FOURTH VOLUME, 29th LETTER
This letter was written to Mirzâ ’Ubaydullah by Muhammad Ma’thûm. It stresses the necessity of advice and the importance of jihâd:
Some people suppose that Tasawwuf means to care for one’s own business, not to interfere with others and not to deal with anybody. This is not true. This kind of thinking injures Islam. I wonder what kinds of people a person who talks like this about men of Tasawwuf means? If he means the great men who were attached to Hadrat Abû Bakr Siddîq ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’; that the way guided by those great people was to adhere to the Sunnat-iseniyya (Islam) and to avoid bid’ats is writen in their books. On the other hand, Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar and Bughd-i fillâh and Jihâd-i fîsabîlillah are requirements of the Sunnat-iseniyya of our Prophet; that is, they are among the fards and wâjibs of Islam. [‘Bughd-i fillâh’ means ‘to feel hostility (towards disbelievers) for Allah’s sake,’ and ‘Jihâd-i fîsabîlillâh’ means ‘to struggle for Allah’s sake.’ We explained Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar earlier.] Then, to abandon Amr-i ma’rûf means to abandon the way of those great people. As a matter of fact, Imâmi Muhammad Bahâaddîn-i Bukhârî ‘quddisa sirruh’, who was one of them, said: “Our way is to cling to the ’Urwa-i wuthqâ, that is, to follow the way of Rasûlullah and of his Ashâb.” For this reason, an insignificant deed on this way gives birth to a great profit. He who abandons this way falls into great dangers. If Tasawwuf meant that you abandon Amr-i ma’rûf, Muhammad Bahâaddîn-i Bukhârî ‘quddisa sirruh’, who was one of the chiefs of Tasawwuf, would not have performed Amr-i ma’rûf to his own master, Sayyid Amîr Kulâl. While it was incompatible with manners to warn his master, he still did Amr-i ma’rûf. Gathering the savants of Bukhârâ, he proved in the presence of them all that it was not acceptable in Islam to repeat Allâhu ta’âlâ’s name loudly, thus explaining to his master the importance of stopping it. Being very pious and in love with a true word, his master admitted it and stopped doing it. Men of Tasawwuf wrote thousands of books in order to communicate the things that will cause men to attain salvation and those things which will draw them to perdition. What are these works of theirs, if not Amr-i ma’rûf? Khwâja Mu’îniddîn-i Cheshtî, one of the great men of Tasawwuf, was told by his master: “The darling’s path is very subtle and dangerous. Advise everybody and inform them of the danger!” Why did Shaikh-i-Ekber Muhyiddîn-i ’Arabî ‘quddisa sirruh’ prohibit the men of Tasawwuf in his time from playing music and dancing, while it was he who spread Wahdat-i wujûd all over the world? Some of them obeyed him and stopped doing so. And others did not obey him and did not stop it. But eventually they confessed their fault. [It is written in the book Hadîqa and also Akhî Chalabî writes in this book Hadiyya: “It is fard to do Amr-i ma’rûf. But it is necessary not to do Amr-i ma’rûf if it will result in fitna or events that Islam disapproves of.”]
Gaws-i samadânî Sayyid Abdulqâdir-i Geylânî performs Amri ma’rûf in detail in his book Gunyat-ut-tâlibîn. He says: “Supposing a person sees someone else doing something sinful and yet knows that he himself is likely to come to harm if he attempts to dissuade that person from sinning, will it be permissible for him to dissuade the sinner? Yes, it will be, as far as we are concerned. In fact, it is very valuable. He will be rewarded as if he warred against disbelievers for Allah’s sake. Especially if it is intended to rescue the victims from the oppression of cruel authorities or to spread îmân when disbelief invades one’s country. Savants advise to perform Amr-i ma’rûf at such times.” If great ones among the Awliyâ and the leaders of Tasawwuf had neglected Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar, would they have written these in their books or paid that much attention to them? Hadrat Abdulqâdir-i Geylânî says: “Things that are compatible with the Qur’ân, hadîths and reason are called ‘Ma’rûf’, and things that are incompatible with them are called ‘Munkar.’ [The book Hadîqa, while explaining the disasters incurred by one’s speech, says, “Things that are prohibited by the Qur’ân and hadîths and by the unanimity of Mujtahids are called ‘Munkar’.”] Each of them is of two types. The ma’rûfs and munkars of the first type are obvious; savants and those who are not savants know them. It is Ma’rûf, i.e. fard to perform namâz five times each day, to fast in the month of Ramadân, to pay zakât, to go on a pilgrimage (hajj) and things of this type; and it is Munkar, i.e. harâm to commit fornication, to drink alcoholic beverages, to steal, to pick somebody’s pocket, to charge or pay interest when lending or borrowing money, to snatch away others’ property and things of this type. Every Muslim has to advise or dissuade from these things. The second type is known only by savants, such as kinds of facts to be believed in concerning Allâhu ta’âlâ and how to believe them. Muslim savants advise and dissuade from things of this type. If a savant has stated them, those who are not savants may state them, too, if they can. The munkars of the second type comprise mostly aberrations pertaining to îmân and creed. Every Muslim should adhere to the Sunnî creed, and avoid aberrant belief, i.e. deviation and bid’at in creed. A person who is not learned in religious knowledge should not dispute with holders of bid’at, but he should keep away from them and should not greet them. He should not visit them on religious feasts, at times of happiness, should not perform namâz in their funerals, and he should not pity them. Since their creed is corrupt, he should deem it as an act of worship to dislike them. Rasûlulah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ stated in a hadith: “If a person looks at another person harshly for Allah’s sake because there is bid’at or aberration in his îmân or worship, Allâhu ta’âlâ will fill his heart with îmân and will protect him against fear.”
[It is written in the book Kanz-i mahfî: “It is prohibited to live in places where ignorance and immorality, i.e. bid’at and sinful activities are rife. Those who migrate in order to maintain their faith will be rewarded with Paradise. It is wâjib to migrate from one quarter where there are no pious and wise people and where bid’at and intrigues are on the increase, to another quarter, or from such a city to another city. If Muslims in all cities are attacked, they should migrate to another Islamic country. If there are no Islamic countries, they should migrate to a kâfîr country where human rights are respected and worshipping is free and live there. Please see the eighth chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss! This is because those who live among them will be subjected to the same catastrophe which is expected to befall them. The twenty-fifth âyat of Sûra Anfâl purports: “And fear an affliction which may not only smite those of you who do what is wrong.”]
Fudayl bin ’Iyâd ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, one of the great men of Tasawwuf says: “Allâhu ta’âlâ does not accept the worships of those who love the people who commit bid’at in their words and deeds, and He takes their îmân away from their hearts. Even if he who dislikes the performer of bid’at prays a little, I hope that Allâhu ta’âlâ will forgive him. If you meet a holder of bid’at on your way, change your way.” Again, he says: “I have heard Sufyân bin ’Uyayna say that Allâhu ta’âlâ becomes angry with the person who attends the funeral of a holder of bid’at until he leaves the funeral.” Our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ stated: “If a person makes up a bid’at or commits a bid’at, may Allâhu ta’âlâ and angels and all people curse him! Neither the fard nor the supererogatory acts of worship he performs will be accepted.” ’Abdulqâdir-i Geylânî’s words are concluded here.
If the way of the Sôfiyya-i-kirâm were to not interfere with anybody, one of them would not have said, “When the niqâr among the Sôfiyya (men of Tasawwuf) is no longer performed, they are no longer any good.” Shaikh-ul-Islâm-i Hirawî ’Abdullah Ansârî said that Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar were called niqâr among the Sôfiyya. [It is written in Nafahât, while telling about the life of Abû Saîd-i Kharrâz, that the scholar who said, “when the niqâr is no longer performed,” was Abul-Hasan Alî bin Muhammad Muzayyan.] Those who slander the great men of Tasawwuf by saying that they did not interfere with anybody; don’t they think why the Qur’ân and hadîths are full of descriptions of the rewards and torments in the next world? Won’t the person who believes in the vehement torments that are said to be prepared for the sinners want to save his Muslim brother from this danger? If there is a well or a fire in front of a blind man, or if a person is about to fall into another worldly danger, they will certainly let him know of it and show him the way to safety. They will not leave him alone. Then, why shouldn’t they let him know of the torment in the next world, which is more dismal and more impetuous and endless, and show him the way to salvation? It means that he who does not let others know or show them their mistakes does not admit or believe in the torment in the next world, and does not have îmân in the day of the Last Judgment.
If Allâhu ta’âlâ did not want to interfere with anybody, He would not have sent Prophets, He would not have declared the religions, He would not have invited people to the Islamic religion, and He would not have let us know that the other religions were wrong and aberrant, nor would He have destroyed and tormented those who denied the earlier Prophets. He could have left everybody free and alone; He could have not commanded anybody to do anything, nor would He have tormented those who denied Him. Why did Allâhu ta’âlâ order Muslims [that is, the Islamic state] to perform jihâd against disbelievers [those who prevent people from hearing about Islam and becoming Muslims,] while in jihâd there is torment and death not only for disbelievers but also for Muslims? For what reason were the virtues and blessings of jihâd, of people who perform jihâd and of martrys declared in the Qur’ân and hadîths? Why was it commanded to attack evil people, to harass them, and to destroy those creatures of Allah’s? As a matter of fact, He commands man to also feel hostility towards his own nafs, and explains that the nafs is inimical towards Allâhu ta’âlâ. To perform jihâd against the nafs was called the Jihâd-› ekber (the greatest jihâd). Why did Allâhu ta’âlâ associate his approval and appreciation to this jihâd? Why didn’t Allâhu ta’âlâ leave the nafs alone? It means that it is Allah’s enemy. Allâhu ta’âlâ wants His enemies to be punished. Owing to His infinite mercy, Allâhu ta’âlâ first sent Prophets ‘’alaihim-ussalâtu wa-t-teslîmât’ as messengers, and thereafter He sent the Awliyâ and the savants in their place. By declaring His rewards and torments through their tongues, He did not give an occasion for an excuse or pretext. No one can change Allah’s decree and laws. The world’s order cannot be rearranged in accordance with the opinions of those who do not know or see what is right. If Allâhu ta’âlâ wished, He could guide everybody to the righteous way and could put everybody into Paradise. But He wanted in eternity to fill Hell with people and genies. A person who realizes the greatness of Allâhu ta’âlâ cannot ask Him the reason why.
Who can say anything against Him, save fear;
What should be done, except giving oneself up.
He who follows the Prophet will also follow him in inviting people and in performing Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar. He who does not do so has not adapted himself to him. If disbelievers were not Allah’s enemies, it would not be fard to feel hostility towards them. It would not be the first of the things to bring a man closer to Allâhu ta’âlâ. It would not be an important part of îmân or an addition to îmân. It would not cause the Wilâyat (the grade of Awliyâ) to be attained and Allah’s grace and love to be gained. Our Prophet ‘sall Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ stated: “The best of worships is to love Muslims because they are Muslims and to dislike disbelievers because they are disbelievers.” When Allâhu ta’âlâ asked Hadrat Mûsâ, “What did you do for Me?” he answered, “O my Allah, for you I performed namâz, fasted, paid zakât, and mentioned Your Name very much.” Upon this, Allâhu ta’âlâ declared, “O Mûsâ! Your prayers (namâz) are documents for you. Your fastings are a shield against Hell. The zakât is a shade that protects you against the heat of the day of the Last Judgment. Your mentioning My Name very much is a light that will illuminate you in the darkness of the grave and the Rising. That is, all these things are useful for you. What did you do for Me?” Hadrat Mûsâ entreated, “O my Allah! Tell me the worship which is for Thee!” Allâhu ta’âlâ declared in an âyat-i-kerîma, “O Mûsâ! Did you love those who loved Me for My sake, and did you feel hostility towards My enemies for My sake?” So, Hadrat Mûsâ realized that the good deed done for Allah was to love for His sake and to be hostile for His sake.
Love necessitates that you love the friends of your darling and be inimical towards the foes of the darling. This love and this enmity are not within the power of faithful lovers; they cannot help themselves. This happens by itself without striving, without taking pains. The friend’s friends seem beautiful, and His enemies seem ugly and evil. Also, the love that occurs within those who are seized by the pretty appearance of the world goes through this same process. Unless the person who says that he loves keeps away from the enemies of his darling, he is not regarded as a man of his word. He is called a hypocrite, i.e. a liar. Shaikh-ul-Islâm ’Abdullah Ansârî ‘quddisa sirruh’ says: “One day Abul Huseyn bin Sam’ûn offended my teacher Husrî. Since that day my heart has been feeling unfriendly towards him.” It will be appropriate here to mention a famous saying of the great: “If you do not feel offended towards a person who offends your master, a dog is better than you are.” These two principles of love are declared in the Qur’ân and hadîths. [Those who wish may refer to the Persian original or the Arabic or Turkish versions of the twenty-ninth letter.] As it is understood from these âyat-i-kerîmas, it causes a man to be away from Allâhu ta’âlâ if he loves the enemies of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Unless there is enmity, there will be no love. But this enmity should not be deflected into hostility against the Ashâb-i kirâm, as some people do. Enmity is to be felt towards the enemies. Hostility felt towards friends, as in the example of Râfidîs and Shiites, is rejected. Because all of the Ashâb-› kirâm were honoured with attaining our Prophet’s presence and company and his blessed looks, which were nourishment for the heart and soul, they loved one another and felt hostility towards disbelievers. They all were darlings of the Messenger of Allah. Can it ever be a principle of love for Rasûlullah to feel hostile even towards one of them! Don’t those who say so betray their enmity instead of showing their love?
Question: Of the great Awliyâ ‘qaddas-Allâhu ta’âlâ asrârahum- ul-’azîz’, those who believed in Wahdat-i wujûd said that everything in this world is a mirror reflecting Allâhu ta’âlâ. In everything, nothing besides the perfect Attributes of Allâhu ta’âlâ can be seen. Then, isn’t it necessary to deem everything good, to love everything, and not to deem anything bad? There is a saying: No absolute evil exists in the world! [The pantheistic philosophy of Spinoza, a Dutch philosopher, is based on a plagiarism from Muslims’ books on Wahdat-i wujûd.]
Answer: It is commanded clearly in the Qur’ân to dislike disbelievers, to feel hostility towards them through the heart, and to treat the harbîs harshly. [Harbîs are a class of disbelievers explained at the end of the twentieth chapter.] It is out of the question to doubt this. No matter what disbelievers’ essence is, it is fard and necessary for us to adapt ourselves to the Qur’ân. Our business is with nâss, not with fûss. [That is, our task is with the Qur’ân al-kerîm and hadîth-i sherifs, not with the books of the Awliyâ. For example, Hadrat Muhyiddîn-i Arabî’s kashfs that are contrary to the Qur’ân and hadîths, which he communicates in his book Fusûs, cannot be documents for us.] On the Day of Judgment, being saved from Hell and attaining salvation will depend on the Qur’ân and hadîths, not on the books of the Awliyâ. Fancies, dreams, kashfs and inspirations that occur to the hearts of the Awliyâ cannot take the place of the Qur’ân and hadîths. Those with erroneous kashf or inspiration have to adapt themselves to the Qur’ân and hadîths and act in accordance with the Qur’ân and hadîths, though they may not conform with their conscience and kashf. They must entreat Allâhu ta’âlâ ceaselessly so that correct inspirations will occur to them and their hearts’ eyes will be salved with the dust of Prophets’ feet. Also, let us mention the fact that those Awliyâ who recognize Wahdat-i wujûd divide beings into grades. They say that the state and the importance of each grade are different. They do not ignore the rule of Kathrat-i wujûd, which is the basis of Islam. They know that to relinquish it is to be a renegade, i.e. to abandon Islam. Since performing Amr-i ma’rûf and knowing the sinners and disbelievers as evil are rules of Kathrat-i wujûd, as the other rules of Islam are, they deem those who ignore them as mulhids and zindiqs. Also those who say that there is no certain evil have to say that there is evil [in one respect]. Since we have to know disbelievers as evil and keep away from them, this evil in one respect is enough for them.
Those who recognize Wahdat-i wujûd do not eat poison. They do not let others eat it, either. They kill the scorpion and the snake and tell others to be mindful of them. They love those who obey them and dislike those who disobey them. Hadrat Celâleddîn Rûmî, one of the notables of men of Wahdat-i wujûd, says in his Mathnawî:
“He who will not believe this word;
Now I see him headlong in Hell.”
These great people prefer sweet foods, delicious sherbets, exquisite textures, touching voices, fragrant odors, fine sceneries, beautiful appearances to the tasteless, ugly ones, and like them much more. They protect and take care of those who approach them, and they protect them and themselves against dangers. They pick out useful things and avoid harmful ones. They try to obtain what they need. They educate their children. They consult one another about their important affairs, and they do not let their daughters and wives go out without covering themselves properly and do not let others approach them. They keep their children away from bad friends. They punish the cruel and their enemies, and warn their patients against harmful food. Are these acts of Wahdat-i wujûd or Kathrat-i wujûd? Then, is it worthy, is it reasonable to try to escape one’s duties as a born slave (of Allah) by exploiting the rules of Wahdat-i wujûd and to avoid obeying the rules of Kathrat in matters pertaining to the Hereafter, while it is fard to obey them? Is it reasonable to make Wahdat-i wujûd a pretext for dodging the responsibilities we have in this base worldy life? The reason for it is to deny the divine rules, to disbelieve the Prophets and not to have îmân in the Rising and in the torments and blessings of the next world. Of those who recognized Wahdati wujûd, the ones with correct hâls very strongly adhered to their faith and their actions were compatible with Islam. This fact is written at length in books. My father, who was my master, the cause of my coming to life and my happiness, was very careful while making an abdast (ablution), in tahârat [cleaning oneself from najâsat which is explained in the sixth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss,] in namâz, and in observing the adabs, and he used to say, “I learned these by closely watching my father’s manners. It is not easy to learn from books how to observe the adab together with all its subtle particulars.” His father, the grandfather of this faqîr, was a man of Wahdat-i wujûd and was an unequalled ’ârif in the ma’rifats in the book Fusûs. At the same time, he was perfect in observing the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyye. My father used to say that he had learned this behavior from his master Hadrat Ruknaddîn-i Cheshtî by observing his manners. He was one of the great Awliyâ of Wahdat-i wujûd and he was always overcome by his hâls and kashfs; yet it was known by everybody that he was a perfect person in adhering to the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyye. Hadrat ’Ubaydullah-i Ahrâr was inclined to Wahdat-i wujûd. Yet he was matchless in adhering to the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya and in spreading the religion, the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya. He often said, “If I were a shaikh, no other shaikh would find a disciple for himself. But I was commanded to spread the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya, not to become a shaikh.” Shaikh-i Akbar Muhyiddîn-i ’Arabî ‘quddisa sirruh’ was a Sâhib-i ithnâd in the knowledge of Hadîth and was in the grade of ijtihad in the knowledge of Fiqh. He used to say, “With our Prophet’s command, ‘Call yourself to account (for your conduct) before you are called to account,’ some shaikhs call themselves to account every day and every night for what they have done. I have surpassed them in this accounting; I call myself to account for what I have thought as well as for what I have done.” Sultân-ul-’Ârifîn Bâyazîd-i Bestâmî and Sayyid-ut-tâifa Junayd-i Baghdâdî ‘quddisa sirruhumâ’, who may be said to be the founders and the leaders of Wahdat-i wujûd, adapted themselves to the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya from head to toe. When Bâyazîd performed namâz, the rattling of the bones in his chest would be heard. Everybody should have heard about the words of Hallâj-i Mansûr. Nevertheless, he used to perform a thousand rak’ats of namâz every day and every night, and he performed five hundred rak’ats the night before he was executed.
It is surprising that some of those who say that we shouldn’t interfere with anybody and that we shouldn’t attack [others’] consciences make intimate friends with the disbelievers, such as Jews, Jûkis, Brahmans, Mulhids, Zindiqs, Armenians, Freemasons and Renegades, who have deviated into different ways. At the same time they say, ‘retrogressive, reactionary, fanatical,’ about the Ahl-i sunnat wal jamâ’at, who adhere to the Sunnat, to the way of Rasûlullah; and they feel hostility towards these true Muslims, who were given the good news of “It is only these who will be saved from Hell,” and who were praised, “It is only these who follow my and my Ashâb’s way.” While they make friends with disbelievers, they take pleasure in hurting, insulting and annihilating these true Muslims. What kind of Wahdat-i wujûd, what kind of unity is it to feel hostility towards those who follow the way of Hadrat Muhammad, who is Allah’s compassion upon all classes of beings, while being friendly with disbelievers, towards whom the Qur’ân commands us to feel hostility? Isn’t this sheer disbelief and enmity towards Islam?
All the Prophets, the Ashâb-i kirâm, the Tâbi’în and the Salafi sâlihîn ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum ajma’în’ strove very much to perform Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar. They endured much torment and torture for this cause. If it were good in our religion not to interfere with anybody, it would not have been said that it was a symptom of îmân for the heart to refuse a sin. Indeed, it is stated in a hadîth: “Prevent the sinner from sinning with your hand. If you are unable to do so, prevent him through words. If you cannot do so either, dislike it [the sin] through your heart! And this is the lowest grade of îmân.” If it were good not to perform Amr-i ma’rûf, the worshipper who would not do Amr-i ma’rûf to a sinning tribe would not be destroyed together with them. As a matter of fact, it is declared in a hadith: “Allâhu ta’âlâ commanded Hadrat Jabraîl to sink a city into the earth. Jabraîl said, ‘Yâ Rabbî! A born slave of Thine in that city has not disobeyed Thee even for a moment. He has always obeyed and worshipped Thee;’ ‘Sink him, too! His face never changed when he saw sinners’.”
Question: The hundred and eighth âyat of Sûrat-ul-Mâida purports: “O My born slaves who have îmân! Take care of yourselves! If you find the right way, others’ going astray will not harm you.” That is, Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar are not permitted to be done, are they?
Answer: To find the right way mentioned here, it is also necessary to do Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar. In other words, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: “My believing born slaves! If you do what I have commanded and worship and perform Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar, others’ going astray will not harm you.” It is written in books when and why this âyat was revealed, and that many âyats and hadîths about Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar were commanded after it.
Question: It is the Prophets’ way to perform Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i munkar and jihâd against disbelievers. Isn’t it the way of the Awliyâ not to touch consciences, not to interfere with anybody?
Answer: They are fard [commanded] in the Qur’ân and hadîths. The commandments are for everybody. They are not only for some people. Prophets, Awliyâ, savants and the ignorant are equal in carrying out the commandments. Let us repeat that it depends on following the Prophets to be saved from Hell and to attain endless bliss. Whatsoever the Awliyâ obtain in the name of Wilâyat, love, ma’rifat, and qurb-i ilâhî they obtain it as a reward for following the Prophets. What is other than this way is the way of deviation, of the devil. ’Abdullah Ibni Mas’ûd ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’ says: “One day, the Prophet drew a straight line for us and said, ‘This is the right way which makes man attain Allah’s grace.’ Then, drawing some slanting lines like fish-bones on both sides of that line, he said, ‘And these are the ways which the devil makes one deviate into,” Therefore, if a person wants to walk on the right way without adapting himself to the Prophets, certainly he will deviate into slanting ways. If he obtains something, it is istidrâj. That is, it ends in loss and harm. Hadrat ’Ubaydullah-i Ahrâr ‘quddisa sirruh’ said: “If they gave me all the kashfs and hâls that are experienced through the heart, and yet if they did not ornament my heart with the Ahl-i sunnat creed, I would deem myself destroyed, ruined. If they piled up all the disasters and desolations upon me, yet if they honoured my heart with the creed of the Ahl-i sunnat wa-l-jamâ’at, I would never worry.” If the hâls and kashfs that occur to the Awliyâ are consistent with following our Prophet, they make light upon light and the subtle mysteries of the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya begin to show up. All of the Ashâb-i kirâm ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’, the Salaf-i sâlihîn, and the mashâyikh-i mustakîm-ül-ahwâl were in this state. In Tasawwuf, the two paths which are the way of Nubuwwat and the way of Wilâyat are in Haqîqat a single way shown by the Ahkâm-iislâmiyya, for both of them make man attain [perfection] on condition that he will adapt himself to the Prophet. Likewise, the saying that the ways that will guide man to Allah’s grace and ma’rifat are as many as the breaths of creatures is correct, for there is a way that guides every fancy to its origin, and there is a different ’ayn-i thâbita, i.e. a mabda-i ta’ayyun, for each creature. In other words, a different divine Name causes each creature to be created and to stay in existence. To attain through any of these ways depends on observing the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya. He who deviates from the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya will either break down on the way, or will go off the rails. Then, all ways begin with the Ahkâm-iislâmiyya. That is, the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya is like the trunk of a tree. All the Tarîqats, i.e. paths, are like the branches, veins, buds, leaves and flowers of that tree.
[Amr-i ma’rûf can be performed in two ways. One is through speaking, writing and any other means of communication. However, with this method, fitna may occur if one has an insufficient amount of knowledge, or if disrespect is shown to the people being addressed, or to their traditions or laws. The other approach is to be an exemplary person in your behaviour by adopting the superior morality of Islam. In the present time, a similing face, a friendly manner, obeying the laws, paying your taxes and debts, and not despising anyone or violating anyone’s property, rights or chastity is a most efficient and beneficial method of teaching Islam to others. For this reason, it is said that “lisân-ul-hâl antaqu min lisan-il-qâl,” which means the language of the body and behaviour, without making use of words, is superior to languge itself. Therefore, to live in concordance with the superior morality of Islam is the best way of performing Amr-i ma’rûf and Nahy-i-munkar. It is to carry out an important fard; it is to perform an ’ibâdat. Tasawwuf is the way which enables man to develop the ikhlâs needed in worshipping his Creator, and in enhancing the good morals necessary in his dealings with human beings. This way is taught by a Murshid-i kâmil. Every science has its own specialists. Man learns a specific branch of science from its specialist. The specialist of the knowledge of Tasawwuf is the Murshid-i kâmil. Being a specialist in a branch of science will not make a person eligible for being called a Murshid-i-kâmil.]
 Not to know that creatures also exist. To know that only the Creator exists, who is one, and that creatures are His various reflections. Please see the thirty-fifth and the fortieth chapters of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss.
 Please see the third chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss.
 Manifestation, appearance of Allah’s Attributes.
 ‘Kathrat-i-wujûd’ means ‘to know of the existence of creatures as well; to know both the Creator and His creatures.’ The rules that are put forth by recognizing the existence of all beings are called “the rules of Kathrat-i-wujûd (plurality).”
 The person who does ilhâd, which in turn means to misunderstand one or more parts of the Qur’ân al-kerîm and thereby go out of Islam.
 Atheists who pretend to be Muslims.
 Continuous variation of the kashfs and manifestations that come to the heart.
 There is a special adab in doing everything. The adab of doing something means to follow the conditions necessary for doing it in the best manner. Please see the sixth chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss.
 What he said was taken as a document. His words were used as documents.
 Its lexical meaning is ‘closeness to Allah’. In Islam, it is used in the sense ‘to earn the love of Allah, to be loved by Allah.’
 The great men of Tasawwuf whose hâls, kashfs are correct and whose kashfs conform with the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya.
 The information which Allâhu ta’âlâ sent to Prophets through an angel is called the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya. Each Muslim learns the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya from masters. When a Muslim’s heart has been purified from sins, information on the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya comes to
his heart by itself. That Muslim has reached the Haqîqat. To reach the Haqîqat, it is necessary to strive and make progress in the way called Tasawwuf. The spiritual training that is done and the things that are required to enter this way until attaining the Haqîqat are called the Tarîqat (paths, orders of Tasawwuf). A Muslim who has attained the end of one of the paths called Tarîqât is called ‘Walî’, (pl. Awliyâ), and the rank he has reached is termed ‘Wilâyat’.