TODAY’S COPIES of THE TORAH and THE BIBLE

Today’s world contains three major religions holding a belief in the existence of Allâhu ta’âlâ: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The international statistics obtained in 1979 indicated nine hundred million (900,000,000) Christians, six hundred million (600,000,000) Muslims, and fifteen million (15,000,000) Jews living on the earth. The remaining population [more than two billion], consisted of Buddhists, Hindus, Brahmins and the like, whose religious credos do not recognize the concept of Allah, idolators, fire-worshippers, people worshipping the sun and atheists. According to some recent American publications, the Muslim population was nine hundred, not six hundred, million.

In fact, according to a statistical study published in 1980 by CESI [Centro Editoriale Studi Islamici], in Rome, there were 865.3 million Muslims on the earth, 592.3 million in Asia, 245.5 million in Africa, 21 million in Europe, 6 million in America and Canada, and 0.5 million in Australia. According to a book entitled Islam and published in English in 1984 by the Islamic center called ‘The Muslim Educational Trust’, there are one billion and fifty-seven million (1,057,000,000) Muslims living on the earth today.

The book also gives the numbers of Muslims living in the forty-six different Muslim countries as well as those in the other countries of the world. The statistics show that these numbers are on the increase. The number of countries with more than fifty per cent Muslim population is fifty-seven as of today. It is a deplorable fact that today, when we are in the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are still people worshipping idols. On the other hand, some of the votaries of the three major religions professing belief in the existence of Allâhu ta’âlâ have lost their belief entirely. For there are no longer any true murshîds (guides) to lead them. It is impossible for those ignorant men of religion who lack the necessary religious and scientific knowledge to imbue love for Islam into a young generation who are educated with scientific teachings. Leading them to salvation requires openminded guides equipped with a powerful religious background reinforced with most up-to-date scientific knowledge.

Our aim in this chapter is to launch an objective quest for the true religion of Allah, to carry on a scientific research to determine which one of the two great holy books, i.e. the Torah and the Bible versus the Qur’ân al-kerîm, is the true Book of Allah, and to show the right way to those who falter in this respect.

We would like to assure our readers that these studies have been carried on in quite an impartial way. The two major religious books we have examined are the Holy Bible, which comprises what exists in the name of the Torah and today’s Gospels, and the Qur’ân al-kerîm. The Torah, which was merged with the Holy Bible under the name the Old Testament, has been considered within the Bible in the course of these studies. In other words, the book we have examined is the Holy Bible = Evangelium, which today’s Christendom holds as the real Injîl.

The Holy Bible is not only one book. First of all, it contains the Old Testament. Its second part, the New Testament, consists of the Gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the Acts of the Apostles written by Luke, the Epistles written by Paul, (James, Peter, and John, and Revalation). The Old Testament consists of three sections. The first section, which is considered to be the Torah revealed to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, covers five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The second section is called Nebiim, or Prophets, and is composed of two divisions, i.e. former Prophets, and latter Prophets. Their names are Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The third section, Ketûbîm, or books, writings, consists of Psalms, which are attributed to Dâwûd (David) ‘alaihis-salâm’, Proverbs of Solomon, The Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, Esther, Job, Jeremiah, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1 Chronicles, and 2 Chronicles.

Who hold the tenets written in all these books? Fanatical Jews and Christians, who are always controversial with each other although they believe in the same Holy Book. They claim that the statements in these books are the Word of Allah. However, an attentive examination of these books will bring one to the inescapable conclusion that the statements in them originate from the following three sources:

1) Some of them may be the Word of Allah. For in these passages Allâhu ta’âlâ Himself addresses humanity. For instance:

“I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put My words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.” (Deut: 18-18)

“I, even I, am the LORD; and beside Me there is no saviour.” (Is: 43-11)

“Look unto Me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else.” (Is: 45-22)

We presume that these passages were taken from the heavenly books revealed to those Prophets sent to the Israelites. As due attention will show, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares in these passages that He is ONE, (which means that other gods, such as the Son and the Holy Ghost, are out of the question), that He sent the Prophets, and that THERE IS NO GOD, except Him. Now let us take a look at the second possible source of the Holy Bible:

2) The statements in this second source may have been made by Prophets. For instance:

“And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, E’li, E’li la’ma sa-bach’tha-ni? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Matt: 27-46)

“And Jesus answered him, The first of all commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:” (Mark: 12-29) [Please pay attention to this point: There is still no reference to the son or the Holy Ghost.]

“And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one, that is, God.” (Mark: 10-18)

These statements, alleged to have been made by Îsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ (Jesus), may belong to Prophets. This comes to mean that the Words of Allâhu ta’âlâ and Prophets’ ‘alaihim-us-salawât-uwa-t-taslîmât’ statements have been merged with one another in the Holy Bible. In contrast, Muslims have separated the Words of Allâhu ta’âlâ from the statements made by the Prophet and compiled Prophets’ ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ utterances under the appelation Hadîth-i-sherîf in separate literature. Now let us come to the third group of statements in the Holy Bible:

3) Some of the statements in this group were made by the Apostles of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and tell about the events in which that great Prophet was involved, some of them were made by some people, some of them are narrations conveyed by some historians, and others are events with unknown narrators. Let us give an example: “And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find anything thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet.” (Mark: 11-13)

In this verse, a person conveys an incident in which someone else is involved. The person who conveys the incident is not known. Yet it is hinted that the person who goes near the fig tree is Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. However, Mark, who wrote these lines, had never seen Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. Another oddity here is that in the following verse, i.e. the fourteenth verse, Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ invokes a malediction on the fig tree so that it will never yield any fruit. It is an inconceivable paradox. It is beyond a fig tree to give fruit prematurely. It would have been contrary to reason, to knowledge, to science and to the religious canon for a Prophet to accurse a fig tree, which is only a helpless creature of Allâhu ta’âlâ, because it would not give fruit prematurely.

In most parts of the existing copies of the Holy Bible, there are quite a number of statements without a certain identity on the part of the person who made them, but with all the necessary material suggestive of the fact that they are man-made. It is therefore impossible to accept them as the Word of Allah.

Now, let us put our hand on our heart and ponder: can a book containing partly Words of Allah, partly a prophet’s utterances, and mostly narratives conveyed by various people be accepted as the ‘Word of Allah’? In fact, the sundry errors in their parts which we have classified as man-made, the differring accounts given about the same events, the incongruity of the scores and numbers given, –which will be dealt with later in the text and the mistakes will be pointed out–, add corroborative evidence to the plain fact that today’s copies of the Torah and the Bible are human fabrications.

Muslims’ Holy Book, the Qur’ân al-kerîm, declares, as is purported in the eighty-second âyat-i-kerîma of the Nisâ Sûra, “Will they still not think that the Qur’ân al-kerîm is the Word of Allah and meditate over its meaning? [The Qur’ân al-kerîm is the Word of Allah.] Were it not the case, it would definitely contain inconsistencies.” How true it is! The inconsistencies in the Holy Bible indicate that it is a human utterance. Furthermore, as we shall enlarge on later, the copies of the Torah and the Bible have been examined, corrected, altered, amended and, in short, changed from one shape into another by various councils and synods. Can the Word of Allah be corrected? Since the Qur’ân alkerîm was revealed up to our time, not a single letter in it has been changed. As we shall see in the division allotted to the Qur’ân al-kerîm, no effort has been spared to accomplish this end. That the Qur’ân al-kerîm has not been changed until now is a fact which the most bigoted Christian clergymen acknowledge, though with fierce jealousy. The Word of Allah will be so! It will never change. Let us see what Christian theologians and scientists say on whether today’s Gospels are the Word of Allah or manmade:

Dr. Graham SCROGGIE, a member of the Moody Bible Institute, makes the following observation on the seventeenth page of his book ‘Is the Bible the Word of God?’:

“Yes, the Holy Bible is man-made. Some people deny this for reasons I do not know. The Holy Bible is a book that was formed in the human brain, which was written by the human hand in the human language, and which bear entirely human characteristics.”

Kenneth Cragg, a Christian theologian as he is, states as follows:

“The New Testament part of the Holy Bible is not the Word of Allah. It contains stories told directly by people and events narrated by eye-witnesses. These parts, which are sheer human language, are being imposed on people in the name of the Word of Allâhu ta’âlâ by the church.”

Theology Prof. Geiser says, “The Holy Bible is not the Word of God. Yet it is still a holy book.”

There were even popes among the people who were opposed to some Biblical tenets, i.e. Trinity. One of them, Pope Honorius, rejected the tripartite deity, which caused him to be anathematized forty-eight years after his death, by the council that convened in Istanbul in 680.

On the other hand, the Gospel written by Barnabas, who was one of the Apostles of Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salâm’ and who had accompanied Paul in his journeys intended to promulgate the Christian religion, was immediately made away with, and the fact that was written in it, “Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salâm’ said, Another Prophet, whose name is Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, will come after me, and he will teach you many facts,” was hidden by the bigoted Christians.

This means to say that the decision that we and the Western men of knowledge reach about the Holy Bible is this: The Holy Bible is not the Word of Allah. The real Torah and the real Bible, which were the Word of Allah, have been turned into an altogether different book each. In today’s Bible, alongside the statements that can be considered to be the Word of Allah, there are many statements, reasonings, superstitions and tales that were added by other people. Especially those passages referring to tripartite godhead are fallacies that run quite counter to the essential belief in the Unity of Allah and to people’s common sense.

As the Torah and the Bible were being translated into Greek and Latin, the Roman and Greek idolators, who had been accustomed to worshipping many gods until that time, would not be contented with one god and missed for their polytheistic practices. According to some scholars, the reason why the original Biblical credo ‘Unity of Allah’ was bred into ‘Trinity’ during the process of its translation into Greek was that the Greek people were adherent to Plato’s philosophy. The Platonic philosophy would divide everything into three. For instance, good manners were based on three sensory forces: Morals, reason, and nature.

And nature, in its turn, was divided into three: plants, animals, and humans. Essentially, Plato thought that there was one creator of the world, yet he ascribed two possible assistants to the creator.

This gave birth to the dogma of ‘Trinity’, which is acknowledged by a number of historians. However, as you will see further ahead, many verses of the Torah and the Bible confirm the fact that is stated, for instance, in the twenty-second verse of the forty-fifth chapter of Isaiah, “… for I am God, and there is none else.”

Even today’s copies of the Holy Bible reject the dogma of ‘three gods’ that was forced into them. It is argued also that ‘Trinity’ was an error of translation. Upon seeing that the dogma of ‘Trinity’ is gradually losing its credibility especially in the minds of younger generations, the Christian church is fumbling for other connotations for the words ‘Father’ and ‘Son’, and thus trying to make a soft landing on the belief in ‘One Allah’. Later on we shall dwell on this matter of translation.

Despite the established fact admitted by many Christians that today’s copies of the Torah and the Bible are not the Word of Allah, some bigoted Christians still insist that “Every word in the Bible is the Word of Allah.” Our response to this bigotry would be to quote the eighteenth âyat-i-kerîma of Baqara Sûra, which purports, “[They are] deaf, [so that they will not hear or accept the truth], dumb, [so that they will not tell the truth], and blind, [so that they will not see the right way]. They will not return to the right path.” The thirteenth verse of the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew reads as follows: “Therefore speak I unto them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.”

Now let us come back to our examination of the Bible: First of all, let us say that today’s Christians do not all posses the same version of the Bible. If you tell a Catholic that you would like to talk with him on the Bible, he will ask you, “Which version of the Bible?” For various Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox Christians read varying versions of the Bible. When you ask them, “How can there be various versions of the Bible which is the Word of Allah,” they will fumble for an answer and then prevaricate, “In actual fact, there is only one Bible. They may have varying interpetations, though.” A retrospection into history will show that the first Roman Catholic Text of the Bible, the Latin version of the Bible translated by Jerome and called Vulgate, appeared in Reims in 990 [1582 C.E.],[1] [1] According to some encyclopedic dictionaries in English, the Latin translation was completed in 383 C.E. and was reprinted in Douay in 1609. It exists today under the name Roman Catholic Version (RCV). Yet the Bible possessed by the British today is very much different from that former version. For the Bible was subjected to numerous alterations since 1600 up to our day and some parts, which are termed ‘apocrypha’[2] = (writings or statements of doubtful authorship or authenticity) [2] The ori gi nal me aning of Apocryp ha, which in Gre ek me ans ‘secret, hidden’, is ‘Fourteen books included in Vulgate, and the Septuagint, which is the Gre ek trans la ti on of the Old Tes tament com piled before Christianity., were excised from the Bible, while some other parts, e.g. Judith, Tobias, (or Tobit), Baruch, and Esther, were abrogated irrevocably. Finally, it was published as the most recent and truest Bible under the label Authorized Version. However, because its language was found extremely coarse by a number of people who had a say in the various branches of knowledge, including renowned prime minister Churchill,[1] [1] Sir Winston L.S. Churc hill (1874-1965), Bri tish sta tes man and wri ter, prime minister of England, from 1940 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955. the former Bible, i.e. the Authorized King James Version (KJV), which had been published in 1611, was resumed. In 1952 the Bible was revised once again and a version was prepared under the label Revised Standard Version (RSV), which also was rejected soon because it was found ‘inadequately revised’. A short time later, in 1391 [1971], the ‘Double-revised Bible’ was published.

The Catholic Bible as well underwent many changes. In fact, the Bible was translated from Hebrew into Greek and from Greek into Latin, was re-examined by various councils, e.g. by the Nicene Council that was held with the command of Constantine the Great in 325, by the Council of Ludicia in 364, by the Council of Istanbul in 381, by the Carthaginian Council in 397, by the Ephesus Council in 431, by the Council of Kadiköy, and by many other councils, was re-arranged at each council, some parts were changed at each time, some books were excised from the Old Testament, while some books that had been rejected by the previous councils were re-admitted. When the Protestant sect appeared in 930 [1524 C.E.], these books were examined again and new changes were made.

During this long period many Christian theologians raised objections to these translations and changes and argued that some parts of the Holy Bible were additions.

As we have stated earlier, those who argue that the Hebrew original of the Bible was mistranslated are quite right. For in Hebrew the word ‘father’ is used not only in the genealogical sense, but also in the social sense, i.e. it means ‘an exalted, respectable person’. It is for this reason that the Qur’ân al-kerîm refers to Âzer, the uncle of Ibrâhîm (Abraham) ‘alaihis-salâm’, as “His father, who was called Âzer.” His own father Târuh (Te’rah) was dead. He had been raised by his uncle, Âzer, and therefore called him ‘father’, as it was customary in his time. The conversations written in the book Reshehât show that in Turkistan respectable and merciful people are called ‘father’. In Turkish, the remark, “What a fatherly man!” is an expression of admiration.

On the other hand, the word ‘son’, in Hebrew, is frequently used to describe a person who is your junior, in rank or age, and who is attached to you with deep affection. The ninth verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew reads as follows:

“Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.”

The word ‘children’ used in this text means ‘the beloved born slaves of Allâhu ta’âlâ’. Accordingly, the words ‘Father’ and ‘son’ in the original Injîl (Bible) were used to mean ‘A Blessed Existence’ and ‘the beloved born slave’, respectively. In other words, the intention in using these terms has no proximity to a tripartite godhead. The final conclusion to be drawn from the various contexts wherein the words ‘Father’ and ‘Son’ are used is that Allâhu ta’âlâ, who is the Ruler and the Owner of all, sent His beloved born slave Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ as His Messenger to humanity. Most Christians must have come to their senses in the long last, for they say, “We are all born slaves, children of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Allâhu ta’âlâ is the Lord, the Father of us all. The Biblical words ‘Father’ and ‘Son’ must be construed as such.”

Many words were mistranslated from the Hebrew original of the Bible. This fact can be exemplified as follows:

1) One of the ‘L’s of the word ALLAH, the name of Jenâb-i- Haqq, is missing in the Hebrew original of Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament. As a result of the recurring changes that the Bible was subjected to, the word ‘ALLAH’ was excised. Christians must have been afraid of being close to Muslims’ Allah.

2) The Hebrew original of the Old Testament does not contain the word ‘virgin’. Concerning the birth of Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salâm’, it is stated as follows in the fourteenth âyat of the seventh chapter of Isaiah of the Hebrew original: “Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a girl shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Im-man’u-el.”

In that text the word ‘ALMAH’, which means ‘girl’ in Hebrew, is used. The Hebrew equivalent of the word ‘virgin’ is ‘BETHULAH’. The word ‘virgin’ should have sounded better to Christians, so that the Christendom was imbued with the idea of ‘Blessed Virgin’.

The bigoted British priests went even further in this respect and committed the miserable guilt of defiling the Biblical verses.

An example is the sixteenth verse of the third chapter of John, which was changed from, “For God so loved the world, that he gave [sent there] his only son, [that is, the person he loved very much,] that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting [endless] life,” to “For God so loveth the world, that he gave his only (begotten) Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” Here, they used the English word ‘begotten’, which literally means ‘born’. On the other hand, the fact that Allâhu ta’âlâ is ONE and that Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salâm’ was sent as a Prophet is stressed at many places of the Bible. Here are a few examples:

“… Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:” (Mark: 12- 29)
“Know therefore this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the LORD he is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath: there is none else.” (Deut: 4-39)

“Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:”

“And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” (Deut: 6-4,5)

“See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no God with me: …” (Deut: 32-39)

“To whom then will ye liken me, or shall I be equal? Saith the Holy One.” “Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, …” (Is: 40-25, 26)

“Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen; that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.” “I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour.” “… saith the LORD, that I am God.” (Is: 43-10, 11, 12)

“Thus saith the LORD…; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.” (Is: 44-6)

“I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: …” (Is: 45-5)

“For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God Himself that formed the earth and made it; He hath established it, He created it not in vain, He formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.” (Is: 45-18)
“… have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me.” “Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else.” (ibid: 21, 22)
“… for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,” (Is: 46-9)
On the other hand, the Biblical passages stating that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ is a prophet can be exemplified as follows:
“And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?” “And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.” (Matt: 21-10, 11)

“I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.” (John: 5-30)
“… A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.” (Matt: 13-57)
“… but He that sent me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of Him.” (John: 8-26)
“… and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s[1] [1] The word ‘Fat her’ me ans ‘Al lah the gre atest.’ which sent me.” (John: 14-24)

“And this is life eternal, that they might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent.” (John: 17-3)

“Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know:” (Acts: 2-22)

“Unto you first God, having raised up His Son Jesus,[2] [2] It go es wit ho ut sa ying that the word ‘Son’ he re me ans ‘Bles sed Born Slave’. sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.” (ibid: 3-26) “… and that signs and wonders may be done by the name of Thy holy child [born slave] Jesus.” (ibid: 4-29] These verses clarify the fact that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was a prophet who conveyed the revelation of Allâhu ta’âlâ. All these verses are quoted from the Holy Bible owned by today’s Christians, and they show that despite all the interpolations today’s books of the Torah and the Bible still do contain passages surviving from the real Bible. The degree of wrath which some wretched people bring down from Allâhu ta’âlâ by trying to represent Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salâm’ as the son of Allah, and by insolently changing the verses in the Torah and the Bible to achieve this end, becomes manifest in the eighty-eighth through ninety-third âyats of Maryam Sûra of the Qur’ân al-kerîm, which purport:

“They [Jews and Christians] say: “(Allah who is) Rahmân (Gracious) has begotten a son!” “Indeed ye have put forth a thing (a lie) most monstrous!” “At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin,” “That they should invoke a son for (Allâhu ta’âlâ) the Most Gracious.” “For it is not consonant with the majesty of (Allâhu ta’âlâ) the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.”

“Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to (Allâhu ta’âlâ) the Most Gracious as a slave.” (19-88 to 93) Allâhu ta’âlâ declares as follows in the third âyat of the Ikhlâs Sûra of the Qur’ân al-kerîm: “… He (Allah) begetteth not, nor is He begotten. …” (112-3) The hundred and seventy-first âyat of the Nisâ Sûra purports, “O People of the Book [Jews and Christians]! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allâhu ta’âlâ aught but the truth. [Do not slander Him by saying that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the son of Allah.] Îsâ (Jesus) the son of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of Allâhu ta’âlâ, and His Word (Creation), which He bestowed on Mary, and a Spirit proceeding from Him: [O Christians.] so believe in Allâhu ta’âlâ and apostles. Say not ‘Trinity’, nor say that Allâhu ta’âlâ is the third god in the trinity: desist; it will be better for you; Allâhu ta’âlâ is ONE Ma’bûd (One Being who is worthy of being worshipped): Glory be to Him: (Far exalted is He) above having a son.”  4-171)

In the tenth âyat of Baqara Sûra, Allâhu ta’âlâ describes those people who interpolated the Bible as follows: “In their hearts is a disease; and Allâhu ta’âlâ has increased their disease: and grievous is the penalty they (incur), because they are false (to themselves).” (2-10) The seventy-ninth âyat of Baqara Sûra purports, “Woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say: ‘This is from God.’ To traffic with it for a miserable price! – Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby.” (2-79)

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