Question: What are the fards [compulsory acts] of the ghusl [ritual washing] according to the four madhhabs?
ANSWER
In the Hanafî Madhhab:

1- To wash inside the mouth,
2- To wash inside the nose,
3- To wash every part of the body.
[It is fard to wash inside the navel, the moustache, the eyebrows, and the beard as well as the skin under them, the hair on the head. It is not necessary to wash inside the eyes and closed earring holes.]
In the Mâlikî Madhhab:
1-
Niyyat [intention],
2- To wash every part of the body,
3- Dalk [to rub the washed limbs gently with the palm or with a towel],
4- Muwâlât [quickness, to wash the limbs one right after another],
5- To make khilâl [to comb it with the fingers] of the hair.

In the Shâfi’î Madhhab:
1-
Niyyat,
2- To wash every part of the body.
[In some religios books, it is written that the fards of the ghusl in the Shâfi’î Madhhab, including cleaning the najâsat from the body, are three. Since najâsat will also have been removed when the body is washed, it is not an inconvenience to say that the fards of the ghusl are two.

In the Hanbalî Madhhab:
The fard of the ghusl is one: it is to wash the entire body. This is the rukn of the ghusl. That is, it is the fard inside the ghusl. When beginning to perform ghusl, it is also fard to make niyyat and to say the Basmala. Since inside the mouth and the nose is considered to be an outer part of the body, it is fard to wash them. When these are included, the fards of the ghusl are 5:
1- To make niyyat,
2- To say the Basmala,
3- To wash the entire body,
4- To wash inside the mouth,
5- To wash inside the nose.

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