. Paradise is above the seven skies. Hell is below everything. There are eight paradises and seven hells. Paradise is larger than the earth, the sun and the heavens, and Hell is much larger than the sun and the skies.

The last of the six fundamentals of îmân is to believe in qadar, [that is] that good (khair) and evil (sharr) are from Allahu ta’âlâ. Good and evil, benefit and harm, gain and loss coming upon human beings are all by Allahu ta’âlâ’s Will. Allahu ta’âlâ’s Eternal Will for the existence of something is called qadar (predestination). The oc- currence of qadar, that is, the thing willed, is called qadâ’. The terms qadâ’ and qadar are also used interchangeably.

All animals, plants, non-living creatures [solids, liquids, gases, stars, molecules, atoms, electrons, electromagnetic waves, every movement of every creature, physical events, chemical and nuclear reactions, relations of energy, physiological events in the living creatures] existence or nonexistence of everything, good and evil deeds of human beings, their punishment in this world and in the next world and everything existed in Allahu ta’âlâ’s Knowledge in pre-eternity. He knew all in pre-eternity. Things that happen from eternity in the past to the everlasting future, their peculiar- ities, movements and every event, are created by Him in accord with what He knew in pre-eternity. All the good and evil deeds of human beings, their belief or disbelief in Islam, all their actions, done willingly or unwillingly, are created by Allahu ta’âlâ. He alone is the One who creates and makes everything that happens through a sabab (cause, means, intermediary). He creates everything through some means.

For example, fire burns. In reality, Allahu ta’âlâ is the One who creates burning. Fire does not have anything to do with burning. But His Custom (’Âdat) is such that unless fire touches something He does not create burning. Fire does nothing except to heat up to the ignition temperature. It is not fire that unites carbon and hydrogen with oxygen in organic substances or that supplies movement of electrons. Those who cannot realize the truth presume that fire does these. It is neither fire, nor oxygen, nor heat, nor the movement of electrons that burns or makes this reaction of burning. Only Allahu ta’âlâ is the One who burns it. He created each of these as means for burning. A person lacking knowledge thinks that fire burns. A boy who finishes elementary school disapproves of the statement “fire burns.” He says, “The air burns,” instead. A person who finishes junior high school does not accept this. He says, “The oxygen in the air burns.” A person who finishes high school says that burning is not peculiar to oxygen, but any element attracting electrons burns. A university student takes into consideration energy as well as matter. It is seen that the more a person knows the closer he gets to the inside of a matter and realizes that there are many causes behind the things regarded as causes. Prophets (’alaihimus-salâm), who were in the highest degree of knowledge and science and who could clearly see the reality, and the ’ul- amâ’ of Islam, who, following in their footsteps, attained drops from their oceans of knowledge, pointed out that each of the things supposed to be combustive or construc- tive today, are an incapable and poor causal means put as an intermediary by the Real Creator. Allahu ta’âlâ alone is the One who burns. He can burn without fire as well, but it is His Custom to burn with fire. If He wills not to burn, He prevents burning even in fire. He did not burn Ibrâhîm (’alaihis-salâm) in fire; because He loved him very much, He suspended His Custom.

If Allahu ta’âlâ had willed, He could have created everything without means, burning without fire, nourishing us without us eating. But He did His slaves the favor of creating everything through some intermediaries. He willed to create certain things through certain intermediaries. He hid His works in intermediaries. He concealed His Power behind inter- mediaries. He who wants Him to create something holds on to its means and thus obtains it. He who wants to light a lamp uses matches; he who wants to extract oil from olives uses crushing tools; he who has a headache takes an aspirin; he who wants to go to Paradise and attain infinite favors adapts himself to Islam; he who shoots himself with a gun or who drinks poison will die; he who drinks water when in a sweat will lose his health; he who commits sins and loses his îmân will go to Hell. Whichever intermediary a person applies, he will obtain the thing for which that intermediary has been made a means. He who reads Islamic books learns Islam, likes it, and becomes a Muslim. He who lives amongst the irreligious and listens to what they say becomes ignorant of Islam. Most of those who are ignorant of Islam become disbelievers. When a person gets on a vehicle, he goes to the place it has been assigned to go.

Had Allahu ta’âlâ not created His works through intermediaries, no one would need anybody else; everybody would ask everything directly from Allahu ta’âlâ and would have recourse to nothing; there would not be social relations between people such as the superior and the subordinate, foreman and workman, pupil and teacher and so forth, and thus this world and the next would be in disorder and there would not be any difference between beautiful and ugly, good and evil, obedient and rebellious.

Islam wants Muslims to believe according to how our Master, the Prophet (sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) believed and communicated. Our Prophet had communicat- ed just one belief. All the Ashâb-i kirâm, that is, his Companions believed according to what he communicated and had no disparity in belief. After our Master, the Prophet’s demise, people had learnt Islam by listening to and asking from the Ashâb-i kirâm. All of them communicated the same belief. This belief, which they communicated by conveying what was revealed by our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm, is called the Ahl-i sunnat creed. The Ashâb-i kirâm had never mixed their own thoughts, philosophers’ words, influence of their nafs, political views or anything like these in this knowledge of iman.

The Ashâb-i kirâm, at the level of perfection regarding such attributes as glorifying Allahu ta’âlâ, believing without hesitation that He is free of any defects, accepting and believing in what He ordered without hesitation, not endeavoring to interpret the mutashâbih (with hidden meaning) âyats (verses)… preserved their belief, the same as they had learned from our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm. They communicated and informed about the fundamentals of belief purely, clearly and authentically to those who would ask.

Those, who accept and believe in this communication that the Ashâb-i kirâm con- veyed from Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm, as is and without adding or removing anything from it and follow the Ashâb-i kirâm’s way, have been called the firqa (group) of Ahl-i sunnat wal jamâ’at and those who deviate from this true and original (actual) way of Islam have been called the firqa (group) of Bid’at (groups of heresy, aberrant ways).

All the Ashâb-i kirâm were mujtahids. They received their religious knowledge directly from Rasûlullah. They reached very high moral perfections, maturities and superiorities, gained by virtue of seeing him personally and attending his sohbat (explanations of religious matters). Their nafs became mutmainna (docile) and they reached such ranks in ikhlâs (sincerity), propriety, knowledge and wisdom that none, among scholars and awliyâ (saints), other than the Ashâb-i kirâm could reach. It is declared in a hadîth-i sherîf that each of them was a star, guiding to the right way.570

All of them had the same belief and creed. They performed ijtihâd (working with all one’s might, striving and taking pains to derive the rules to solve problems that have not been explained clearly and openly in the Qur’ân or in the hadîths by likening them to matters that have been explained clearly and in detail. This can be done only by our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), by all his Ashâb, and from among oth- er Muslims, by those who have been promoted to the grade of ijtihâd; these exalted people are called Mujtahids.) for subjects about which there were no nass (âyats and hadîths). Each of them had their own madhhab for amals (worships, deeds). The rules that they derived through their ijtihâds would mostly correspond to one another. Their madhhabs have been forgotten, because their ijtihâds were not compiled in books. Therefore, today, it is impossible to follow the madhhab of any of the Ashâb-i kirâm.

570 Shamsaddîn Shâmî, Subulu’l-Hudâ, X, 329.

There were imams, who reached the grade of mutlaq (absolute) mujtahids [scholars pro- foundly learned (enough to perform ijtihâd)] by achieving great heights in religious knowl- edge, some were from among the Taba-i Tâbiîn, who learned Islam from the Tâbiîn, and some were from among the Tâbiîn, who learned Islam from the Ashâb-i kirâm. They too had their own madhhab for amals (worships, deeds) and rules, which, when derived by means of the ijtihâds of an imam, were called the madhhab of that imam. Most of the madhhabs of theirs have been forgotten since those madhhabs were not compiled in books. Only the four notable imams’ ijtihâds have been saved by being compiled in the books by their disciples and spread among Muslims. The first of these imams, who have shown the right way to Muslims all over the world and saved Islam from being defiled, is Imâm-i A’zam Abû Hanîfa, the second is Imâm-i Mâlik bin Anas, the third one is Imâm-i Muhammad bin Idris Shâfiî and the fourth one is Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Of these four imams who follow the creed of Ahl-i sunnat; Imâm-i A’zam’s way is called Hanafî Madhhab, Imâm-i Mâlik’s way is called Mâlikî Madhhab, Imâm-i Shâfiî’s way is called Shâfiî Madhhab and Imâm-i Ahmad bin Hanbal’s way is called Hanbalî Madhhab. Today, if a Muslim would like to perform worships and deeds in accordance with the consent of Allahu ta’âlâ, there is no other way for him or her except abiding by one of these four madhhabs.

Worships

The first one is to perform the ritual prayer (namâz, salât) five times a day in accordance with its conditions and fards when the time for prayer comes. The ritual prayer has to be performed paying attention to its fards, wâjibs and sunnas, submitting the heart to Allahu ta’âlâ and before the prescribed time is over. In the Qur’ân al-karîm the ritual prayer is called “Salât.Salât’s lexical meaning is man’s praying, angel’s doing istighfâr, and Allahu ta’âlâ’s having compassion and pitying. In Islam, salât means to do certain ac- tions, to recite certain things as shown in ’ilm al-hâl books. Salât is started with the words “Allahu akbar,” called the “takbîr al-iftitâh,” and said after raising the hands up to the ears till putting the hands under the navel (for men). It ends with the salâm by turning the head to the right and left shoulders at the end of the last sitting posture.

The second one is to give the zakât of one’s property. The literal meaning of zakât is purity, to praise, and become good and beautiful. In Islam, zakât means for a person who has property of zakât more than he needs, and at a certain amount called nisâb, to separate a certain amount of his property and to give it to Muslims named in the Qur’ân al-karîm without reproaching them. Zakât is given to eight classes of people. There are four types of zakât in all of the four madhhabs: the zakât of gold and silver, the zakât of commercial goods, the zakât of the quadruped stock animals that would have grazed in the fields for more than half a years time, and the zakât of all kinds of substances of necessity issuing from the earth. This fourth type of zakât, called ’ushr, is given as soon as the crop is harvested. The other three are given one year after they reach the amount of nisâb.

The third one is to fast every day of the month of Holy Ramadan. Fasting is called Sawm. Sawm lexically means to protect something against something else. In Islam, sawm means to protect oneself against three things [during the days] of the month of Ramadan. These three things are eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. The month of Ramadan begins upon seeing the new moon in the sky. Time calculated in cal- endars may not be used to determine the beginning of Ramadan.

The fourth one is for the able person to perform the hajj (pilgrimage) once in his life. For an able person who has money enough to go to and come back from the city of Mecca, besides the property sufficient for the subsistence of his family that he leaves behind until he comes back, it is fard, in an ihrâm, to perform tawâf around the Ka’ba and to perform waqfa (pause) on the plain of ’Arafât, provided that the way will be safe and the body healthy, once in his lifetime.

The fifth one is to strive to spread the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ, that is, to perform jihad. Getting ready for jihad is an ibâdat (worship).

Munâkahât, composed of subdivisions, such as marriage, divorce, alimony and many others. Mu’âmalât, composed of many subdivisions, such as purchase, sale, rent, joint-ownership, interest, inheritance, etc.

’Uqûbât (penal code) composed of five main subdivisions: qisâs (lex talionis), sirqa (theft), zinâ (fornication and adultery), qadhf (false accusation of zina) and ridda (case of becoming an apostate).

Ethics

Islam commands to strengthen morality with beautiful ethics, to purify nafses from vices, to have good temper and to have chastity and modesty in every aspect. This knowledge and its way is called Tasawwuf.

Just as the science of medicine teaches us knowledge regarding health of the body, tasawwuf teaches us how the heart and soul can be freed from vices. It keeps people away from evil deeds, which are the symptoms of the heart’s sickness and helps them perform good deeds for attaining the consent of Allahu ta’âlâ.

Islam commands, first of all, to learn knowledge, after that, to perform deeds and worships according to that knowledge, only for the sake of Allahu ta’âlâ, that is, Islam commands ’ilm (knowledge), ’amal (deeds and worships), and ikhlâs (sincerity, that is, doing everything for Allah’s sake). If we liken man’s promotion, his attainment of endless bliss in this world and the hereafter, to the flying of an aircraft, faith and deeds, that is, îmân and worships are like its body and engines. And making progress on the way of tasawwuf is like its source of energy, its fuel. For reaching the goal, the aircraft is obtained. That is, îmân and worships are ac- quired. For starting it, it is necessary to get the fuel, that is, to make progress on the way of tasawwuf.

Tasawwuf has two purposes. The first is to make the faith secure and to be con- scientious and firm in the heart, so that it cannot be undermined by effects that arouse doubt. The îmân which is strengthened through mind, through reasoning, through proofs cannot be so firm. Allahu ta’âlâ declares in the twenty-eighth âyat of the Sûrat- ul- Ra’d, in the Qur’ân al-karîm, purporting: “Îmân’s penetration and settlement in hearts is possible only and only by dhikr.” Dhikr means to remember Allahu ta’âlâ and act according to His consent in every deed and action.

The second purpose of tasawwuf is to facilitate worshipping, to perform them will- ingly, and to do away with the indolence, the reluctance inherent in the nafs-i ammâra. Performing the worships easily and willingly, and loathingly abstaining from sins, are possible only by learning the knowledge of tasawwuf and proceed on its way. It ought to be realized well that clinging to tasawwuf is not intended to acquire the ability to see what others do not know, to inform others of the unknown, to perceive nûrs, spirits, nor to enjoy valuable dreams. In order to reach the mâ’rifats (guidance), the knowledge and the states, which can be obtained by tasawwuf, one should first cor- rect one’s belief then learn the commands and prohibitions of Islam and then perform deeds and worships accordingly. As a matter of fact, without doing these three things, it is impossible to purify the heart from the vices and to purify the nafs of evil and fill it with virtues and rescue it from its harmful desires.

Adapting oneself to Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm

Adapting oneself to Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm, is to follow his way. His way is the way shown by the Qur’ân al-karîm. This way is called Dîn-i Islam. In order to adapt ourselves to him, one must first have îmân (belief); then learn Islam well; then carry out the fard and avoid harâm; and then fulfill the sunnat and abstain from the makrûh. After all these, one should also try to follow him in what is mubah (permitted).

To have îmân means to begin following him (Rasûlullah) and to enter into the door of bliss. Allahu ta’âlâ sent him to invite all the people of the world to bliss and declared in the twenty-eighth âyat of Sûrat-us-Saba’, purporting: “O My beloved Prophet! (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) I send you to humanity so that you should give the good news of endless bliss to all the people in the world and to guide them toward this way to bliss.”

For example, a little midday sleeping of a person who adapts himself to him is much more valuable than spending many nights worshipping without following him. It was his honorable habit to perform “Qaylûla,” that is, to sleep for a while before noon. Also, not fasting on the Eid days, but eating and drinking because his religion commands it, is more valuable than years of fasting that doesn’t exist in his religion. A small amount given to the poor in accordance with his religion, which is called zakât, is superior and more valuable than giving a pile of gold coins, as alms, as large as a mountain with one’s own wish.

After conducting a morning prayer in jamâ’at, Hadrat ’Umar, the Amîr-ul-mu’minîn, looked at the jamâ’at and seeing that one of the members was absent, asked where he was. His companions said, “He worships until morning, during the night. Maybe he fell asleep.” The Amîr-ul-mu’minîn said, “I wish he had slept all the night and performed the morning prayer in congregation; it would have been better.”

Those who have deviated from Islam, blunt their nafs by subjecting themselves to inconveniences and by striving hard. Yet, this is worthless and low because they do not do it compatibly with Islam. The benefit for these efforts of theirs, if there is any, consists of a few worldly advantages. Then, in fact, this world is worthless; therefore, of what could be the value of a part of it? These people are like dustmen; dustmen work harder and become more tired than anybody else, but their wages are lower than anybody else’s. As for those who adapt themselves to Islam, they are like jewelers, who deal with fine jewels and precious diamonds. They do a little work, but their earnings are great. Sometimes an hour’s work provides them a hundred thousand years’ earning. The reason for this is that an action compatible with Islam is accepted and liked by Allahu ta’âlâ; He loves it.

He declares in many places in His book the Qur’ân al-karîm that this is so. For example, He declares in the thirty-first âyat of Sûrat-u Âl-i ’Imrân, purporting: “O My beloved Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa salam)! Tell them, ‘If you love Allahu ta’âlâ and if you want Allahu ta’âlâ to love you also, adapt yourselves to me! Allahu ta’âlâ loves those who adapt themselves to me’.”

To follow Muhammad ’alahis-salâm is to value the rules of Islam, carry out these rules lovingly, to respect and esteem his commands, scholars of Islam, the pious and things that are valued by Islam, to strive to spread his religion and to despise those who do not want to abide by his religion, or who disapprove and ignore it.

Allahu ta’âlâ does not like any of the things that are incompatible with Islam. Is it possible that rewards will be given for the things that are disliked? On the contrary, they will bring about punishment.

Attaining happiness in both worlds depends only, and only upon following Hadrat Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm), who is the Master of this and the next world. In order to follow him, it is necessary to have îmân and to learn and to carry out the rules of Islam.

Escaping Hell in the next world is peculiar only to those who adapt themselves to Hadrat Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm. All the blessings in this world, all that is discov- ered, all degrees, and all branches of knowledge will be available in the next world on the condition that one has followed the way of Rasûlullah. Otherwise, every good deed done by those who do not follow Allahu ta’âlâ’s Prophet will remain in this world, causing their next world to be destroyed. That is, it will be nothing but an istidrâj (deception) disguised in goodness.

For adapting oneself to Muhammad ’alaihis-salâtu was-salâm’ completely and flaw- lessly, one needs to love him completely and faultlessly. The symptom of complete and perfect love is to keep away from his enemies, and to dislike those who dislike him. Love cannot include sloth. Lovers, being crazy about their darlings, cannot do anything against them. They cannot come to a mutual agreement with those who act against them. The love for two opposites cannot settle in the same heart together; to love one of two opposite things entails enmity towards the other. That is, existence of two opposite things together in the same place is impossible.

These worldly blessings are transient and deceitful. If they are yours today, they will be somebody else’s tomorrow. But those which will be obtained in the Hereafter are endless and are earned in the world. If a few days’ life in this world is spent following Hadrat Muhammad, who is the most valuable man in this and the next worlds, one may hope for endless bliss, eternal salvation. Otherwise, unless one adapts oneself to him, everything turns into nothing. Every good deed and act of kindness done without following him remains here, nothing will be obtained in the Hereafter.

A small act of following Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) is much more superior to all the blessings in this world and the bliss in the Hereafter. The virtue and honor of humanity entails following him. For Muslims, who want to adapt themselves to Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm, the basic condition is to be in one of the four righteous madhhabs of the Ahl-i sunnat. It is fard (obligatory) to have îmân in our Master, the Prophet, to affirm what he brought, to love and to obey him, to accept his advices, to respect and pay homage to him. Regarding this subject, Allahu ta’âlâ declared in the âyat-i karîmas, which purport;

“Therefore, believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Messenger who is His unlettered Prophet; adapt yourself to him, so that you will find the right way”571.

It was commanded,“He who does not believe in Allahu ta’âlâ and His Prophet, (should know that) We have certainly prepared a wild fire for those disbelievers.”

Our Master Rasûlullah stated, “I have been commanded to fight against people (disbelievers) until they testify that there is no ilah (deity) but Allahu ta’âlâ, and they believe in me and what I have brought. When they do so, with the excep- tion of that which is required (punishment) to settle the rights due Muslims, their properties and lives will be rescued by me. As for the intentions (they keep as secret), Allahu ta’âlâ knows the accounting.”

“He who obeys me has obeyed Allahu ta’âlâ. He who rebels against me has rebelled against Allahu ta’âlâ. He who obeys my commands, has obeyed me and he who rebels against my as much as they desire. However, those who do not accept the invitation, cannot commands has rebelled against me.”

“The situations of the one who obeys me and abides by what I brought, and the one who rebels against me and goes against that which I brought, are similar to the situation of a man who constructed a house and prepared a wide variety of delicious foods (to give a grand banquet to people) and gave someone the responsibility to invite the people. Those who accept the invitation enter the house and eat

enter the house and cannot eat from the prepared food. The house corresponds to Paradise (that has been prepared for those Allah-fearing persons who accepted the invitation of Rasûlullah). The inviter (to Allahu ta’âlâ and Paradise which is full of His blessings) is Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm). He who rebels against Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) rebels against Allahu ta’âlâ. Muhammad (’alaihis-salâm) distin- guishes those Muslims who affirm him from those disbelievers who deny him.”

“Abide by my way and after me the Khulafa-i rashidin’s (that is, the four Khalî- fas who succeeded our Prophet “sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam”) way. Precisely ad- here to them with all your power. Abstain from the things that are innovated (in religion) afterwards (which cannot be found within the Quran al-karîm, the sunnat, ijma-i ummat (a consensus reached by those profound scholars called mujtahid) and qiyas-i fuqaha (the onerous work carried on by the scholars of Fiqh in order to derive rules, commandments and prohibitions from the Qur’ân al-kerîm and hadîth-i-sherîfs by way of ijtihâd; rules and principles so derived). For, everything that is innovated (in religion) afterwards, is bid’at. And every bid’at is heresy.”572

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) stated in one of his hadîth-i sherîfs which was related by Anas bin Mâlik about abiding by Rasûlullah: “He who revives my sunnat (that is, spreads it by practicing it), has revived me (that is, has exalted and disclosed my order). And the one, who revives me, will be with me in Paradise.”

Our Master, the Prophet told Bilal bin Hâris, “If a person revives a sunnat hasan- ah (things that are beneficial and do not contradict nor go against Islam) in Islam, he attains its reward and the rewards of those who will practice it. If a person introduces a sunnat sayyi’a (things that contradict or go against Islam) in Islam, he is given its sin and the sins of those who will practice it.” 573

571   Sûrat al-A’râf, 7/158.
572    Ibn Maja, “Muqaddima”, 6; Dârimî, “Muqaddima”, 1 stadrak, I, 174; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 422.
573    Ibn Maja, “Muqaddima”, 36; Dârimî, “Muqaddima”, -Mu’jamu’l Kabîr, II, 315; Bayhaqî, as-Sunan, II, 136.

Hadrat ’Umar bin Abdulaziz said:

“Our Master Rasûlullah ‘alaihis-salâm led the way and so did his caliphs after him. To act according to the way of Rasûlullah and his caliphs after him means to act ac- cording to the Book of Allahu ta’âlâ. To obey Allahu ta’âlâ and our Master, the Proph- et means to strengthen the religion of Allahu ta’âlâ. Nobody has the right to vitiate or change Islam. It is not permissible to act according to the words of those who oppose the way of our Prophet.

Those who abide by the way of our Master, the Prophet and his Companions attain the true way. Of those, they who ask for help, receive help. Whoever opposes the way of our Prophet and his Companions and do not act accordingly, is on a way other than the way of Muslims. Allahu ta’âlâ will put such a person into Hell by allowing them to perform evil deeds. Hell is the worst of destinations.

Hadrat Ahmad bin Hanbal said:

“One day, I was in a gathering. They raced to go into the water. As for me, abiding by the hadîth-i sharîf, purporting, “He who has belief in Allahu ta’âlâ and the Day of Judgment, should not enter a public bath (without covering their awrat parts, that is, those parts of a person’s body that should be covered),” I did not take off my clothes. That night, someone said to me in my dream, “O Ahmad! Glad tidings to you! For, Allahu ta’âlâ has forgiven you, because you abided by the way of Rasûlullah.

He has made you an imam. People will follow you.” When I asked, “Who are you?” he said, “I am Gabriel.” A person who does not follow Rasûlullah “sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam” in their every deed, cannot be a believer. If they do not love him more than themselves, their belief is not complete. Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm is the Prophet of all human beings and genies. It is obligatory for all people of every century to abide by him. It is necessary for every Believer to help his religion, to make his morality a habit, to say his blessed name frequently, to recite the salât-u salâm respectfully and affectionately when they say or hear his name, to fall in love with seeing his blessed face, to love and show respect to the Qur’ân al-karîm that he brought and his religion.
                                                           

HILYA-I SA’ÂDAT

After giving his Sahâba advice,
Master of worlds said, “After my demise,
A person, who my Hilya-i pâk i sees,
Has in fact seen my very face, likewise.
And the more he sees me,
The more will he turn towards me love-wise.
And he will desire to see me the more,
The more will my love fill his heart thus wise.
Hell will then be forbidden from him,
Paradise will my Rabb ii give him gift-wise.
Haqq iii won’t bring him to Judgment Place naked
He will to him be more compassion-wise.
It is said, if a person writes
About the Hilya-i Rasûl iv love-wise;
Haqq shall make him secure,
Be the whole earth boil disaster-wise.
Nor shall his skin know any illness;
All his body shall be safe disease-wise.
However sinful as that man may be,
Hell shall be allowed to touch him nowise.
For him the world to come shall be safety,
And his life shall be easy this-world-wise.
Rabb-i-jalla v shall rise him in the Hereafter,
With those who saw the Messenger likewise.
Difficult as it is to describe the Hilya-i Nâbi iv,
We shall attempt, though, if things be good-wise.
Trusting ourselves to the Zuljalal vii,
We attempt the description humble-wise.
All the connoisseurs agree as to that
The Fakhr-i âlam viii was white, reddish.
His blessed face was pure white,
Like a rose it was, somewhat reddish.
The sweat on his face was like pearls,
Gracing the already lovely jewel.
Whenever that source of felicity sweated,
His beautiful, radiant face became the waves.
His front teeth appeared, so chaste,
Like hailstones polished with paste.

His eyes looked as if tinged,
So beautiful, they fascinated hearts.
The whites of his eyes were real white,
In âyats praised him, his Creator.
His black irises were not at all small;
Distance made him no difference at all.
Wide, lovely were his eyes, and graceful,
His radiant, elegant face, always blissful.
Hadrat Mustafa’s very powerful sight
Would not discriminate between day’n night.
Whenever he meant to look at something,
His pure body would turn towards that thing.
To his blessed head he consigned his innocent body,
As long as he lived on this terrestrial body.
Although his body was all material,
He can be said to be a soul corporeal.
So elegant he was, and so affable;
To his Creator, a Messenger so lovable.
As Mâlik and Abû Hâla were concordant,
His eyebrows were open, like a crescent.
Between his eyebrows was pure white,
Visible like silver, it was so bright.
His blessed face was round a bit,
With so bright a skin, almost limpid.
Between his blessed black eyebrows
Was the Qibla ix for the entire universe.
His blessed nose in profile,
Looked a little higher in the middle.
So fine, so neat, so attractive it was,
To define it, beyond anyone’s power it was.
Between his teeth was somewhat sparse;
They shone, like a string of pearls.
Whenever his front teeth appeared,
All around the place haloes covered.
Whenever he smiled, the Master of both worlds,
The Prophet of all, living or lifeless, in all worlds.
Profound love for the Eternal Being,
Had set fire to that exquisite being.

Ibni Abbâs said, the Creator’s Most Beloved,
Was too bashful to laugh aloud.
So shamefaced that symbol of Islam was
That he never laughed aloud, the saying was.
Polite was the Messenger of Allah, and so shy,
That he would never look up at the sky.
His face was roundish, like the harvest moon,
A mirror that reflected the Mawlâ’s x boon.
So lightsome was his auspicious face,
It was dazzling to look at him in the face.
So fascinating to the hearts was that Nabî,
In love with him were a hundred thousand Sahâbi.
Those who dreamt of him only once
Said nothing was so enjoyable as that nonce.
His cheeks, symbols of sweet beauty,
Were not plump, nor at all too meaty.
Him Janâb-i Haqq had created
White faced and broad foreheaded.
The haloes of his neck would gleam
Through his hair, like a source of beam.
Of his blessed beard, the hairs that were gray
Were no more than seventeen in number, nay.
It was neither curly, nor at all too long;
Well-shaped, like all limbs that to him did belong.
The Rasûl-i âfaq had a throat quite pure,
In color it was white and very clear.
Among the good-mannered Sahâba many expressed,
That his abdomen and his chest stood abreast.
Had it been possible to open his blessed chest,
The treasure of knowledge would radiate divine zest xi
A chest where divine love would rise,
Could by no means be otherwise.
His blessed chest was expanded;
‘Ilm-i ladunnî there descended.
White and limpid was that great chest;
Those who saw thought it was the moon harvest.
To see the Beloved always and forever,
That blessed, fine body was eye all over.
So perfect was that delicate complexion,
Whereon Creator manifested His divine creation.
No hairs on his abdomen or chest,
Pure white, like a silver plate.
Only, from the mid-chest downwards,
A line of hairs went waistwards.
This black line looked on his body, so blessed,
Fine like a halo around the moon harvest.

Everyone knows young or old, no matter,
Soft-hearted was the universe’s Master.
Upper part of his back was somewhat fleshy;
Munificent, and a symbol of magnanimity.
His silver skin was extremely delicate;
A big seal on it said he was the Prophet.
Seal of the Prophet was on his back, high,
And on the right-hand-side it would lie.
Those who with the matter was acquainted
Said a big beauty-spot was the Seal of Prophet.
It was black, yellowish in shade
As big as a pigeon’s egg in grade.
Surrounded, as if with a border line,
By small hairs in a circular line.
Those who knew that Noblest Pedigree
Said, big-boned was the great Nabî xii.
Each of his bones was big, and round in shape,
Exquisite, both in essence and in shape.
Each of his limbs, which were so blessed,
Suited by creation, wherein firmness was stressed.
All the blessed limbs of the Prophet’s
Were as elegant as the Qur’ân’s âyats.
The palms of that stately being
Were wide, pure, fine, and darling.
So lovable were also his soles,
Fragrant and pretty, like a fresh rose.
So elegant, the connoisseurs expressed,
Were those miraculous hands, and so blessed.
Whenever the Prophet greeted someone,
His sweet smile would soothe anyone.
A couple of days after the event, nay,
Even several months, we should say,
Among crowds the fortunate fellow
Would be known from his smell so mellow.
His crystalline skin was white, hairless;
What words could praise a beauty so faultless!
As he walked, his habit was, let us say,
To bend forward, in a singular way.
Like walking downwards, that is to say,
He would lean forward in a slight way.
So high was he in honor and personality,
The soul of Halîl xiv was proud of his nobility.
When Hudâ xv loves a person, certainly,
All his limbs will be perfect in beauty.
As the Messenger of Allah walked quietly,
If a person confronted him suddenly,

The blessed limbs remained throughout his life
The same as they were in his early young life.
As time passed, the Prophet grew in age, naturally;
Like a bud, however, he was renewed physically.
Never presume that the Sultan of Universe
Was a bit above the normal size in fatness.
Neither thin nor fleshy was he;
Medium in size, and quite mighty.
The people who are deeply learned in the matter,
Neither too lean, nor above the normal or fatter.
The Maker had made that splendid body,
With divine justice and equality.
On his pure skin precision reigned;
On his entire body haloes rained.
The Champion of Sidra xiii was of medium stature;
With him did the world attain its peaceful order.
Those who saw his miracles and wonders,
Said to praise him was beyond their powers.
We have never seen such rosy beauty,
In height, in manners, in features, so lovely.
The Prophet was of medium height; yet,
When a tall man walked with the Prophet,
However tall that man might be,
The taller one the Prophet would be.
The Prophet, with the tall man compared,
Would be as taller as the palm of hand.
Whenever he walked, in dignity,
Rather fast was he in velocity.

That person would be stricken with fear;
Such would Allah’s Messenger to him appear.
If a person talked with the Prophet continuously,
And listened to his sweet voice piously,
The flavor in his words would affect him so much,
He would be the Prophet’s slave, if accepted as such.
The Eternal Creator had decked him with such beauty,
Peerless in all sorts of moral quality.
O, Rasûlullah! xvi I am short of lauding thee;
We all were created for the sake of thee.
O, thou, the king of the zone with faith rife;
For thee I wish to sacrifice my life!

Footnotes of HILYA-I SA’ÂDAT

i The beautiful, pure face of the Messenger of Allah.
ii Allahu ta’âlâ.
iii Allahu ta’âlâ.
iv Telling about the Messenger of Allah.
v Allahu ta’âlâ.
vi Telling about the Messenger of Allah.
vii Allahu ta’âlâ.
viii The Master of Worlds, i.e. the Messenger of Allah.
ix Direction where to a Muslim turns his face during namâz; the Kâ’ba.
x Allahu ta’âlâ.
xi The word used in the original text is fayz (or faidh), which means occult, inexplicable, invisible rays of spiritual knowledge which the blessed heart of the Messenger of Allah radiates continuously, and which will be radiated as long as life on earth continuously, and which will be radiated as long as life on earth continues. If a Muslim adapts himself perfectly to the teachings of the Qur’ân al-karîm and to the Islamic principles of behavior taught by the Messenger of Allah, which in turn can be learned from those true Islamic scholars called Ahl as-sunna(t) wal Jamâ’a(t), or from their books, the heart of that fortunate Muslim begins to receive those spiritual rays. The flavor enjoyed while receiving those rays cannot be described to a person who has not tested them yet. One day, Huseyn Hilmi Işık Effendi, said, “If a person has never eaten honey, of how much help could the taste of jam be describing honey to him?”
xii The Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ alaihi wa sallam’
xiii Sidra-t-ul muntahâ: a tree in the sixth sky. No creature, except for our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ alaihi wa sallam’, has gone farther above the Sidra-t-ul-muntahâ. One year before the Hijrat (Hegira), when our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ alaihi wa sallam’ was fifty-two years old, on the twenty- sixth night of the blessed month of Rajab (on the night between the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh days), the Archangel Jabrâîl (Gabriel) ‘alaihis-salâm’ took the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ alaihi wa sallam’ to the Kâ’ba, where an unknown person cleaved his chest, took out his heart, washed it with Zamzam water, and put it back in its place. Then the Prophet and the Angel mounted a Paradise animal called Buraq and rode to the Masjid al-Aqsâ in Jerusalem, which took them only a moment, thence ascended to the sixth sky, in one moment again. When they came to the Sidra-t-ul-muntahâ, Jabrail ‘alaihis-salâm’ said he could not go any further, for he would be burnt into ashes if he did. The Prophet went on alone. He went beyond the Sidra and beyond the Arsh, and entered Paradise. He saw Allahu ta’âlâ in an ineffable, incomprehensible, inexplicable manner, without time and without direction. Then he was taken back to the earth. This ascent of the Messenger of Allahu ta’âlâ is called Mî’râj. Muslims celebrate this blessed event yearly on the twenty-sixth night of the blessed month of Rajab.
xix The Prophet Ibrâhîm (Abraham) ‘alaihis-salâm’
xv Allahu ta’âlâ.
xvi The Messenger of Allah.

CHRONOLOGY

571 The birth of Hadrat Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm (12 Rabi’al-awwal – 20th of April, 571).
He was bought and given to his wet nurse Lady Halîma.
574 He was brought to Mecca by his wet nurse and delivered to his mother Hadrat Âmina.
575 The demise of his mother.
He was bought and given to his grandfather Abdulmuttalib.
577 The demise of his grandfather.
He was bought and given to his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib.
583 He traveled to Syria with his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib and in Busrâ, the priest Bahîra understood that he
would be the Last Prophet.
588 He traveled to Yemen with his paternal uncle Zubayr.
595 He traveled to Damascus, leading the trade caravan of Hadrat Khadîja.
596 He married Hadrat Khadîja.
606 He put the Hajar al-aswad in its place on the wall of Kâ’ba-i sherîf while it was being repaired.
610 The first wahy was revealed to him in Hira Cave.
613 After the secret invitation which had lasted for three years; he mounted the Safâ Hill and started to invite
people to Islam openly.
615 Muslims’ hegira to Abyssinia.
616 Hadrat Hamza’s conversion to Islam.
Hadrat ’Umar’s conversion to Islam.
619 The demises of Hadrat Khadîja and Abû Tâlib.
620 His Mî’râj (Ascension).
The first allegiance of Aqaba.
621 The second allegiance of Aqaba.
622 The Hegira from Mecca to Medina.
623 The Holy War of Badr and the victory.
The direction of the qibla was converted from Masjid-i Aqsâ to the Kâ’ba-i Muazzama.
“Suffa” was built in front of the masjîd to accommodate the poor.
He married to Hadrat Âisha.
624 The demise of his daughter Hadrat Ruqiyya.
The marriage of Hadrat Fâtima and Hadrat Ali.
625 The Holy War of Uhud.
The martyrdom of Hadrat Hamza.
The birth of Hadrat Hasan. (In the month of Ramadan)
The birth of Hadrat Husayn. (In the month of Shâbân)
His marriage to Hadrat ’Umar’s daughter, Hadrat Hafsa.
627 The Holy War of Trench.
628 The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiya.
He sent letters of invitation to Islam to the rulers.
The Conquest of Khaybar.
MY BELOVED PROPHET (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)
502 503
629 The Holy War of Mûta.
630 The Conquest of Mecca.
The demise of his daughter Hadrat Zaynab.
The birth of his son Hadrat Ibrahim.
The demise of his son Hadrat Ibrahim.
The Expedition to Tabûk
632 He performed his Farewell Khutba to more than one hundred thousand Ashâb-i kirâm.
His visit to Jannatu’l Bâqî Cemetery.
His passing away.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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v Ibn Abi Shayba, al-Musannaf
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v Zahabî, Siyar

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