Doubt and Fear
Question: Is there any difference between having such doubts as, “Do I have îmân now?” or “Will my îmân continue?” and being fearful of dying without îmân at one’s last breath?
Yes, there is a difference. It is not permissible, an act of kufr [disbelief], to have doubts as to whether one has îmân or one’s îmân will be permanent. Mu’mins [Believers] must not be dubious about their îmân, and they must resolve that they will have îmân until they die.
As for their last breath, they must be between hope and fear. It is not a doubt, a sign of îmân, to be fearful of dying without îmân at one’s last breath.
How to protect our îmân (faith)?
Question: Since the most valuable blessing that has been granted is îmân, what should we do to protect it?
You have to comply with the following in order to protect it:
1. You have to believe in the ghayb. If we saw angels, Paradise, and Hell with our eyes, it would not be îmân to say “There are Paradise and Hell” because we would see them with our eyes then. Seeing Paradise and Hell at the time of death, all disbelievers will say, “We believe in them,” but their îmân will not be valid. When Mu’mins are praised in the Qur’ân al-karîm, it is said, “They believe in the ghayb” (Sûrat-ul-Baqara 3).
2. You have to believe that only Allahu ta’âlâ knows the ghayb. Prophets, angels, or genies cannot know the ghayb. However, if Allahu ta’âlâ wills, He lets them know. Therefore, it is not permissible to deny the mu’jizat and karâmat.
3. You have to believe, that is, accept, a harâm as harâm, and a halâl as halâl. A person who calls deliberately a prohibited act permissible or a permissible act prohibited becomes a renegade.
4. You must be very fearful of the wrath of Allahu ta’âlâ and must not feel secure from His torment. It is declared in the Holy Qur’ân that those who are fearful of the chastisement of their Lord are not safe from it. (Sûrat-ul-Ma‘ârij 27-28)
5. Whatever the number of your sins, you must not consider that your abode will certainly be Hell. Allahu ta’âlâ declares in a sacred hadith:
(If My slave commits so many sins as to reach skies, but if he does not despair of My mercy and begs Me for forgiveness, I forgive him.) [Tirmudhî]
A Qur’anic verse says (what means):
(O My slaves who have committed a great many sins! Do not despair of Allah’s Mercy! Allah forgives all sins of His slaves. He is the One with infinite forgiveness and mercy.) [Sûrat-uz-Zumar 53]
6. You must not feel safe from the torment of Allah, but at the same time, you must not despair of His Mercy! A hadîth-i sharîf declares:
(If a Mu’min takes a middle path between khawf [fear] and rajâ’ [hope], Allahu ta’âlâ gives him what he hopes for and makes him secure from from what he fears.) [Tirmudhî]
7. It is the essence of iman to love someone for the sake of Allah (hubb-i fillah) and to dislike someone for the sake of Allah (bughd-i fillah). It is said in a hadîth-i sharîf:
(The basis of îmân is to love Muslims and to have a dislike for the enemies of Allah.) [Imam-i Ahmad]
Allahu ta’âlâ said to Hadrat ‘Îsâ:
(Even if you do acts of worship that equal those done by all creatures on the earth and in heavens, it will be of no value unless you love My friends and unless you feel hostility towards My enemies.) [Kimya-i Sa’âdat]
8. In order for the îmân to be valid and for us to protect it, some of the necessary conditions are as follows:
* Allahu ta’ala is wajib al-wujud (the One whose existence is necessary), real ma’bud (the One worshiped), and the creator of all things.
* It is Allahu ta’ala alone who created whatever is in the world and in the Hereafter without material, time, and similarity, out of nonexistence.
* Tawakkul is fard (obligatory). [Tawakkul means expecting from Allahu ta’ala the effectiveness of the cause (sabab) after working and holding on to the cause.]
* One is not allowed to perform qiyas (analogy) in those matters pertaining to belief that are known indispensably and through ijma’ (consensus). Thus, one who makes a wrong ijtihad or qiyas on such matters becomes a kafir (disbeliever). However, one who performs an incorrect ijtihad in those matters pertaining to belief that have not been conveyed indispensably and through ijma’ will not become a disbeliever, but ahl al-bid’at (exponent of heresy).
[By indispensably, (daruri is the word used in the original text), we mean a tenet of belief or practice which is so obvious that it is believed and practiced commonly by Muslims.]
* Faith (iman) does not increase or decrease. That is, it does not increase or decrease with respect to tenets of belief that must be believed in. However, its brightness and strength increases or decreases with respect to yaqin and confirmation. All Muslims are equal in faith and tawhid, but they differ from one another in their deeds.
* One must take one’s belief from the Islamic religion and believe in the same way as the Messenger of Allah prescribed.
* If a sinner dies a Muslim without repenting of his/her sins, Allahu ta’ala, if He wants, will torment him/her in Hell, or He, if He wants, may forgive him/her and will not inflict any torment on him/her.
* One must have no doubts about a ruling stated in the Qur’an al-karim or in our other Islamic books. For example, one must not have such a doubt, “I am not sure whether it is fard for a woman to cover herself.”
* No matter through which means (halal or haram) one obtains, it is still one’s rizq (sustenance). Everyone eats his or her own rizq. No one can eat the rizq allotted to someone else.
* One who says something which Islam dictates as a sign of disbelief (alfaz-i kufr) becomes a disbeliever even though one does not accept its meaning. [That is, if it is said to make a joke or to make others laugh, it will still result in disbelief. For example, if one says for a joke, “I am a prophet,” one becomes a disbeliever.]
* If a drunk says something that constitutes disbelief, (s)he must not be declared a disbeliever (kafir).
* The universe was created when it was nonexistent. [Philosophers do not accept this fact, and they become disbelievers as they say, “This is the way it has been, and this is the way it goes.”]
* We must not call Ahl al-qibla (a person who performs salat) disbelievers because of his/her sins. [However, if a belief of a person who is Ahl al-qibla goes against a definite evidence whose meaning is very clear, then this belief will be kufr. This one is a disbeliever, even though (s)he offers salat and performs the other acts of worship.]
* Sufism (tasawwuf) should not be denied. (Awarif-ul-ma’arif)
* After prophets, the highest and the best of all human beings is Hadrat Abu Bakr. After him, the highest of all human beings is the other three caliphs in successive order.
* All the Blessed Companions (Sahaba) will go to Paradise. (Surat al-Hadid 10)
* It is stated in the Qur’an al-karim that Allahu ta’ala is pleased with the Sahaba. To speak ill of any of them means disbeliving the Qur’anic verses in question. (Tathir-ul-Janan)
* Good and evil, advantage and harm coming upon human beings are all by Allahu ta’ala’s decree.
* Qadar means Allahu ta’ala’s knowing with His Eternal Knowledge and willing all deeds of human beings and of other creatures that they will do. Qada means the [instance of] creation of anything just compatibly with qadar. Both are termed qada and qadar.
* Allahu ta’ala guides whomever He wills to the right way as a favor to that slave of His. Similarly, He guides whomever He wills to aberration out of His Justice because all deeds of human beings are created by Allahu ta’ala. Yet He has given partial will to human beings and has thus held them responsible for what they have done.
* The time of death (ajal) of a person who has been killed or who has committed suicide is the moment when that person has died. A death does not take place before the appointed time for it comes.
* The Salat al-Janaza for a Muslim who has committed suicide is performed. (Durr-ul-Mukhtar)
* All people will be resurrected after death.
* Questioning, the return of the soul to the body, and torment for disbelievers and sinful Muslims are true and take place in the grave.
* All Muslims will enter Paradise by the grace of Allah because no one can deserve it thanks to his/her deeds.
* On the Day of Resurrection, all people will give accounts of their deeds, and their deeds will be weighed on Mi’zan.
* Prophets, scholars, and pious Muslims will intercede (shafa’ah) for the forgiveness of sinful Muslims. Likewise, the shafa’ah of our Prophet is for those who have committed major sins. People with numberless sins, too, will benefit from the shafa’ah, little or much. All sinners, except those who will become beneficiary of forgiveness and shafa’ah, will be punished for their sins. It is declared in a hadith-i sharif:
(Every prophet has a du’a [supplication] that is fulfilled. I have reserved my du’a to make intercession for my Ummah in the Hereafter.) [Bukhari]
* Beware of denying shafa’ah because it is stated in a hadith-i sharif:
(Whoever does not believe in my shafa’ah will not benefit from it.) (Shir’a)
* Believe in the portents of Doomsday.
It is stated in a hadith-i sharif:
(Doomsday will not take place until these signs appear: the sun will rise in the west; three places will sink into the earth; Isa will descend from the sky; Smoke, Dabbat al-ard, ad-Dajjal, Ya’juj [Gog] and Ma’juj [Magog] will appear; a fire will break out in Aden.) [Muslim]
* It is one of the essentials of the aqeedah of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah to believe that Mahdi will appear.
A hadith-i sharif says:
(Before Doomsday, Allahu ta’ala will create one of my descendants, whose name and father’s name will be the same as those of mine. The earth, which will have been filled with cruelty before him, will be filled with justice during his time.) [Tirmidhi, Ibn ‘Asakir]
[All the abovementioned facts have been quoted from Fiqh al-Akbar, Amali, Riyad-un-Nasihin, Maktubat-i Rabbani, and Faraid-ul-Fawaid.]