Attaining happiness in both worlds depends only, and only, upon following Hadrat Muhammad ‘’alaihi’s-salâm’, who is the master of this world and the next. To follow him, it is necessary to have îmân and to learn and to observe the rules of Islam. The symptom of true îmân’s existence in the heart is to bear hostility against disbelievers and to annihilate the things that are peculiar to them and that are the symptoms of disbelief. For, Islam and kufr are opposites, antonyms of each other. Where one of them exists, the other cannot stay and goes away. These two opposite things cannot stay in the same place together. To esteem one of them means to insult, to abhor the other. Allâhu ta’âlâ commands Hadrat Muhammad, His beloved Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, who has the attribute khulk-i azîm and who is very merciful, to perform jihâd, to make war against disbelievers and to treat them severely. This means to say that it is khulk-i azîm to behave severely towards disbelievers. The dignity and honour of Islam is in insulting disbelief and disbelievers. He who glorifies and respects disbelievers insults and dishonors the Muslims. [Declaring in the Qur’ân, in the one hundred and forty-ninth âyat of Sûrat-u Âl-i ’Imrân that those who esteem and follow disbelievers are wrong and will repent, Allâhu ta’âlâ states: “O those who believe my beloved Prophet! If you, believing the words of disbelievers, deviate from the way of my Messenger, and if you, taken in by the lurid and mendacious statements of those who pretend to be Muslims, let your faith and îmân be stolen, you will be at a loss in this world and the next.”]
Allâhu ta’âlâ declares that disbelievers are His and His Prophet’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ enemies. To love the enemies of Allâhu ta’âlâ and to cooperate with them causes one to become hostile against Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophet. A person thinks of himself as a Muslim, expresses the word tawhîd, and says, “I believe,” and performs namâz and every act of worship, but, on the other hand, he cooperates with disbelievers. Yet he does not know that these loathsome actions of his will extirpate his being a Muslim and his îmân.
[Disbelievers are people who dislike the Islamic religion of the Messenger of Allah and who say that it dosen’t correspond with our age, the age and science, and renegades who publicly and basely make fun of Muslims and Islam. Because remaining outside Islam befits their pleasures, lusts and inner secret desires, they call it “retrogression” to be a Muslim. They call disbelief and irreligiousness “modernism, civilization and enlightenment.” Murtadds (renegades) are people who were born from Muslim parents and yet who know nothing of Islam. These people haven’t read or understood any books by any Islamic scholar, dislike Islam and, being seized by the present-day currents, they say that Islam prevents progress, only in order to obtain a favour, some sympathy or something worldly.
Some of them, in order to deceive innocent children, say, “In Islam everything ends in ‘said so’. It is always based upon ‘said so’ by saying, ‘It has been said by so and so.’ It is not based upon a document or a voucher, whereas other branches of knowledge are proved and are based on documents.” These words of theirs manifest how ignorant they are. They have never read an Islamic book at all. Fantasizing in their imaginations something under the name of Islam, they presume that Islam is nothing but these thoughts of theirs. They don’t know that the branches of knowledge and science, proofs and documents, which they consider as different and far away from Islam, are each a section, a branch of Islam. For example, all of the scientific knowledge, the books of physics, chemistry and biology that are taught in high schools today say in their initial pages: “The essence of our lesson is observation, examination and experimentation.” That is, these three things are the basis of scientific knowledge. In fact, all these three are the things which Islam commands. That is, our religion commands us to learn scientific knowledge. In many places of the Qur’ân al-kerîm, we are commanded to see and observe nature, that is, all creatures, living and lifeless beings. One day our Prophet’s As-hâb-i-kirâm ‘’alaihim-ur-ridwân’ asked him, “Some of us who have been to Yemen saw that they budded the date trees in a different way and reaped better dates. Shall we bud our trees in Medina as our fathers had been doing or as we have seen them do in Yemen, thus getting better and more plentiful dates?” Rasûlullah could have answered them, “Wait a bit! When Hadrat Jabrâil (Gabriel) comes, I will ask him and tell you what I learn,” or “I must think for a while; when Allâhu ta’âlâ lets my heart know the truth, I will tell you.” He didn’t. Instead, he said: “Try it! Bud some of the trees with your father’s method, and others with the method you saw being used in Yemen! Then always use the method which gives better dates!” In other words, he commanded us to experiment and to rely on experimentation, which is the basis of science. He could have learned it from the angel or, no doubt, it might have materialized in his blessed heart. But he pointed out that all over the world Muslims who will exist until the end of the world should rely on experimentation and science. The event about budding the date trees is written in Kimyâ-i se’âdet and also in the hundred and eighteenth page of Ma’rifatnâma. Islam emphatically commands every kind of work, working in all the branches of science, on knowledge and morals. It is written in books that all these efforts are fard-i kifâya (a fard which is no longer an obligation for other Muslims when one Muslim does it. That is, when one Muslim does it, the others no longer have to do it). Moreover, if a tool or a means newly discovered by science is not produced in an Islamic country, and if any Muslim suffers harm for his reason, the administrators, the authorities of that country, will be held responsible according to Islam. It was declared in a hadîth: “Teach your sons how to swim and how to shoot arrows! What a beautiful amusement it is for women to spin threads in their homes.” This hadîth commands us to procure every kind of knowledge and weaponry necessary for war, never to remain idle, and to find useful amusements. Today, it is for this reason that it is fard for a Muslim nation to make the latest weaponry and artificial satellites. By doing so, Islam will be known all over the world. Not striving to make them will be a grave sin.
The knowledge which Muslims have to acquire and learn is called “Ulûm-i Islâmiyya” (Islamic knowledge). It is fard to learn some of this knowledge. It is sunnat to learn some other branches of it, and it is mubâh to learn even more of it. Islamic knowledge is mainly divided into two branches. The first one is Ulûm-i naqliyya. This is also called “religious knowledge.” This originates from four sources called “Adilla-i Shar’iyya.” Religious knowledge is also divided into two: the Zâhirî (external) branches of knowledge and the bâtinî (internal) branches of knowledge. The first ones are called the Knowledge of Fiqh or Ahkâm-iislâmiyya; the second ones are called the knowledge of Tasawwuf or Ma’rifat. The Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya is learned through murshids and through the books of Fiqh. Ma’rifat flows from murshids’ hearts into (other Muslims’) hearts.
The second branch of Islamic knowledge is Ulûm-i ’aqliyya (experimental sciences). The branch dealing with living creatures is called Ulûm-i tıbbiyya (science of medicine), and the branch dealing with non-living creatures is called Ulûm-i hikemiyya. The branch dealing with the sky and stars is called Ulûm-i falakiyya. The knowledge dealing with the earth is called Ulûm-i tabî’iyya. The subdivisions of Ulûm-i ’aqliyya are mathematics, logic and experimental knowledge. They are acquired by perceiving through the five senses, by observing through mind, experimentation and calculation. These fields of knowledge help us to understand and better practise religious knowledge. They are necessary for this reason. They change, increase and improve in the course of time. For this reason, it has been said, “Takmîl-i sinâ’ât is fulfilled by talâhuk-ı afkâr,” which means, “improvement in arts, science and technology is realized by adding to one another’s ideas and experiments.”
The knowledge which is acquired through tradition, i.e., religious knowledge, is very exalted. It is beyond and above mind’s grasp, the power of human brains. It can never be changed by any person at any time, and this is the meaning of the statement, “There can be no reform in the religion.” Islam has not prohibited or limited the knowledge which is acquired through mind; yet it has commanded us to learn it together with religious knowledge and to utilize its results compatibly with the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya. It has also commanded us to make it useful for people and not to use it as a medium for cruelty, torture and ruination. Muslims accomplished and used many scientific productions. The compass was invented in 687 [1288 A.D.]. The rifle with a trigger was invented in 1282 [1866 A.D.]. The cannon was invented in 762 and used by Sultan Muhammed, the conqueror. Islam prohibits the teaching and learning of immorality, false history and lies against Islam, which enemies of Islam, enemies of morality, put forward as education and give the name “lessons” or “duties”. Islam wants useful and good things to be learned and abstinence from bad and harmful propaganda.
Islam is a religion which encourages every branch of knowledge, every branch of science and every sort of experimentation. Muslims like science and believe in the experiments of scientists. But, they cannot be deceived by the slanders and lies of false scientists, who pass themselves as scientists.]
Disbelievers destroy and annihilate Muslims when they are able. Or, they mislead Muslims onto a path which they have made up.
As a matter of fact, it is written in the hundred and second page of the minutes of a meeting held by Masons in 1900: “It is not enough to overcome the pious and their temples. Our ultimate purpose is to annihilate religions.”
Publicly and shamelessly they reveal their hostility in their books and speeches. Knowing nothing about knowledge and science, they say childish things. For example, they say: “Ancient people were ignorant; being defenceless and weak against natural forces, they believed in imaginary things. They exposed their inferiority by worshipping and begging things which they themselves had made. However, we are in the atomic age today. Dominating nature, we can do whatever we want. There is nothing other than natural powers. Paradise, Hell, genies, and angels are things fabled by ancient people. Is there anyone who has gone and seen them? Can anyone believe things that are not seen or experienced?” These words of the irreligious show that they know nothing of history either. In the course of history, ignorant people in each century thought of themselves as wise and learned, and the people coming before them as ignorant. Since Hadrat Âdam, they changed and denied the religions revealed in every century by saying that they were the words of ignorant primitive people. Such assertions made by disbelievers are quoted, and answered in many parts of the Qur’ân al-kerîm. For example, Allâhu ta’âlâ says after the thirtieth âyat of Sûrat-ul-mu’minûn: “They didn’t believe Hadrat Nûh (Noah), so We drowned them in water. For the people We created after them, We sent a Prophet from amongst them and said, ‘Worship Allâhu ta’âlâ. There is nobody other than Him to be worshipped. Fear His torment!’ Many of those who didn’t obey, who didn’t believe in the rising after death, and yet whom we had given plenty of worldly blessings, said to others, ‘This Prophet eats and drinks like you. If you believe someone who needs many things like you, you will be deceived and suffer a loss. The Prophet tells you that after dying and after your bones have rotted and turned into dust and soil you will be resurrected and get up from your graves. Is that ever possible? Whatever exists is in this world. Paradise and Hell are all in this world. This is the way it has been and this is the way it goes. There is no rising after death.” In communist countries, in order to demolish the faith and morals of the people, teachers in schools and officers in the army say to the boys, girls and soldiers, “If Allah existed, we would see Him. He would hear us and give us what we want. If you ask me for candy, I will immediately hear you and give you what you want. Ask Him, you see He doesn’t respond. Then, He doesn’t exist. Your parents are ignorant. They are backwards and old-fashioned. They are retrogressive. But, you are open-minded, modern youngsters. Never believe such superstitions! Paradise, Hell, angels and genies are fables.” Through such lies, they try to annihilate youngsters’ îmân, manners and sense of shame, which they acquired in their fathers’ homes. Deceiving these poor children, they sacrifice youngsters for the sake of their base desires, pleasures, and evil earnings. By saying, “Who on earth has seen Paradise and Hell? One simply shouldn’t believe things that are not seen.” They expose the fact that they follow their organs of perception. However, animals too follow their organs of perception. Imâm-i Ghazâlî says: “Human beings follow reason. Human organs of perception are lower than those of animals. Man cannot smell as well as cats or dogs do. Neither can he see in the dark as well as they do. Moreover, how can one rely on one’s eyes in everything while many times wisdom proves the eyes to be wrong? For example, the eyes, seeing the sun through the window, may consider it smaller than the window; but reason says it is larger than the earth.” I wonder if these disbelievers deny reason by saying, “We believe what we see; is it possible that the sun is larger than the earth?” No! Here they also believe reason as Muslims do. It is seen that men differ from animals by conducting worldly affairs not according to their perception, but according to their reason. Instead of saying, “We don’t believe in the things of the next world,” and thus remaining dependent on the organs of perception, why don’t they follow their reason and thus ascend to the degree of being human here, too? Islam declares that human beings will be recreated in the next world and will live eternally, and animals, after having their accounts settled, will be annihilated. By promising human beings an eternal life, it differentiates them from animals. But these disbelievers want to be deprived of eternal life like animals. Today, thousands of medicines, household appliances, industrial and commercial goods, electronic instruments, and weaponry are manufactured in factories. Most of them are manufactured after sophisticated calculations and hundreds of experiments are conducted. Do they say, even about one of them, that it is self-created? On the one hand, they say all those above-mentioned things have been manufactured consciously and willingly by a certain manufacturer; on the other hand, they claim that so many millions of substances and phenomena that are seen on living and lifeless beings, and new and more subtle ones of which are being explored in each century, so that we do not know the structures of most of them yet, are selfcreated. How can this hypocrisy be explained except as extreme obstinacy or explicit stupidity?
A communist teacher in Russia told his students during the lesson, “I can see you. You can see me, too. This means to say that we exist. The mountains over there exist because we can see them, too. Something non-existent cannot be seen. What we cannot see can not be said to exist. My words come from our scientific knowledge. One who is educated and progressive depends on scientific knowledge. Reactionists claim that there is a creator of all the creatures. It is wrong to believe the existence of a creator. It is not compatible with science. It is reactionary to claim the existence of something which cannot be seen.” Asking permission to respond, a Turkoman boy said, “Are you talking with your intellect? Since we cannot see the existence of your intellect, it would be incompatible with science to accept that you have an intellect and that you are talking with it.” The teacher was unable to answer these statements and kicked him out of the class after beating him harshly with a hatred arising from defeat. The boy was never seen again.
Today, there are two kinds of disbelievers in the world. First there are disbelievers with a heavenly book (people of the book). They are Jews and Christians. They believe in Rising and in eternal life after death.
Second, there are disbelievers without a holy book, that is, mushriks who do not believe in one Allah, the Creator of all. Some of these disbelievers, by using State oppression, cruelty and torture, prohibit worshipping, and the teaching of religion. And some of them, through words that provoke feelings of goodness and humanity, cause others to fall into debauchery. They also cause them to be deprived of moral and religious knowledge. Putting forth false stories and mendacious examples, they deceive millions of people. They train them as religiously ignorant people. In other words, on the one hand, they talk about civilization, science and human rights, and, on the other hand, they animalize human beings. This is a policy followed by British spies. (Please see our books entitled Confessions of a British Spy and Documents of the Right Word.)
People of Europe and America have holy books. Copernicus, the founder of modern astronomy, was a priest in Freienburg. Bacon, the great physicist of England, was a priest belonging to the Franciscan Church. The famous French physicist Pascal was a priest and wrote religious books while exploring the laws of physics and geometry. The famous Richelieu, who was France’s greatest prime minister and the one who brought France to the leading position in Europe, was a high ranking clergyman. Also Schiller, the great German doctor and poet, was a priest. Bergson, the French thinker and a world-famous philosopher, in his books defended spirituality against the attacks of materialists. Those who read his books Matière et mémoire, Les deux Sources de la Morale et de la Religion and Essai sur les Données Immédiates de la Conscience will eagerly believe in religion and the next world.
William James, the great American philosopher, founded the sect of pragmatism; and in his book Religious Experiments and others, he praised being a believer. French doctor Pasteur, who had studied on infectious diseases, bacteria and various vaccinations, willed that his funeral be performed with a religious ceremony. Finally, F.D. Roosevelt, an American President, who administered the world in the Second World War, and the British Prime Minister Churchill were Christian believers. Many scientists and politicians, whose names we cannot remember, were all persons who believed in the Creator, the next world, and angels. Who can ever claim that those who disbelieve are wiser than these people? They would have been good Muslims if they had seen and read Islamic books. But reading, even touching, Islamic books was prohibited because it was deemed a grave sin by their priests. Those priests prevented people from attaining happiness both in the world and in the Hereafter. Please see the twenty-sixth chapter, about Social Justice, Socialism, and Capitalism, in the thirty-eighth chapter of the second fascicle of Endless Bliss.
Imâm-i ’Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ said: “Muslims believe in the next world. Disbelievers without a heavenly book deny it. If there weren’t a rising, disbelievers would not gain anything and Muslims would not suffer any harm. But since what disbelievers believe will not happen, they will suffer eternal torment.” Islamic scholars prove their words true and respond to the attacks of disbelievers through reason, knowledge and science. Could Rising be denied if Muslims did not prove their words to be true? Even if being under eternal torment were only a probability, whose wisdom would take the risk of it? Nevertheless, torment in the next world is not only a probability, but an obvious fact. Then, it is unwise not to believe.
On the other hand, some enemies of Islam, seeing that through reason and knowledge they won’t be able to vitiate the sound îmân of the people and that they only display their own disgrace, resort to tricks and lies. They pretend to be Muslims, write false articles that seem to like and praise Islam; but in these articles and statements of theirs, by disputing the essential and basic principles of Islam, they cast a bad light on them as if they were not a part of Islam. They try to alienate and estrange the readers and audience from them. Casting doubts on the times for, amounts of, and kinds of worship, which Allâhu ta’âlâ has dictated, they express a belief that it would be better if worships were done in another way. Knowing nothing of the delicacies, uses and values that are hidden in the inner soul of worships, they consider them as a medium for simple and primitive functions; and they act as if they were trying to correct them. It is a defect in men not to know something; it is all the more funny and pathetic to interfere with something that one doesn’t understand. And the Muslims who obey and believe such ignorant people and suppose them to be wise are even poorer and more stupid. And some of those insidious and ignorant disbelievers say, “Yes, Islam commands developing good habits, being healthy, working hard, and it prohibits evils and matures people. These are necessary for every nation. Yet there are also social rules, the rights of family and community in Islam. These were established in accordance with the circumstances of ancient times. Today, nations have grown larger, circumstances have changed and needs have increased. New rules and laws are necessary to meet today’s technical and social improvements. Rules in the Qur’ân cannot meet these needs.” Such words are the absurd and out-of-place thoughts of the ignorant who do not know of Islamic laws and Islamic knowledge. Islam has declared clearly what justice and cruelty are, what rights and duties people have towards one another, families and neighbors towards one another, people towards the government, and governments towards one another. Islam states what a crime is, and it has put basic rules upon these unchangeable concepts. It has not limited the practising of these unchangeable rules on all events and happenings, but has commanded them to be practised in accordance with common usage. In the book Durar-ul-Hukkâm, a commentary to Majalla, from article 36 onward, it is written: “The rules depending upon a Nass (âyat-i kerîmas or hadîth-i sherîfs with open meanings) or a Dalîl (proof) does not change in the course of time; however, the rules depending upon customs and common usage may change with time. The Hukm-i Kullî (general rule) does not change, but its application to events may change in time. In worship, ‘common usage’ becomes dalîl in order to give clarity and to inform people of a rule which is not declared by a Nass. To classify a custom as ‘common usage’, it must originate from the time of the Sahâba-i kirâm, and it must be known that it has been used by the Mujtahîds and that it has continued to be used. In the rules of mu’âmalât (transactions), customs prevailing in a region which don’t contradict a Nass also become dalîl. These can be understood by scholars of Fiqh. Allâhu ta’âlâ has established the Islamic religion in such a manner that it addresses every new development and invention in every country. Showing toleration and latitude not only in social life, but also in worships, the Islamic religion has given men freedom and the right of ijtihâd when they confront with different conditions and necessities. During the times of Hadrat ’Umar, the Umayyads and such a big empire as the Ottoman Empire, large communities of various peoples, living over continents, were administered with these divine rules. Muslims’ accomplishments and glories have been famous throughout history. And in the future, every nation, big or small, will attain comfort, peace and happiness in proportion to the extent to which it obeys and practises these unchangeable divine rules. Nations and societies which deviate from the social and economic rules declared by Islam will not escape hardships, suffering and trouble. It is written in history that this has been so with nations in the past, and so will it certainly be in the future. History is repetitive.
Muslims should attach great importance to national unity and solidarity; they should be extremely active materially and morally in making their country stronger; they should learn the teachings of the Islamic religion very well; they should abstain from harâms; and they should pay their debts to Allâhu ta’âlâ and His born slaves. They should be embellished with the beautiful morals of Islam and should not cause harm to anybody. They should not be a means of agitation or anarchy, and they should pay their taxes. Our religion, Islam, wants us to behave in that manner. The first obligation of a Muslim is to avoid being guilty judicially and sinning, by not following the devil or one’s nafs, and by not believing bad, insidious, disobedient and rebellious people. Allâhu ta’âlâ imposed three obligations on His human beings. The first one is a personal obligation. Every Muslim must be well trained, healthy, well mannered, and good tempered. He must perform his ’ibâdats and learn knowledge, high-morality, and he must work for halâl sustenance. The second obligation is to be fulfilled within the family. One must observe the rights of one’s parents, children, and siblings. The third obligation concerns those which must be performed within the context of the society. These are the obligations relating to a Muslim’s neighbours, teachers, family, the people he employs, the government, the state, and people belonging to different religions and nationalities. It is a must to help everyone, not to insult or hurt anyone, to be helpful towards everybody, not to revolt against the state, the government, the laws, to observe everybody’s rights, and to pay taxes in time. Allâhu ta’âlâ does not command us to interfere with governmental and state affairs. Allâhu ta’âlâ commands us to help the government and to avoid provocation.]
Then, Muslims should feel hayâ (bashful) towards Allâhu ta’âlâ. Hayâ is from îmân. The bashfulness peculiar to a Muslim is indispensably necessary. It is a must to abhor disbelievers and disbelief and everything outside of Islam and to believe that they are wrong, no matter what theory or ideology they are. Allâhu ta’âlâ has commanded us to take jizya from disbelievers; that is, they must pay taxes. The purpose of this is to humble them. This type of insulting is so effective that they cannot wear valuable suits, nor can they adorn themselves out of the fear of having to pay more jizya. They lead a despicable and miserable life. The purpose of jizya is to abhor and disgrace disbelievers. The jizya shows the glory and honor of Islam. If a dhimmî converts to Islam, he will no longer have to pay jizya. The symptom of îmân’s existence in a heart is its disliking disbelievers. [Disliking is done by the heart. We should live in harmony with disbelievers or any others; we should not cause harm to anybody.]
[Temporary co-operation with disbelievers can be formed only politically and when necessity requires it. Yet this shouldn’t go as far as to be integrated with them, and it should end when the necessity is over.
Question: “We should not distrust or have a bad opinion of anybody; we should not look at his words and actions exposing his disbelief, but those indicating his îmân. Îmân exists in the heart. Allah knows if there is îmân in a heart. No one else knows it. He who says ‘disbeliever’ about a person with îmân in his heart becomes a disbeliever himself. We should regard everybody as a Muslim and love anybody who does not openly speak ill of Islam,” is said. Is this point of view correct?
Answer: It is wrong to say we shouldn’t distrust anybody. Its correct form is “We shouldn’t distrust a Muslim.” In other words, when a person who says that he is a Muslim and does not express a word or does not do an action rendering him a disbeliever, says or does something which may mean belief as well as disbelief, we should understand it as belief, and we should not say that he has gone out of Islam. But when a person strives to demolish Islam and to make youngsters disbelievers, or if he says “good” about one of the harâms, tries to make it popular so that everybody will commit it, or if he says that one of Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments is retrogressive and harmful, he is called a disbeliever. Even if he says that he is a Muslim, performs namâz (ritual prayer) and goes on a hajj (pilgrimage), he is still called a zindiq. It would be stupidity to regard such hypocritical people, who deceive Muslims, as Muslims.]
Allâhu ta’âlâ in the twenty-eighth âyat of Sûrat-ut-Tawba of the Qur’ân al-kerîm says, “Najas and rîjs,” i.e., “foul,” about disbelievers. Then, disbelief should be foul and base in the eyes of Muslims. Allâhu ta’âlâ declares in the fourteenth âyat of Sûrat-ur Ra’d and in the fiftieth âyat of Sûrat-ul Mu’min: “The prayers of these enemies are without a result. There is no likelihood that they will be accepted.”
Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophet are pleased with Muslims. There cannot be a greater blessing than attaining Allah’s grace and love.
As îmân and kufr are polar opposites, so are this world and the next. This world and the next world cannot stay together. In order to earn the next world it is necessary to abandon this world, i.e., the harâms. Abandoning this world can be done in two ways. Firstly, it is to abandon the mubâhs, i.e., many of the activities that are not sins, together with all the things that are harâm, and to use as many of the mubâhs as is only necessary to live. [In other words, it is to abandon the habits of being lazy or idle and/or diving into pleasures, dissipations and amusements of the world. Instead, we must spend our time worshipping, while making and using the most advanced forms of technology that are necessary for the protection and comfort of Muslims. And we must work so that non-Muslims may come to reason. Working for these purposes must be our hobby in this world. All the Ashâb of our Prophet and many of our superiors worked in this way. It is very meritorious and very useful to abandon the world in this manner. We say once again that the purpose of this path is to sacrifice all comforts and pleasures in order to do the things which the Islamic religion commands.]
Secondly, it is to abstain from the things that are harâm and doubtful in this world without abandoning the mubâhs. Even this kind of abandoning the world is of value in light of the present world’s condition.
Then, it is positively necessary for each Muslim to abstain from the things which the Islamic religion prohibits.
[He who slights the fact that these are harâm, that is, he who does not think it is necessary to abstain from them, or who does not pay attention to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s prohibitions and instead likes them and says ‘How nice,’ becomes a disbeliever. They will remain in Hell eternally. People who admit and respect the prohibitions of Allâhu ta’âlâ and yet who are overcome and deceived by their nafs and commit them but later come to their senses and repent, do not become disbelievers; they do not lose their îmân. Such people are called Âsî (disobedient) or Fâsiq (sinful). Though perhaps they will go to Hell and will be punished because of their sins, they will not stay in Hell eternally; they will get out and enter Paradise.] There are many things which Allâhu ta’âlâ has made mubâh, which He has permitted. The flavour in these mubâhs is more than that in the harâms. Allâhu ta’âlâ likes those who use the mubâhs. He dislikes those who use the harâms. Does a wise and reasonable person spurn the love of his owner and creator for only a temporary pleasure? Besides, the number of things that are harâm is very small. The flavours in the harâms exist in the mubâhs, too. [Dunyâ (world) is the feminine form of adnâ, i.e., ism-i tafdîl (adjective in the superlative degree). Its masdar (infinitive) is either dunuwwun or danâatun. When it is derived from the former, it means ‘the nearest’. The word dunyâ in the âyat, ‘We have adorned the lowest (nearest to the earth) heaven with stars giving lights like lamps’ is so. It has been used with the second meaning in some places. For instance, it bears the second meaning in the hadîth, “Things that are danî, base, are mal’ûn.” That is, the world is mal’ûn. Despicable things are the nahy-i iqtizâ-i and nahy-i gayri- iqtizâi of Allâhu ta’âlâ, that is, they are harâm and makrûh. Property was not spoken ill of because property is a blessing in the view of Allâhu ta’âlâ. The evidence for our position is the property of Hadrat Ibrahîm Khalîl-ur-Rahmân ‘’alaihi-s-salâm’, who is the second most valuable creation of all creatures and humanity. His livestock included half a million heads of cattle that filled plains and valleys.]
 An extremely valuable book of Islamic jurisprudence written by Ahmad Jawdat (Cevdet) Pâsha ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, (1238 [1823 A.D.], Lowicz – 1312 , Istanbul. Its commentary entitled Durar-ul-Hukkâm, by Alî Haydar Begh, (d. 1355 [1937 A.D.],) also is very valuable.
 Please see the first chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for terms such as ‘dhimmî’, ‘harbî’, ‘zakât’, ‘jizya’, and the like.