History Professor Shibli Nu’mânî, Chief of India’s assembly of Nadwat-ul-Ulamâ and the author of the famous book Al-Intiqad, passed away in 1332 . His book, Al-Fârûq, in Urdu, was translated into Persian by Serdâr Esedullah Khân’s mother, who was a sister of Nâdir Shâh, the Emperor of Afghanistan. The translation was printed with Nâdir Shâh’s command in Lahore in 1352 (1933).
It says on its one hundred and eightieth page: “Abû Ubaydat ibn Jarrâh (radiy-Allâhu ‘anh) made his men announce the Caliph Umar’s (radiy-Allâhu ‘anh) commands in every city he conquered. When he conquered Humus city, he said, ‘O Byzantines! With the help of Allâhu ta’âlâ and commanded by our Caliph, Umar (radiy-Allâhu ‘anh), we have conquered this city, too. You are all free in your trade, business, and worship. No one will even touch your property, life, or chastity. Islam’s justice shall be applied to you, and your rights shall be observed the same way. Against attacks coming from without, we shall protect you as we protect Muslims. As we tax Muslims with zakât of animals and ushr in return for this service, so shall we ask you to pay us the jizya once a year. Allâhu ta’âlâ commands us to serve you and to tax you with jizya.’ “The Byzantines of Humus paid their jizyas willingly and gave them to Habîb ibn Muslim, the chief of the Baytulmâl.
When intelligence reported that Heraclius had been recruiting soldiers all over his country and was making preparations to attack from the Antioch front, it was decided that the soldiers in Humus should join the forces at Yarmuq. Abû Ubayda (radiy-Allâhu ‘anh) had his officials announce to the city: ‘O Christians! I promised to serve you, to protect you, in return for which I took the jizya from you. But now, as I have been commanded by the Caliph (radiy-Allâhu ‘anh), I’m leaving here to help my brothers who will perform a holy war against Heraclius. I shall not be able to keep my promise to you. So, come all of you to the Baytulmâl and take your jizyas back! Your names and contributions are recorded in our registry.’ The same was done in most of the Syrian cities.
Seeing this justice, this mercy on the part of Muslims, the Christians were extremely delighted to know that they were freed from the cruelty and torment which the Byzantine emperor had been exercising on them for many years. They shed tears of joy. Most of them became Muslims willingly. Of their own accord, they spied upon the Byzantine armies for the Muslim armies. Thus, Abû Ubayda was daily informed about all the movements of Heraclius’ army. These Byzantine spies played a major role in the great victory of Yarmuq.
The establishment and enlargement of the Islamic states was not accomplished by aggression or by killing. The great and main power that kept up those states and kept them alive was the power of îmân (belief), the power of justice, goodness, honesty, and self-sacrifice which Islam cherishes greatly.”