Rasûlullah’s parents were all Believers, and they were pious



A letter by Sayyid ’Abd-ul-Hakîm bin Mustafâ Arwâsî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’:

Imâm-i Busayrî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, the greatest of the Awliyâ educated by Shaikh Abul-’Abbâs Mursî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ alaih’, a man of karâmats and a disciple of shaikh Abul- Hasan-i Shâzilî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, who in turn was one of the greater ones of the Sôfiyya-i aliyya[1], wrote a book entitled Qasîda-i hamziyya, which was read by Islamic savants with enthusiasm. In this book he praises our Prophet and says: “The mothers and fathers of the Best of Mankind were all good people. Allâhu ta’âlâ, of His human beings, picked out the best fathers and mothers for him.”

In all the books of Mawlid written in various Islamic languages, it is written that his parents were extremely innocent. (Poems describing the Prophet’s life are called ‘Mawlid.’)

None of the ancestors (fathers and mothers) of our Prophet ‘sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, or of any other Prophet, was a disbeliever or a lowly person. ‘’alaihimussalâm’. The following are the âyat-i-kerîmas and hadîth-i-sherîfs proving our statement true:


1 – In a hadîh-i-sherîf in Bukhârî-i sherîf, the most valuable and the most correct book after the Qur’ân al-kerîm, our Prophet states: “I was born from the distinguished, the best ones of people living in every century, in every era.”

2 – In a hadîth in the book of Imâm-i Muslim, which has, of the thousands of hadîth books, won second place, Rasûlullah states: “Of the descendants of Hadrat Ismâil ‘’alaihis-salâm’, Allâhu ta’âlâ selected a person named Quraish. And of the descendants of Quraish, He selected the Hâshim Family. And among them He placed me.”

3 – In a hadîth quoted by Tirmuzî, he states: “Allâhu ta’âlâ created people. He made me from the best group of people. Then He created the best of these groups in Arabia. He made me from them. Then, choosing the best of homes, the best of families, He created me from them. Then, my soul and body are the best of creatures. My ancestors are the best people.”

4 – In a hadîth in a book by Tabarânî, one of the most valuable hadîth savants, the blessed Prophet states: “Allâhu ta’âlâ created everything out of nothing. Of all things, He liked human beings and made them valuable. Of mankind He made those whom He selected settle in Arabia. And of the distinguished in Arabia, He chose me. He placed me among the distinguished, the best of the people in every age. Then, those who love the ones in Arabia who are obedient to me, love them for my sake. Those who feel hostility towards them feel hostility towards me.” This hadîth-isherîf is written also at the initial part of Mawâhib-i Ladunniyya.

5 – As is informed in Mawâhib-i-Ladunniyya and in the explanation of Zerqânî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, it is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf quoted by ’Abdullah bin ’Abbâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’: “None of my grandfathers committed fornication. Allâhu ta’âlâ made me from beautiful and good fathers and pure mothers. If one of my grandfathers had had two sons. I would be in the more useful, the better one of these two.” Before Islam, adultery was usual in Arabia. A woman would not marry a man before having been his mistress for a long time. [Today’s disbelievers do the same.] Hadrat Âdam ‘’alaihis-salâm’, when he was about to die, said to Hadrat Shis ‘’alaihis-salâm’, his son, “My son! This nûr shining on your forehead is the nûr of Hadrat Muhammad, the Last Prophet. Deliver this nûr to pure and chaste ladies, who believe in Allah, and tell your son to do so in your last request!” Up to Muhammad ‘’alaihis-salâm’, all fathers told their sons to do so. Each of them fulfilled this will by marrying the noblest, the chastest girl. The nûr, passing through pure foreheads and chaste women, reached its owner. Allâhu ta’âlâ calls the disbelievers foul in the Sûra-i-Tawba. Since Rasûlullah ‘sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ states that all his grandfathers were innocent, Âzar, who was a foul disbeliever, must not be Ibrâhim’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ father. To say that Âzar was Hadrat Ibrâhim’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ father would mean to deny the hadîth above. Molla Jâmi ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ says in his Persian book Shawâhid-un- Nubuwwa: “A nûr (holy light) shone on Âdam’s forehead ‘’alaihissalâm’ because he bore a mote of hadrat Muhammad ‘’alaihissalâm’. This mote was passed on to Hadrat Hawwa and from her to Hadrat Shis, thus passing from innocent men to innocent women and from innocent women to innocent men. The nûr, together with the mote, passed from foreheads to foreheads.”

It is written on the forty-eighth page of the book Qisas-i-Anbiyâ (History of Prophets): “If one of Rasûlullah’s grandfathers had had two sons or if a tribe had been divided into two branches, the descendants of the Last Prophet would be on the better side. In each century, the person who was his grandfather was evident by the nûr on his forehead. Ismâil ‘’alaihis-salâm’ also had the nûr on his forehead. It shone like planet Venus. This nûr, an inheritance from his father, passed from him on to his descendants, thus reaching Me’add and Nizâr. ‘Nizâr’ means ‘a little.’ He was named Nizâr due to the following event: When he was born, his father Me’add, being pleased to see the nûr on his son’s forehead, gave a feast and said that the feast was only a little thing for such a son, thus causing his name to remain as Nizâr. This nûr was the nûr of Hadrat Muhammad. Passing from son to son since Hadrat Âdam, it came to its owner, Khâtem-ul-anbiyâ, i.e. Hadrat Muhammad. So, among the sons of Hadrat Âdam, there was a distinguished race carrying Hadrat Muhammad’s nûr; in each century, the face of a person of this race was very beautiful and very bright. By this nûr he was conspicuous among his brothers, and the tribe he belonged to was more exalted and more honourable than other tribes.”

6 – It is declared in the two hundred and nineteenth âyat of Sûrat-ush-Shu’arâ of the Qur’ân al-kerîm: “You, that is, your nûr has reached you after having always been transferred from one prostrating person to another.” Explaining this âyat, the Ahl-i sunnat savants ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în’ have inferred that “All his fathers and mothers were Believers and were sinless.” As is explained in the booklet Sahâba, ‘the blessed’, there are also some people who suppose that the great Ahl-i sunnat savants are Shiites and who say that these are the words of Shiites.

The great ones of the Ahl-i-sunnat ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în’ say that his father and his mother Âmina were in the religion of Hadrat Ibrâhîm. That is, they were Believers. Allâhu ta’âlâ enlivened these two and had them hear the word ‘Shahâdat’ from our Prophet and express it, not for the purpose of making them Believers, but in order that they might be honoured with being in his Ummat. The âyat, “Do not ask a blessing on your relative,” was intended for Abû Tâlib. It was not intended for his parents. It is written in the translations of Imâm-i A’zâm’s book entitled Fiqh-i Akbar, of which there are many copies in the world, that they (his parents) died without belief. Yet it is written in Imâm-i A’zam’s manuscript that they died with îmân. Later, it was discovered that his enemies had made this mistake on purpose by erasing the first ‘mâ’[2].

The manuscript of Fiqh-i Akbar by Imâm-i A’zam Abû Hanîfa, along with a part of the Qur’ân al-kerîm, which was written by the blessed hands of Hadrat ’Uthmân, the Amîr-ul-mu’minîn, and which was coloured with his blood of martyrdom, and a number of valuable books were taken to Samarkand in 656 A.H. when Hulâghu burned Baghdâd and massacred more than eight hundred thousand Muslims. When Samarkand was captured by the Russians in 1284 A.H. [A.D. 1868], these books were transferred to Petersburg and kept there with great care. This fact is stated by Shamsaddin Sâmi Bey, the author of Qâmûs-ul-a’lâm, within the entry ‘Samarkand’. The book was taken to the city of Ufa in 1335 [1917 A.D.], and thence to the mosque of Khwâja ’Ubaydullah-i Ahrâr in the city of Tashkand in 1341 [1923 A.D.].

Some pages of the copies of the Qur’ân written by the blessed hands of the Khalîfas ’Umar-ul-Fârûq, ’Uthmân-i Zinnûrayn and Alî-yul-Murtadâ ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum’ exist in the Museum of Islamic Works, which is next to the Süleymâniye Mosque in Istanbul. Those who wish may see them.

The enemies of religion laid their hands on the books of great men of the religion, as they had at one time defiled the Tawrât and the Injîl, the Books of Allâhu ta’âlâ. For example, they mixed some fables with Muhyiddîn-i-’Arabî’s books Fusûs and Futûhât. However, they were soon discovered. The great savant Hadrat Abdulwahhâb-i Sha’rânî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’ explains this policy of the irreligious in his books entitled Kibrît-i Ahmar and al- Yawâqît. And today, the policy of misrepresenting Islam to youngsters is being carried out far and wide; we notice with regret that the world no longer has any real savants to silence them.

For that matter, Hadrat Celâleddîn-i Rûmî wrote his Mathnawî in a rhyme scheme, thus leaving no possibility for Islam’s enemies to defile it.

It is written by Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘’alaihirrahma’, as he starts dealing with ‘nikâh’ of a disbeliever in his commentary to Durr-ulmukhtâr; also by Ahmad Hamawî ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’, in the subject ‘Hazar wa-l-ibâha’ in his commentary to Eshbâh; and also (by Nişancızâde Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Ramadân ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, as he makes various quotations from Islamic scholars) in Mir’ât-i-kâinât: “According to great savants, who have realized the truth, we shouldn’t talk on whether our Prophet’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ parents were Believers or not, and we should watch our manners when discussing it. It has been stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: ‘Do not hurt the living by speaking ill of the dead.’ It does not bring harm upon one not to talk about it or not to learn it, nor will it be asked in the grave or on the day of Judgment.” And again, they say: “Allâhu ta’âlâ, as a blessing on our Prophet, enlivened his parents during his farewell hajj. They believed His Prophet. A sahîh hadîth [3] quoted by Muhammad bin Abû Bakr and Ibni Nâsir-ud-dîn declares this fact. By the same token, His enlivening a man killed by the Banî Isrâil and the man’s giving information about his murderer and His enlivening many dead people with the prayers of Hadrat Îsâ and Hadrat Muhammad were all blessings. It is incorrect to say that the âyat ‘Do not ask My pardon on behalf of those who are for Hell’ is about Rasûlullah’s blessed parents. As for the hadîth-i-sherîf ‘My father and your father are in the fire,’ which is quoted in Muslim; it was said with ijtihâd. It was declared afterwards that they had îmân.” It is written in the book Ahwâl-u atfâl-il-muslimîn that it had ben declared so about the two sons of Hadrat Khadîja, too, but afterwards it was stated that they were not in Hell.

As is understood from âyat-i-kerîmas and hadîth-i-sherîfs and as is written in thousands of Islamic books, all the fortunate people who were honoured with being Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ fathers and mothers were the noblest, the most honourable, the most beautiful and the purest people of their times and in their countries. They all were cherished, blessed and respectable. Therefore, Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s father was a Believer and was far from having evil habits or abominable, low attributes. Âzar, who was a disbeliever, was not his father; he was his uncle.

As is declared at the beginning of Sûrat-u Âl-i ’Imrân, the Qur’ân’s âyats are of two kinds. First, the âyats with clear, obvious meanings, which are called “Muhkamât.” Second, there are âyats called “Mutashâbihât” which are not overt, plain or usual, but which contain unusual meanings. That is, it does not conform with mind or with Islam to give them their apparent, known meanings; it is necessary to give them unusual meanings, that is, ta’wîl (to interpret) them. It is sinful to give them their apparent meanings. For example, the savants of Tafsîr have explained the word yed (hand) as ‘power’ which means capability. By the same token, it is written in The Tafsîr of Baydâwî that in the âyat “When Ibrâhîm ‘’alaihis-salâm’ told his father Âzer…” Âzer is an atf-i beyân[4] for the word ‘father.’ When a person has two names and these two names are mentioned together, it is understood that one of them is famous and the other is not famous, which is called “atf-i beyân.” For this reason, according to the rules of belâghat, fesâhat and i’jâz[5], Hadrat Ibrâhîm calls two persons father. One of them is his own father, and the other is somebody else whom he refers to as father. The meaning of the âyat is: “When Hadrat Ibrâhim told his Âzer father.” If it weren’t so, it would be enough in the Qur’ân to declare: “When he told Âzer,” or “When he told his father,” instead of declaring: “When he told his father Âzer.” If he were his own father, the word ‘his father’ would be superfluous.

All of the scholars of the Tawrât (Torah) followed the religion of Mûsâ ‘’alaihis-salâm’ for a period of eighteen hundred years, and along with them the Apostles of Jesus ‘’alaihis-salâm’ and the priests who followed them said that Âzer was not the real father but he was the uncle of Ibrâhîm ‘’alaihis-salâm’. As is inferred from the undefiled old namescripts of the Torah and the Bible, the name of the father of Ibrâhîm ‘’alaihis-salâm’ was Târuh. The word Târuh is not the Hebrew synonym of Âzer as some ignorant people write. It means that they both are not names for the same person. There are many verses in the Qur’ân-al kerîm in accord with those in the Torah and the Bible. In the thirtieth page of the Turkish version of his book, Beyân-ul-haqq, Rahmatullah Efendi ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’, one of the Islamic scholars of India, says, “Naskh; i.e., anything to be made invalid by Allâhu ta’âlâ, involves only the commandments and the prohibitions. In the commentatory book entitled Ma’âlim-ut-tanzîl al-Imâm al- Baghawî says that naskh did not occur in the qisas (narrations) and akhbâr (information) [or in scientific and experimental knowledge] but only in the commandments and prohibitions. Naskh does not mean to change them; it means to inform about the expiration of their period of validity. The Qur’ân-i kerîm did not invalidate the whole Torah and Bible but a part of them.” [There is some information about naskh in the final part of the thirty-fourth chapter.] The aforesaid âyat-i-kerîma needs ta’wîl (explanation) from that viewpoint as well.

Allâhu ta’âlâ declares in the hundred and thirty-third âyat of the Sûrat-ul-Baqara that Hadrat Ya’qûb’s (Jacob’s) sons said to him: “And the creator of your fathers Ibrâhîm, Ismâ’il and Ishaq….” This may come to mean that hadrat Ismâ’il is the father of Hadrat Ya’qûb. However, Hadrat Ya’qûb is the son of Hadrat Ishaq ‘’alaihis-salâm’, who is the son of Hadrat Ibrâhîm ‘’alaihissalâm’. And Hadrat Ishaq ‘’alaihis-salâm’ is Hadrat Ismâ’il’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ brother. Then, Hadrat Ismâ’il ‘’alaihis-salâm’ is not Hadrat Ya’kûb’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ father but his uncle. This means to say that in the Qur’ân al-kerîm an ‘uncle’ is called ‘father.’ It is written in the explanation of this âyat in many books of tafsîr that the word ‘father’ is used for uncle in various Arabic lexicons. It is written in many books that our Prophet used to call an Arabian villager and his uncle Abû Tâlib and also Abû Lahab and Abbâs, father. It has been a custom in every nation, in every language, in every age to use the word ‘father’ for uncle, for step-father, for father-in-law, and also for any protecting or helping person. Besides, Âzer was both the uncle and step-father of Hadrat Ibrâhîm. Also Fîrûzâbâdî confirms this fact in Qâmûs by saying, “Âzer is the name of Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ uncle. His father’s name is Târuh.” The statement, “The unanimity that Âzer is the uncle is unsound. According to the sound unanimity, Âzer is his father,” is an unsound and worthless assertion against such a clear declaration in religious books. It results from misunderstanding the subtlety in the words of savants.

That the book entitled Tafsîr-i-Baydâwî gives the seventyfourth âyat-i-kerîma of Sûrat-ul-An’âm its apparent meaning instead of making ta’wîl of it, (i.e. explaining it,) [or that the book entitled Rûh-ul-beyân provides a wrong ta’wîl of that âyat-ikerîma and also of the hundred and fifteenth âyat-i-kerîma of Tawba Sûra,] cannot be something to be taken as a documentary example. Nor can it abrogate the unanimity among the savants of Tafsîr, the savants of Hadîth, the savants of Kalâm, and the Sôfiyya-i aliyya. For, Muhammad ‘’alaihis-salâm’, alone, gave the Qur’ân al-kerîm its correct meanings and explained it correctly in his hadîth-i-sherîfs. None of the Ashâb-i kirâm or the Tâbi’în-i ’Izâm thought of Âzer as the father when they heard this âyat-ikerîma, nor did any of them say so. They inferred that he was his uncle. This is the belief held by the Ahl-i sunnat.

It is written in the final part of Fatâwâ-i Khayriyya: “It is written in Qâmûs that Âzer is the name of Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s uncle. His father’s name is Târuh. It is written as Ibrâhîm bin Târûh in Târîh-i Hanbalî. It says that Âzer is the nickname of Târûh. In The Tafsîr of Jalâlayn it is written that the name Âzer in the âyat is Târûh’s last name. Ibni Hâjar writes in his revision of Hamziyya: ‘Âzer was a disbeliever. It is declared in the Qur’ân that he was Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ father. People with heavenly books say that Âzer was not Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ own father, but he was his uncle, for the Arabs call the uncle father. So the uncle has been called father in the Qur’ân. Hadrat Ya’qûb has been addressed: ‘The creator [Allah] of your father Ibrâhîm and Ismâ’il.’

 However, Hadrat Ismâ’îl was Hadrat Ya’qûb’s uncle, not his father. When the words of savants do not conform with one another, it is wâjib to explain an âyat in a manner agreeable with hadîths. Choosing the easier way, Baydâwî and others did not make ta’wîl of the âyat.” ’Abdul-Ahad Nûrî Bey wrote a special booklet for proving the fact that Rasûlullah’s parents were Believers. This booklet is in Turkish and consists of eighteen pages. It is kept with the call number ‘3612’ in the Es’ad Efendi section in the library of Süleymâniye, Istanbul. Hadrat Imâm-i Suyûtî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’ proves that Âzer was not Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s father, and that he was his uncle, through documents in his book Kitâb-ud-derj-il-munîfa. This book exists in the Süleymâniye library. Its call number in the Raîs-ulkuttâb Mustafa Efendi section is 1150.

It is written in Anwâr-ul-Muhammadiyya that it is stated in the hadîth-i-sherîf quoted by Hadrat ’Alî: “From Hadrat Âdam to my father ’Abdullah, I always passed through married fathers and mothers. None of my fathers had any child through adultery, without nikâh.” Rasûlullah stated the names of his twenty-one fathers back up to Adnân, as follows: His father is ’Abdullah. The fathers of ’Abdullah successively are ’Abdulmuttalib, Hâshim, ’Abdu-Menâf, Qussayy, Kilâb, Murra, Kâ’b, Luwayy, Ghâlib, Fihr, Mâlik, Nadr, Kinâna, Huzeima, Mudrika, Ilyâs, Mudar, Nizâr, Me’add and Adnân. All of them, with a brief description of each, have been written in alphabetical order in the biographies section appended to the Turkish version of our book, Endless Bliss. The passages announcing the purity of the ascendants of our Prophet in the book Metâli’un-nûr by ’Abdullah-i Rûmî, the annotator of the book Fusûs, are written in our book entitled Ni’mat-i kubrâ. Hadrat Sanâullah-i Dahlawî [pâni-pûtî], who had deep knowledge in branches of Tafsîr, Hadîth, Fiqh, and Tasawwuf and who performed great services to mankind by showing them the way to endless bliss, says in the first and third volumes of Tafsîr-i Mazharî that the word ‘Âzer’ in Sûrat-ul-An’âm is an atf-i beyân for the word ‘Ebîhi.’ Documents stating that Âzer was Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s ‘’alaihis-salâm’ uncle and not his father are more tenable. In Arabia, an uncle is called father. In the Qur’ân Hadrat Ismâ’il ‘’alaihis-salâm’ is called the father of Hadrat Ya’qûb, while, in actual fact, he is his uncle. Âzer’s real name was Nâhûr. Nâhûr was formerly in the true religion of his ancestors. When he became Nimrod’s vizier, he turned into a disbeliever, changing his faith for the world. Also, Fakhraddîn Râzî and most of the salaf-i sâlihîn have stated that Âzer was the uncle. Zerqânî, while explaining the book Mawâhib-i ladunniyya, writes the words: “Those who believe heavenly books and also historians have unanimously said that Âzer was the uncle,” by Ibni Hajar-i Haytamî, as a document. Imâm-i Suyûtî says that Ibnî ’Abbâs has stated that Âzer was not Hadrat Ibrâhîm’s father and that Hadrat Ibrâhim’s father was Târûh. This statement of Ibni ’Abbâs has also been confirmed by Mujâhid, by Ibni Jarîr, and by Suddî with documents. Again, it is informed by Suyûtî, that also Ibni Munzîr clearly explains in his tafsîr that Âzer was the uncle. Imâm-i Suyûtî wrote a booklet stating that Rasûlullah’s grandfathers, up to Hadrat Âdam were all Muslims. Despite this fact, Muhammad bin Ishaqq, Dahhâk, and Kelbî said that Hadrat Ibrâhim’s father was Âzar whose other name was Târûh.

“Ya’qub ‘’alaihis-salâm’ had two names, too. His second name was Isrâil,” they said. Also, Muqâtil and Ibni Hibbân said that Âzer was the nickname for Hadrat Ibrâhim’s father, Târûh. As noted by Baghâwî, Atâ cites from Ibni ’Abbâs that when Rasûlullah wanted to know about his parents, the hundred and nineteenth âyat of Sûrat-ul-Baqara descended, declaring: “Do not ask about the states of the inhabitants of Hell!” Yet Ibni Jarîr states that this information is not dependable. If we should say that this information is true, then Ibni ’Abbâs stated his own supposition. And even if his supposition were true, it is not explained clearly that his (Rasûlullah’s) parents are in Hell. Even if they were in Hell, still they could not be said to be disbelievers, for there will be Muslims who will go to Hell. It is declared in a hadîth: “As I am the best of you, so my father is better than your fathers.” The translation from the book Tafsîr-i Mazharî is completed here.

It is written in the al-Hazar section of the book Uyûn-ul-Basâir: “Qadî Abû Bakr Ibnul-Arabî ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’, one of the savants in the Mâlikî Madhhab, said that he who said that Rasûlullah’s parents were in Hell would become accursed. Every Muslim has to avoid saying something that will hurt Rasûlullah. Allâhu ta’âlâ abominates a person who hurts him. Nothing could cause more bitter pain than saying that his grandfathers were disbelievers!”

It is written in the book, al-Mustanad (p. 33): “Al-Imâm as- Suyûtî proves that Âzer is the uncle, not the father of Ibrâhîm ‘’alaihis-salâm’. The hadîth-i sherîf: ‘My father and your father are in Hell’ means that Abû Lahab is in Hell.” The book, in its hundred and seventy-fifth page, refutes with documents the assertions of ’Alî al-Qârî, who slanders as-Suyûtî. Translation of these pages exists in the section Din Adam› Bölücü Olamaz (A Man of Religion Cannot Be A Separatist) of the book Fâideli Bilgiler (Useful Teachings).    

[1] Great scholars and men of Tasavvuf; that is, the Awliyâ.

[2] In Arabic, the words ‘mâ’ and ‘lâ’ make the meaning of the verb negative. ‘Mâtû’ means ‘they died.’ ‘Mâ-mâtû’ means ‘they didn’t die.’ When ‘mâ’ in front of the sentence ‘They didn’t die as disbelievers’ is erased, it becomes ‘They died as disbelievers.’

[3] A kind of hadîth. Please see the sixth chapter of the second fascicle of Endless Bliss.

[4] In Arabic, the second noun, which is written for explaining the meaning of a noun, is called “atf-i-beyân.” Its English counterpart is ‘appositive’.

[5] These words are the names of literary arts that make a statement valuable.


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