VIRTUES of MUHAMMAD ‘alaihis-salâm’

There are hundreds of books telling about the virtues of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. Virtue means superior quality.

The following are eighty-six of his superior qualities.

1– Of all the creatures, Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ soul was the first to be created.

2– Allâhu ta’âlâ wrote his name on the ’Arsh, on the Gardens of Paradise, and on the seven skies.

3– The expression, “Lâ ilâha il-l-Allah Muhammadun Rasûlullah (There is no god but Allahu ta’âlâ, and Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ is His Messenger),” is written on the leaves of a rose growing in India.

4– A fish that had been caught in a river in the vicinity of Basra had the name of Allah on its right flank and the name Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ on the left. There are many other similar events. The hundredth page of A History of Fish, which was printed in London in 1975, contains the picture of a fish with the writing that says, “Shânullah”, on its tail. It is stated there also that the phrase ‘Lâ ilâha il-l-Allah’ is written on the other side of the tail. There are many other examples to this effect.

5– There are angels whose sole duty is to say the name of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’.

6– The reason why angels were commanded to prostrate themselves before Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ was that he had the nûr (light, halo) of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ on his forehead.

7– The azân (or adhân)[1] that was called in the time of Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ contained the name of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, too.

[1] The prescribed call to prayer.

8– Allâhu ta’âlâ commanded each and every one of His Prophets: “If Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ should be the Prophet in your time tell your people to believe in him.”

9– The Torah, the Injîl (Bible) and the Zebûr contained passages eulogizing and praising Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, his four Khalîfas, (i.e. Abû Bakr, ’Umar, ’Uthmân, and ’Alî ‘radiy- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’), his Sahâba, and some of his Ummat (Muslims). Allâhu ta’âlâ derived the word ‘Muhammad’ from His own Name ‘Mahmûd’ and gave it as a name to His Habîb (Darling, Beloved one, Most Beloved). Allâhu ta’âlâ blessed His Habîb with His Names ‘Raûf’ and ‘Rahîm’.

10– When he came to the world he was circumcised by angels.

11– When he was about to come to the world, many omens were seen that betokened his advent. They are written in history books as well as in books of mawlid, (i.e. books expatiating on the birth of the Best of Mankind and on the events that took place before the birth, during it, and afterwards.)

12– After he came to the world, devils could no longer ascend to heaven or steal information from angels.

13– When he came to the world, all the idols on the earth and the statues that had been being worshipped fell flat on their faces.

14– Angels would rock his cradle.

15– As he was in his cradle he would talk with the moon, which would move with the movement of his finger.

16– He began to talk in cradle.

17– As a child, wherever he went, a cloud above his blessed head moved with him, continuously protecting him in its shade. This miracle continued until the beginning of his prophethood.

18– Once, when he was three years old, once again, when his prophethood was notified to him when he was forty years old, and once again, when he was fifty-two years old and was being raised to heaven on the night of Mi’râj, angels cleaved his chest, took out his heart, and washed it in a basin that they had brought from Paradise.

19– Each Prophet had his prophetic seal on his right hand. Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ had it on the skin of his shoulderblade, on line with his heart. When Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ washed his heart and closed his chest, he put the seal that he had brought from Paradise on his back.

20– He saw what was behind him as well as things before him.

21– He saw in the dark as well as in the light.

22– He saw the seven stars in the cluster called Pleiades in constellation Taurus [bull], and said their number. This cluster of stars is also called Seven Sisters.

23– His spittle sweetened bitter water, cured diseased people, and fed babies like milk.

24– As his blessed eyes slept, his blessed heart stayed awake. This was the common quality of all Prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’.

25– Throughout his lifetime he never yawned. Nor had any other Prophet ‘alaihim-us-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’.

26– His sweat had a fragrant smell, like that of a rose. A poor man came to him and told him that he needed help for his daughter’s matrimony. The blessed Messenger had nothing to give him at that moment. So he had some of his sweat put in a small bottle and gave the bottle to the man. Whenever the girl put a bit of the sweat on herself, her house would smell of musk.

27– Although he was medium of stature, he would look taller than tall people standing beside him.

28– When he walked in the sun or in the moonlight his shadow would not fall on the ground.

29– Flies, mosquitos or other insects would not alight on his body or on whatever he was wearing.

30– His underwears would never become dirty however long he wore them.

31– Whenever he walked, angels followed behind. He would have his Sahâbîs ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’ walk ahead of him, telling them to leave the space behind him unoccupied “for the angels.”

32– When he stepped on a rock, his foot would make a print on the rock. When he walked on sands, on the other hand, he would leave no footprints behind. When he relieved nature in the open, the earth would split apart, swallow the urine or the faeces, and radiate fragrant odours. This was the case with all the other Prophets as well.

33– When he heard that some people had drunk his blood that had been taken out by cupping, he stated, “The Hell-Fire shall ot burn him (who has done so).”

34– One of his greatest miracles is his ascent called Mi’râj. On a beast of Paradise called Buraq, he was taken from Mekka to Jerusalem, and thence up to heavens and to the ’Arsh. He was shown extraordinary things there. He saw Allâhu ta’âlâ, with real seeing but in a manner beyond the human knowledge. [That seeing took place outside of the world of matter, i.e. in the Hereafter.] In a moment he was taken back home. No other Prophet was blessed with the miracle of Mi’râj.

35– It was made farz (obligatory) for his Ummat (Muslims) to recite (a certain prayer called) Salawât[1] at least once in their life time. Allâhu ta’âlâ and angels, too, say the prayer of Salawât and Salâm for him, continuously.

[1] In this prayer a Muslim invokes a blessing on the Prophet, and on the Prophet’s household, including all his descendants that will come to life till the end of the world. The prayer is: “Allâhumma salli ’alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa ’alâ âli Sayyidinâ Muhammad.” It is a recommended behaviour to say this prayer whenever you say, write, hear or read the Prophet’s blessed name.

36– Of all the human beings and angels, he was given the most knowledge. Although he was ummî, i.e. he had not learned anything from anybody, Allâhu ta’âlâ made him know everything. As Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’ was made to know the name of everything, so he was made to know the name and the knowledge of everything.

37– He was made to know the names of all his Ummat and all the events that would (and will) take place among them.

38– His mental abilities were superior to those of all other human beings.

39– He was endowed with all the beautiful moral qualities and habits that mankind could possess. When the great poet ’Umar bin Fârid was asked why he would never praise the Messenger of Allah, he answered, “I have realized that I will not be able to praise him. I cannot find words to eulogize him.”

40– In the Kalima-i-shahâdat, in the azân (or adhân), in the iqâmat, in the (prescribed prayer recited during) tashahhud (sitting posture and saying prayers) in namâz, in many prayers, in some acts of worship and khutbas, in pieces of advice, (in prayers said) at times of trouble or melancholy, in the grave, at the place of Judgement, in Paradise, and in languages spoken by all creatures, Allâhu ta’âlâ put his name beside His Own Name.

41– The highest of his superiorities is that he is the Habîbullah (the Beloved One of Allâhu ta’âlâ). Allâhu ta’âlâ made him a darling, a friend to Himself. He loves him more than He does any other person or any angel. Allâhu ta’âlâ says in a hadîth-i-qudsî, “As I have made Ibrâhîm (Abraham) Halîl (to Myself), so I have made thee Habîb to Myself.”

42– The fifth âyat-i-kerîma of Dhuhâ Sûra, which purports, “I shall give thee all thou wantest, till thou art contented, [i.e. till you say, ‘Enough’],” promises that Allâhu ta’âlâ shall bestow on His Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ all sorts of knowledge and superiority, the tenets of Islam, help against his enemies and victory over them, conquests and victories that will be realized by his Ummat, and all sorts of intercession and manifestation on the Rising Day. When this âyat-i-kerîma came down, the blessed Messenger looked at Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ and said, “I shall not be contented if one (single member) of my Ummat is left in Hell.”

43– His blessed heart was always with Allâhu ta’âlâ, at night, when asleep as well as when awake, when in company as well as when alone, at home as well as on a voyage, in warlike situations, when weeping and when happy alike. In fact, there were times when his heart was only with Allâhu ta’âlâ. In order to carry on his worldly duties and to turn his blessed heart back to the human world, he would go near his blessed wife Âisha and say, “O Âisha! Talk with me a little [so that I may come back to myself].” and then he would go out to see his Sahâba, to preach and guide them.

After performing the (part which is not obligatory but which Muslims perform in order to follow the Prophet, and which is called) sunnat of the morning prayer at home and then talking with Âisha ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ for a short while, he would leave for the mosque, in order to conduct the farz (obligatory two rak’ats of morning prayer) and perform it with his Sahâba. That state is (called) hasâis-i-peyghamberî, (and it was peculiar only to the Prophet). If he had gone out without having talked to Âisha ‘radiy- Allâhu ’anhâ’, no one would have had the power to look at him on the face, on account of the divine manifestations and nûrs (lights, haloes) on his face.

44– Allâhu ta’âlâ mentions all His Prophets with their names in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. As for Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’; He addresses him with laudatory expressions such as, “O My Messenger, O My Prophet.”

45– His speech was extremely clear and easily comprehensible. He had visitors from various places, and he spoke to his visitors in their own languages. People listened to him with admiration. He stated, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has given me a beautiful training and education.”

46– With few words he said much. His more than one hundred thousand (utterances termed) hadîth-i-sherîfs are a demonstration of the fact that he was Jawâmi-ul-kalîm. According to some scholars, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ stated the four essentials of Islam with four hadîth-i-sherîfs, which are as follows:

“Actions are evaluated in accordance with the intentions (in doing them).”

“Halâl (permission) is obvious, and harâm (prohibition) is obvious.”

“The plaintiff has to produce witnesses, and the defendant has to swear an oath.” and “Unless a person wishes for his Muslim brother whatever he wishes for his own self, he will not be a perfect Believer.” The first of these four hadîth-i-sherîfs form the basis for the knowledge pertaining to acts of worship, the second one for the knowledge pertaining to transactions, (e.g. buying and selling, renting, joint-ownership, etc), the third one for the knowledge pertaining to jurisprudence and politics, and the fourth one for knowledge pertaining to manners and ethics.

47– Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ was innocent. He never committed sins, neither intentionally nor inadvertently, neither grave sins nor venial ones, neither before he was forty years old nor afterwards. He was never seen to behave in an unseemly manner.

48– It is a religious precept to invoke a blessing on Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ by saying, “As-salâmu ’alaika ayyuha-n-nabiyyu wa rahmatullâhi,” during the sitting posture in namâz. Islam does not contain another religious precept commanding that you should invoke blessings on other creatures, such as another Prophet or an angel, which is done when performing namâz.

49– Instead of demanding position or sovereignty, he preferred poverty. One morning, during a dialogue with Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’, he said that they had not had a morsel to eat the previous night. At that moment Isrâfîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and offered, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has heard what you said, and He has sent me. Let any piece of stone you touch with your hand turn into gold, silver or emerald, if you like. And you may carry on your prophethood as an angel if you like. Rasûlullah answered, “I wish prophethood as a born slave,” and repeated the same statement three times.

50– Whereas other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ served as Prophets in certain times and certain countries, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ was sent as the Prophet for all the human beings and genies on the earth till the end of the world. There are scholars who argue that he was the Prophet of genies, animals, plants and lifeless creatures, i.e. all creatures.

51– The compassion which Allâhu ta’âlâ has bestowed on him reaches all beings and gives them benefits. These benefits are conspicuous on Believers. Unbelievers living in the times of other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ were tormented as they still lived in the world, then they were annihilated. Those who denied Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ were not tormented in the world. One day he asked Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has declared that I am (His) compassion over the classes of beings.

Have you had a share from my compassion?” Jebrâîl answered, “Sensing the awe-inspiring greatness of Allâhu ta’âlâ, I had always looked forward to my destiny with terror. When I brought to you the âyats [the twentieth and twenty-first âyats of Tekvîr Sûra] purporting that I am trustworthy, I felt relieved from that terrible fear owing to that praisal, and began to feel secure. Can there be anything else bearing more compassion than this?”

52– Allâhu ta’âlâ willed that Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ should feel fully contented. [As we have stated in the forty-second virtue, Allâhu ta’âlâ shall give him whatever he likes until he feels contented. This fact is declared in Dhuhâ Sûra.]

53– Other Prophets made their own refutations of unbelievers’ slanders. On the other hand, Allâhu ta’âlâ defended Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ by answering the slanders perpetrated against him.

54– The number of Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ Ummat is above the total number of other Prophets’ ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ ummats.

55– As it is written in the book Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, there is a widely-known hadîth-i-sherîf which states, “I entreated Allâhu ta’âlâ not to let my Umma reach a consensus on dalâlat (something wrong, aberration, heresy). He accepted my entreatment.” Another hadîth-i-sherîf reads as follows: “Allâhu ta’âlâ has protected you against three things:

First; He has protected you from unanimity on dalâlat. Second; a Muslim who dies from a contagion will earn as much thawâb (blessings) as if he attained martyrdom. Third; if two sâlih (pious, devout) Muslims attest to a Muslim’s goodness, that third Muslim shall enter Paradise.” And there is another hadîth-i-sherîf which states, “The disagreements among my Sahâba, (on some minor details pertaining to religious practices,) are (the fruits) of (Allâhu ta’âlâ’s) compassion over you.” Another similar hadîth-i-sherîf states, “Disagreements among my Ummat, [which gave birth to different ways, Madh-habs, in matters pertaining to acts of worship,] is compassion (of Allâhu ta’âlâ).” As his Ummat (Muslims) exert themselves to find the truth and the right way, differences of opinion take place among them. Their exertions move (Allâhu ta’âlâ’s) compassion. This hadîth-i-sherîf has been denied by two sorts of people. The first one is a person called ‘mâjin’, and the second sort is termed ‘mulhid’. Mâjin is a deceitful person who tries to exploit the religion for the realization of his worldly aspirations. And mulhid is a heretic who has become a disbeliever by contorting the meanings of âyat-i kerîmas in a way as it suited his mundane advantages. As Yahyâ bin Sa’îd observes, the Islamic scholars make things easy.

Whereas one of them says that something, (an act, behaviour, etc.,) is halâl (permitted by Islam), another one says that it is harâm (forbidden). Sometimes, while they say to pious people that a certain behaviour is halâl, at times of mischief they say, ‘harâm’ about the same behaviour. As the hadîth-i-sherîfs quoted above indicate, the ijmâ-iummat, which means a consensus reached by those profound scholars called ‘mujtahid’,[1] is one of the Adilla-i-sher’îyya. In

[1] Ijtihâd means to infer meanings from the figurative âyat-i-kerîmas in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. A scholar who is learned enough to perform ijtihâd is called a mujtahid. Performing ijtihâd requires first learning the basic essentials of Islam, the Qur’ân al-kerîm, all the hadîth-isherîfs with all the particulars and details entailed, such as the time of other words, it is one of the basic sources of Islam. The four different (ways, or paths of Islam called) Madh-habs, (which are, namely, Hanafî, Shâfi’î, Mâlikî and Hanbalî,) are true and right. These Madh-habs are (Allâhu ta’âlâ’s) compassion for Muslims.

56– The blessings that will be given to Rasûlullah are multiples of the blessings that will be given to the other Prophets. When a person does an act of worship or another pious act accepted by Allâhu ta’âlâ, not only this person but also his religious teacher will be rewarded for this pious act. The blessings that will be given to the teacher’s teacher are four times the blessings to be given to the teacher. While the third teacher in retrospect will be rewarded eight times as much, the blessings to be given to the fourth one backwards are sixteen times multiple. Likewise, each teacher next in retrospect will be blessed twice as well as the one previous to himself till the chain of teachers reaches back to the Messenger of Allah. For instance, the twentieth teacher backwards will receive five hundred and twenty-four thousand and two hundred and eighty-eight times (524288) more blessings. Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ will be rewarded for each pious deed performed by each and every one of his Ummat. In consideration of this calculation by which Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ will be rewarded for each pious deed performed, no one but Allâhu ta’âlâ knows the amount of reward that Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ will enjoy. It has been stated (by the Islamic scholars) that the Salaf-i-sâlihîn, (i.e. the early Islamic scholars,) are superior to their successors. This superiority is indisputably obvious in the light of the aforesaid calculation.

57– It was forbidden (harâm) to call him by name, to talk loud revelation of each âyat-i kerîma, where and upon what event it was revealed, the âyat-i-kerîmas that invalidated others, which ones invalidated which ones, and so forth, learning all the scientific branches of the time, which in turn requires years of lucubration and self-sacrifice. This book would be too short even to explain all the requirements. Our aim here is to help our readers to develop an idea as to the stupendous size of the job of ijtihâd. Those scholars who devoted all their worldly lives to this unutterably painstaking job of ijtihâd did us so great a favour by doing so that any degree of gratitude on our part would fall short of paying them their dues. May Allâhu ta’âlâ reward them copiously in the Hereafter! Please read The Sunni Path and the five fascicles of Endless Bliss for more detailed information. in his presence, to shout at him from a distance, or to walk ahead of him. The ummats of other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ used to call them by name.

58– Isrâfîl ‘alaihis-salâm’, too, visited Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ several times. Other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’, on the other hand, were visited only by Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’.

59– He saw Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ in his own angelic guise twice. In contrast, the angel never appeared to another Prophet ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ in his own guise as an angel.

60– Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ paid him twenty-four thousand visits. Of all the other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’, Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ received the most visits: four hundred visits.

61– It is permissible to swear an oath to Allâhu ta’âlâ in the name of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. It is not permissible in the name of any other Prophet or any angel.

62– It was forbidden to marry Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ blessed wives ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna’ after his passing. Islam has declared them to be mothers of Believers. The wives of other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’ were either harmful to them or at least not useful to them at all. On the contrary, the blessed wives ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna’ of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ assisted him in all matters, worldly and next-worldly alike, endured poverty with gratitude nonetheless with patience, and rendered meritorious services in the promulgation of Islam.

63– Rasûlullah’s blessed daughters and wives ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhunna’ are the highest of the worldly women. And also all his Sahâba occupy the highest ranks in humanity next below those of Prophets. Their cities, first, Mekka-i-mukarrama and next, Medîna-i-munawwara are the most valuable cities of the earth. One rak’at of namâz performed in his blessed mosque, (Masjîd-i-sherîf,) will deserve the same blessings that could be earned by performing a namâz of a thousand rak’ats. The same rule applies to the other sorts of worship. The space between his grave and his minbar is a Garden of Paradise. He stated, “A person who visits me after my death is as if he visited me when I was alive. A Believer who dies in one of the (places called) Harameyn will be resurrected with a sense of security on the Rising Day.” The two blessed cities, Mekka and Medina, are called Harameyn.

64– Kinship through blood or through nikâh (marriage contract prescribed by Islam) will be of no value in the Hereafter. Not so is the case with Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ relatives.

65– Each person’s progeny goes down through a chain of sons. However, Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ progeney goes down from his daughter Fâtima. This fact is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf.

66– True Believers carrying his blessed name will never enter Hell.

67– Every statement he made is true, and so is everything he did. Every ijtihâd he performed was corrected by Allâhu ta’âlâ.

68– It is farz for everybody to love him. He stated, “He who loves Allâhu ta’âlâ will love me.” The indication of loving him is to adapt yourself to his religion, to his way, to his Sunna, and to his moral beauty. He was commanded to say, as is purported in the Qur’ân al-kerîm, “If you follow me, Allâhu ta’âlâ will love thee.”

69– It is wâjib to love his Ahl-i-Bayt. He stated, “He who feels enmity towards my Ahl-i-bayt is a munâfiq (hypocrite).” His Ahli-bayt are his relatives who are forbidden to be paid (Islam’s obligatory alms called) zakât. They are his wives and those Believers descending from his grandfather Hâshim. They are at the same time the descendants of ’Alî, of ’Uqayl, of Ja’fer Tayyâr, and of Abbâs.

70– It is wâjib to love all his Sahâba ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’. He stated, “Do not perpetrate enmity towards my Sahâba after me. To love them means to love me. Enmity towards them means enmity towards me. He who hurts them will have hurt me. He who hurts me will have hurt Allâhu ta’âlâ. And Allâhu ta’âlâ will torment those who hurt Him.”

71– Allâhu ta’âlâ created four assistants to Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, two in heaven and two on the earth. They are Jebrâîl, Mikâîl, Abû Bakr, and ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’, respectively.

72– Every human being has a jinnî friend, who is a fiend, an unbeliever, and always infuses qualms into his heart, trying to take away his îmân (belief) and to beguile him into committing sins. The Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ converted his jinnî friend to Islam.

73– Every person who dies after reaching the adult age, male and female alike, will be questioned about Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ in their graves. The question, “Who is your Rabb (Lord, Allah),” will be followed by the question, “Who is your Prophet?”

74– It is an act of worship to read (or recite) the hadîth-i-sherîfs of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. A person who does so will be given blessings (thawâb). And it will cause more blessings to consummate this act of worship with some other meritorious acts called mustahab.[1] These are to make an ablution before reading hadîth-i-sherîfs, to wear clean garments, to spray on fragrant perfumes, to put the book of hadîth-i-sherîfs on something higher (than your navel), for the person reading them not to stand up to meet the newcomers, (if there should be any,) and for those who are listening not to talk among themselves. People who read hadîth-i-sherîfs habitually have shining, lightsome and beautiful faces. The same manners, (which are called adab,) should be observed when reading (or reciting) the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

75– When Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ time of death was quite near, Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ visited him, told him that Allâhu ta’âlâ was sending His salâm (greeting and best wishes) to him and asking how he felt, and added that death was quite close. Then he gave him abundant amounts of good news concerning him and his Ummat.

76– In order to take away his blessed soul, Azrâîl ‘alaihissalâm’ (Angel of Death) came in human guise and asked if he could “come in.”

77– The soil in his blessed grave is more valuable than any other place, including the Ka’ba [and the Gardens of Paradise].

78– In his grave he leads a life unknown to us. He recites the Qur’ân al-kerîm and performs namâz in his grave. So is the case with all the other Prophets ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’.

[1] Mustahab means behaviour, an act, an utterance, an intention, or a thought, for which Allâhu ta’âlâ will give blessings in the Hereafter. Blessings deserved for pious acts are called thawâb in Islamic literature.

79– Angels hear the people reciting the Salawât for Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ all over the world, bring all the prayers of Salawât recited to his grave and convey them to him. Thousands of angels visit his grave daily.

80– Every morning and every evening, the deeds and the acts of worship performed by his Ummat are shown to him. He sees the people doing those acts, and entreats Allâhu ta’âlâ for the forgiveness of wrongdoers.

81– It is mustahab, also for women, to visit his grave. Women are permitted to visit other graves only when there are no men around.

82– After the blessed Prophet’s death as well as when he was alive, Allâhu ta’âlâ accepts the prayers and entreatments of all those people who supplicate through him and ask for his sake, no matter in what part of the world they are. One day a villager visited his blessed grave and supplicated, “Yâ Rabbî! It is Your commandment to manumit slaves. This is Your Prophet, and I am one of Your slaves. For the sake of Your Prophet, manumit me from the Fire of Hell!” A voice was heard to say, “O My slave!

Why have you besought for emancipation only for yourself instead of asking for it on behalf of all My slaves? Go now! I have manumitted you from Hell.”

Hâtim-i-Esam Belhî [d. 237 (852 C.E.)], one of the widelyknown Awliyâ, stood beside Rasûlullah’s grave and entreated, “Yâ Rabbî! I visit Thy Prophet’s grave. Please do not let me go back empty-handed!” A voice was heard to say, “O My slave! I have accepted thy visiting My Beloved One’s grave. I have forgiven thee and those who were with thee during the visit.”

Imâm-i-Ahmad Qastalânî ‘rahmatullâhi ’aleyh’ relates, “I suffered from a certain illness for a few years. Doctors could not cure it. One night, in Mekka, I begged the Messenger of Allah very earnestly. After I went to sleep that night, I dreamt of a person holding a piece of paper in his hand. It said on the paper, ‘Herein is Rasûlullah’s permission concerning the illness of Ahmad Qastalânî and the prescription for its treatment.’ By the time I woke up, the illness was already gone.”

Qastalânî, again, relates: “There was a girl suffering from epilepsy. I begged the Messenger of Allah very earnestly to intercede so that the poor girl could recover. In a dream they brought me the jinnî that had made the girl epileptic. I shouted at him and scolded him. He swore an oath that he would never hurt the girl again. Then I woke up. Before long I heard that the girl had recovered from epilepsy.

83– Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ shall be the first human being to rise from his grave. He shall be wearing garments of Paradise. He shall ride (the beast of Paradise called) Buraq to the place of gathering (called the place of mahsher in Islamic literature), holding the flag ‘Liwâ-i-hamd’ in his hand. All people, including Prophets, shall stand under this flag. There shall be a thousand years’ waiting, an utterly tiresome waiting for all people. Fed up, people shall beseech each and every Prophet to intercede for the commencement of the Last Judgement, beginning with Âdam and then going to the others, namely to Nû (Noah), to Ibrâhîm (Abraham), to Mûsâ (Moses), and to Îsâ (Jesus) ‘alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât’. Each Prophet shall make an excuse and will be either too shameful before Allâhu ta’âlâ or too afraid of Him to intercede. Finally, they shall come to Rasûlullah, begging. He shall prostrate himself and pray, and his intercession shall be accepted. The Judgement shall begin, his Ummat (Muslims) being the first people to be judged. After the Judgement Muslims shall pass the (bridge that cannot be described with worldly experience and which is called) Sirat and enter Paradise. Whereever they go they shall fill the entire place with haloes. As Fâtima ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ’ passes the Sirât, a voice shall call, “Let everybody close their eyes! The daughter of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is coming.”

84– He shall intercede at six different places.

First, with his intercession called Maqâm-i-Mahmûd, he shall rescue the entire humanity from the torment of waiting at the place of gathering.

Second, with his intercession he shall cause many people to enter Paradise without being called to account.

Third, he shall rescue some Believers from the torment which they deserve (for their sins that could not be pardoned otherwise).

Fourth, he shall rescue some gravely sinful Believers from Hell.

Fifth, some people will be waiting at a place called A’râf, (which is neither Paradise nor Hell,) because their pious deeds and sins are equal. He shall intercede for those people and they shall enter Paradise.

Sixth, he shall intercede for the promotion of the people of Paradise. Each of the seventy thousand people whom he shall save from being called to account by interceding for them shall intercede for seventy thousand other people, who shall enter Paradise without being called to account at all.

85– It was declared in a hadîth-i-qudsî,[1] “Were I not to create thee, I would not create anything.”

86– The rank position which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ shall be occupying in Paradise is called Wasîla.

It is the highest rank in Paradise. The tree of Paradise called Sidra-tul- muntahâ, each one of whose branches shall reach an inhabitant of Paradise, thus everybody enjoying one of its branches, shall have its roots up in that highest rank. Each and every blessing that the people of Paradise will be enjoying shall be coming through these branches.

Do not boast about your wealth, O thou, owners of wisdom!
Life is beset with vicissitudes, and all have their end.

When time of death comes, none shall come to save you;
Curb your desires, you will turn into soil in the end.

Keep on the right path, Allah will protect you from shame!
Think of the eternal life, do not embellish the shade;

Read BOOKS of AHL AS-SUNNA, give up this obstinacy;
Wake up before it is too late, life is too short to waste;

You may end up in ruination, so give up this evil tendency.
Keep on the right path, Allah will protect you from shame!

Satan will scoff at you, seeing this unawareness;
Come to yourself, lest that heinous being should mock thee.

Avoid villainy, let pride and fame be others’ property;
Above all worldly values is beautiful moral quality.

Keep on the right path, Allah will protect you from shame!
With Allah ta’âlâ standing bail for your sustenance,

Bowing your head before others is not worthy of you.
Afflictions befall on you in return for your own indulgence,

Let these be a sage’s pieces of advice to you.
Keep on the right path, Allah will protect you from shame!

[1] A hadîth-i-qudsî is a Word of Allah which He inspired into His blessed Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’.

RASÛLULLAH’S ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ BEAUTIFUL MORAL QUALITIES and HABITS

Down below are fifty of the beautiful moral qualities and habits of the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’:

1– Resûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was superior to all the other Prophets in knowledge, in irfân (enlightenment, culture), in fehm (comprehension, intellect, understanding), in yaqîn (certitude, positive knowledge), in wisdom, in mental capacity, in generosity, in modesty, in hilm (tenderness, mildness, moderation), in compassionateness, in patience, in enthusiasm, in patriotism, in faithfulness, in trustworthiness, in courage, in grandeur, in bravery, in eloquence, in rhetoric, in intrepidity, in beauty, in vara’ (avoiding worldly pleasures about which one is doubtful whether they are permitted by Islam), in chastity, in kindness, in fairness, in hayâ (bashfulness, sense of shame), in zuhd (the highest degree of avoiding worldly pleasures), and in taqwâ (avoiding acts that are forbidden). He would forgive other people for their malevolent behaviours against him, friend and foe alike. He would never retaliate against them. When they caused his blessed cheek to bleed and broke his blessed tooth during the Holy War of Uhud, he pronounced the following benediction about the people who gave thim those harms: “Yâ Rabbî! Forgive them! Pardon them for their ignorance.”

2– He was extremely compassionate. He would water the animals. He would hold the water container with his hand until the animals became satiated. He would wipe the dirt off the horse he rode.

3– When people called him, whosoever they were, he would reply, “Labbayk (Yes, sir).” He would never stretch his legs when in company. He would sit on his knees. Whenever he saw a pedestrian as he was riding an animal, he would let that person sit behind him on the animal.

4– He would not look down on anybody. During an expedition, one of his companions undertook the killing of the sheep they were going to eat, another one took the skinning on himself, and another one said he would do the cooking. When Rasûlullah said he would supply the firewood, they said, “O The Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Please do sit and rest! We’ll get the firewood, too.” Upon this the blessed Prophet stated, “Yes, you will! I know that you will do all the work. But I would not like to keep myself apart and sit while others are working. Allâhu ta’âlâ dislikes a person who sits aloof from his companions.” He stood up and walked away to find firewood.

5– Whenever he joined a group of his Sahâba ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’ sitting together, he would never occupy the most striking seat. He would seat himself on the first unoccupied place he noticed. One day he went out with his walking stick in his hand. People who saw him stood up. He warned them, “Do not stand up for me like some people who stand at attention for one another! I am human, like you. I eat, like any other person. And I sit when I am tired.”

6– He would mostly sit on his knees. He is also reported to have been seen to squat with his arms around his knees. He would not exclude his servants from his daily activities such as eating, attirement, etc. He would help them with the work. He was never seen to beat anyone or to swear at anyone. Enes bin Mâlik, who was continuously in his service, states, “I served the Messenger of Allah for fourteen years. The service he did to me was more than the service I did to him. I never saw him cross with me or rebuke me.”

7– He would patch and mend his clothes, milk his sheep, and feed his animals. He would carry his shopping home. When on a voyage, he would feed his animals. Sometimes he would even curry them. Sometimes he would do these services by himself, and sometimes he would help his servants do them.

8– When some people sent their servants for him, he would go with the servants, walking hand in hand, as it was customary in Medina.

9– He would pay visits to people taken ill and attend at funerals. In order to appease disbelievers and hypocrites, he would visit their bedstricken relatives, too.

10– After conducting the morning prayer (in the mosque), he would ask, “Do we have any brothers ill at home? (If there are any,) let us visit them.” When there was no one ill, he would ask, “Is there any family (who need help) with their funeral? Let us go and help them.” If there was a funeral, he would help with the washing and shrouding of the corpse, conduct the (special prayer performed before the burial of a Muslim and which is called the) namâz of janâza, and walk with the procession to the grave. When there was not a funeral to be attented, he would state, “If you have a dream to be interpreted, I will. Let me listen to it and interpret it!”

11– When he did not see one of his Sahâba for three days running, he would inquire after him. If the Sahabî concerned had gone on a journey, he would invoke a blessing on him. If the Sahabî was said to be in town, he would pay him a visit.

12– When he met a Muslim on his way, he would anticipate him in the salutation.

13– He would ride a camel, a horse, a mule, or an ass, and sometimes he would have someone else sit behind him on the animal.

14– He would serve his guests and his Sahâba, and would say, “The master and the noblest member of a community is the one who serves them.”

15– He was never seen in a burst of laughter. He would only make silent smiles. And when he smiled his blessed front teeth would be seen.

16– He would always look pensive and sad, and he would talk little. He would begin to talk with a smile.

17– He would never say anything unnecessary or useless. He would talk briefly, effectively, clearly, and when it was necessary. Sometimes he would repeat the same statement three times so that it should be understood well.

18– He would play jokes on strangers and acquaintances, on children and old women, and on his blessed wives. Yet these jokes would never cause him to forget about Allâhu ta’âlâ.

19– He had such an awe-inspiring appearance that no one dared to look at him on the face. A visitor who looked at his blessed face would sweat. Thereupon he would say, “Do not feel worried! I am not a king, and I am not cruel at all. I am the son of a woman who ate dried meat.” These words would expel the man’s fears and he would say what he wished to.

20– He did not have guards or doormen. Any visitor would easily go in and talk with him.

21– He had a powerful sense of modesty. In fact, he was too bashful to look at a person on the face.

22– He would not fling a person’s fault in his teeth. He would not complain about anyone or talk behind a person’s back. When he did not like someone’s behaviour or words, he would say, “I wonder why some people do so?”

23– Although he was the darling, the most beloved one and the chosen Messenger of Allâhu ta’âlâ, he used to say, “Among you I am the one who knows Allâhu ta’âlâ best and fears Him most.” Another statement he used to make is: “If you saw what I see, you would laugh little and cry much.” When he saw clouds in the sky he used to say, “Yâ Rabbî! Do not send us torment through these clouds!” Whenever a wind blew, he would pray, “Yâ Rabbî! Send us useful winds.” When he heard a thunder, he would invoke, “Yâ Rabbî! Do not kill us with Thy Wrath, and do not perish us with Thy Torment, and before this, bless us with good health.” Whenever he performed namâz, sounds of sighing would be heard from his chest as if there were someone sobbing within. The same sounds would be heard when he recited the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

24– His heart had an astonishing degree of fortitude and valour. During the Holy War of Hunayn, the Muslims dispersed for the purpose of collecting the booties and only three or four people remained with him. The unbelievers launched a sudden and collective offensive. The Messenger of Allah stood against them and defeated them. The same incident took place several times. He never receded.

25– In the second chapter of the third part of Mawâhib-iladunniyya Abdullah ibni ’Umar is quoted to have said that he had not seen anyone stronger than the Fakhr-i-kâinât (the Master of universe). According to a narration conveyed by Ibni Is-haq, there was a famous wrestler named Rughâna in Mekka. He met the Messenger of Allah somewhere outside of town. The Messenger asked him, “O Rughâna! Why don’t you convert to Islam?” “Can you produce a witness to testify to your prophethood,” was the latter’s question. Upon this the blessed Prophet defied, “Let us have a wrestling-match. Will you become a Believer if your back touches the ground?” “Yes, I will,” was the reply. The match had hardly begun when Rughâna’s back touched the ground. Stupefied, Rughâna said, “It was a mistake.

Let us wrestle again.” So the match was repeated three times, and at each time Rughâna was flat on his back. The same event is related in the initial pages of the third chapter of Shawâhid-unnubuwwa.

According to this narration, Rughâna said after the third match, “I did not intend to convert to Islam. Yet I never expected to lose. I see with surprise and admiration that you are stronger than I am.” So he gave half of his flock as a present to the Messenger of Allah, and left. The Messenger of Allah was herding the flock towards Mekka, when he came back, running.
He said:
– O Muhammad! What will you answer if the Meccans ask you where you have found the flock?
– I will say, “Rughâna gave them to me as a present.”
– And what will you say if they ask why.
– I will say, “We made a wrestling-match. I beat him and made his back touch the ground. So he liked my strength and gave the flock to me.”
– Please do not tell them so! I will fall into disesteem. Tell them that I gave them because I liked the way you spoke.
– I have promised to my Rabb (Allah) never to lie.
– Then I will take the flock back.
– Well, take them back if you like! I would sacrifice a thousand flocks to please my Rabb. Falling in love with this strong belief and integrity of the Messenger of Allah, Rughâna uttered the (expression of confirmation called) Kalima-i-shahâdat, (which has been explained earlier in the text,) and became a Muslim.

There was another wrestler, named Abul-Aswadil Jumahî. He would stand on a cattle hide, ten other strong people would tug at the hide until the hide tore to pieces, and they would fail to move the wrestler even a bit. One day that person promised to the Messenger of Allah that he would become a Muslim if he lost in a wrestling match against him. So they had a match, which ended with the wrestler lying flat on his back. However, he would not become a Believer.

26– Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was extremely generous. He would donate hundreds of camels and sheep without keeping a single head for himself. Many a hardhearted unbeliever observed his generous acts of charity with admiration and joined the Believers.

27– He was never heard to say, “No,” for something asked from him. If he had what was asked of him, he would give it. And his silence would signify that he did not have the thing needed.

28– Despite the divine offer wherein Allâhu ta’âlâ had promised, “Ask of Me, and I shall give thee,” he would not ask for worldly property. He never ate bread made from sifted wheatflour.
He always ate bread made from unsifted barley-flour. He was never seen to eat till he was full. He would eat bread alone, and sometimes with dates, with vinegar, with fruit, with soup, or by dipping pieces of bread into olive-oil. He would eat chicken as well as flesh of rabbit, camel, or antelope, fish, dried meat, and cheese.

He liked meat from the forelegs. He would hold the meat with his hands and eat it by taking bites. It is permissible as well to use knife (and fork). He would frequently have milk or eat dates. Sometimes they would not cook anything or make any bread for two or three months in his home, so he would eat only dates for months. There were times when he ate nothing for two or three days running. After he passed away, a Jew was found to be keeping his coat of mail as a pawn for thirty kilograms of barley which the blessed Prophet owed to him.

29– He was never heard to say that he did not like a certain kind of food. He would eat what he liked, and he would only not eat the food he did not like, yet he would say nothing.

30– He had one meal a day. Sometimes he had his daily meal in the morning, and sometimes he ate in the evening. When he went home, he would say, “Is there something to eat?” He would fast if the answer was in the negative.

Instead of putting the food on something like a tablecloth, a tray or a table, he would place it on the floor, get down to his kneels, and eat without leaning against anything. He would say the Basmala[1] first and then start eating. He ate with his right hand.

[1] To say the Basmala means to say the word ‘Bism-Illâh-ir-Rahmân-ir- Rahîm’, which means, “In the name of Allah, who is Merciful and Compassionate.”

31– Sometimes he laid aside the amount of barley and dates that would sustain his nine wives and a few servants for one year, giving some of that amount as alms to the poor.

32– Mutton, broth, pumpkin, desserts, honey, dates, milk, cream, water melon, melon, grapes, cucumbers, and cool water were the kinds of food (and drink) he specially liked.

33– When he drank water, he would say the Basmala, take small swallows slowly, and make two pauses, (thus dividing an act of drinking into three). He would say, “All-hamdu-lillâh,” after drinking. (Al-hamdu-lillâh means, “May gratitude and praise be to Allah.”)

34– Like other Prophets, he would refuse to be given alms or zakât. He would accept presents, mostly giving much more in return.

35– He would wear whatever he found of the sorts of garments that were permissible to wear. He used to cover himself with seamless garments made from thick material, like ihrâm, wrap waist-cloths around himself, and wear shirts and long and ample robes. These garments were woven from cotton, wool, or hair.

Sometimes he wore a white garment, and sometimes he was clad in a green one. There were also times when he wore sewn garments. On Fridays, on special days such as the days of ’Iyd, during diplomatic receptions, and at times of battle, he wore valuable shirts and robes. His garments were mostly white. There were also times when he wore green, red or black garments. He would cover his arms down to the wrists and his blessed legs down to the mid-shins.

It is stated as follows in the book Shemâil-i-sherîfa, by Imâm-i- Tirmuzî ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’: “Rasûlullah liked to wear a shirt (called qamîs). The sleeves of his shirt reached his wrists. There were no buttons on the sleeves or on the collar. His shoes were of leather, and each shoe had one strap with two cords going between two toes and connecting the strap to the front of the shoe. Convention should be observed in wearing garments and shoes. Defying the convention causes fame. And fame, in its turn, is something that should be avoided. When he entered Mekka, he was wearing a black turban wrapped around his blessed head.”

36– He wrapped a strap of mostly white and sometimes black muslin as a turban around his head, letting a span-long of its end hang down between his two shoulders. His turban was neither too big nor too small; it was three and a half meters in length. He wore his turban without a skull-cap. However, sometimes he wore a skull-cap with a cord and without a turban.

37– As it was customary in Arabia, he would grow his hair as long as it reached the mid-sections of his ears, having it trimmed when it grew longer. He applied special ointment to his hair. He took the bottle of ointment with him whenever he went on a voyage. When he applied the ointment, he would first cover the ointment with a piece of muslin and then put on his headgear, so that the ointment would not be seen from without. Sometimes he let his hair grow long and hang before him on both sides. On the day when he conquered Mekka he had two curls of hair hanging in this manner.

38– He would put musk and other sorts of perfume on his hands and head, and incense himself with aloe wood and camphor.

39– His bed was made of tanned leather stuffed with date threads. When they offered him a bed stuffed with wool, he refused it, saying, “O Âisha! I swear in the name of Allah that Allâhu ta’âlâ would keep piles of gold and silver with me everywhere if I wished.” Sometimes he slept on felt mats, on wooden beds, on the floor, on rugs woven with wool, or on dry soil.

[Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ states in the initial part of the chapter about fasting, “Acts which Rasûlullah and his four Khalîfas succeeding him did steadily are called sunnat. (With respect to importance, there are two categories of sunnat.) It is makrûh[1] to omit (an act which is) sunnat-i-hudâ. Yet it is not makrûh to omit (acts that are) sunnat-i-zâida.”

Abdulghanî Nablusî ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ [d. 1143 (1731 C.E.), Damascus] says in his book Hadîqa, “Sunnat-i-hudâ is an act of worship which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ performed but did not admonish other Muslims for omitting it. If it is an act of worship which he performed steadily, it is called sunnat-i-muakkada. Acts which the Messenger of Allah did habitually are called sunnat-i-zâida, or mustahab. An example of these acts is to begin from the right-hand side and to use the right hand when you are to do something useful, such as building a house, eating, drinking, sitting down, standing up, [going to bed,] putting on your clothes, using tools, etc. It is not dalâlat (deviation from Islam) not to observe this kind of sunnat or to observe acts of custom established in the course of time after the establishment of Islam and which are termed bid’at in convention, e.g. using new gadgets such as sieves, spoons, etc.

[1] An act, behaviour, a word that the Messenger of Allah avoided although it was not prohibited directly in the Qur’ân al-kerîm is called makrûh. The Messenger not only avoided such behaviour, but also recommended that Muslims should avoid it.

Acts of this sort are not sinful.” Hence, it is permissible to eat meals at a table, to use forks and spoons, to sleep on comfortable beds, to use radios, television sets, tape recorders at conferences, in schools, during classes of ethics and science, to use all sorts of transportation, and to utilize technical facilities such as spectacles and calculators. These things are within the area of bid’at in convention. Something that was established afterwards is called bid’at. It is harâm (forbidden) to use things and inventions that are within the area of bid’at in convention in committing acts that are harâm. There is detailed information in the (Turkish) books Se’âdet-i Ebediyye (Endless Bliss) and Islâm Ahlâk› (Ethics of Islam) about using radios, loud-speakers and tape recorders during prayers of namâz, azân (adhân), preaches and khutbas. It is a grave sin to invent bid’ats or to make even the slightest alteration in the acts of worship. Jihâd, Holy War, is an act of worship. And it is not an act of bid’at to use all sorts of technical implementations in a war. On the contrary, it brings about many blessings. For it is a commandment of Islam to use all sorts of scientific media in a war. It is necessary to invent facilities that will be helpful in performing acts of worship. Yet it is an act of bid’at to invent facilities that will encourage forbidden acts or to invent any changes in worships. For instance, it is necessary to climb the minaret to call the azân (adhân, the call to prayer). Yet it is an act of bid’at to call the azân through a loud-speaker. For it is not a commandment (of Islam) to call it through an implementation.

The commandment dictates that human voice should be used in calling it. Moreover, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ prohibited to announce the prayer times or to perform other acts of worship by ringing bells, sounding horns, or playing musical instruments.]

40– Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ would not grow his beard longer than one handful. He would have it shortened when it exceeded that limit. [It is sunnat to keep your beard one handful long. And it is wâjib to do so in places where it is customary for men to have a beard. It is sunnat to shorten it when it exceeds the limit. It is an act of bid’at to have it shorter than one handful. It is wâjib to let such beard to grow till it reaches the length of one handful. It is makrûh to shave your beard. However, it is permissible to shave it when you have an excuse.]

41– Every night he put kohl (a certain protective substance) on his eyes.

42– A mirror, a comb, a container for the substance that he put on his eyes every night, a miswâk,[1] scissors, thread and needle were never absent among his personal possessions at home. He would take these things with him when he went on a voyage.

43– He enjoyed beginning everything from the right hand side and doing everything with his right hand. The only thing he did with his left hand was cleaning himself in the toilet.

44– With kinds of work done in numbers, he preferred odd numbers whenever possible.

45– After the night prayer, he would sleep until midnight, get up and spend the rest of the time worshipping till morning prayer. He would lie on his right flank, put his right hand under his cheek, and recite some sûras (chapters of the Qur’ân al-kerîm) until he fell asleep.

46– He preferred tafa’ul, (which means to draw good omen from things.) In other words, when he saw something for the first time or all of a sudden, he interpreted it optimistically. He did not interpret anything as ominous.

47– At times of sorrow, he would think pensively, holding his beard.

48– Whenever he felt sad, he would begin performing namâz. The flavour and the pleasure he felt during the namâz would eliminate his sadness.

[1] A short stick (about 20 centimetres long and no more than one centimetre thick) cut from a certain shrub called Erâk (salvadora persica) growing in Arabia. One end of the miswâk is pounded into fibres and used as a toothbrush.

49– He would never listen to a backbiter or a gossipper.

50– Whenever he wanted to look at something on one side or behind, he would turn with his entire body, instead of turning only his head.

ATTENTION: Islamic scholars ‘rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ’ divided the aforesaid behaviours of our master the Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ into three categories. The first category consists of behaviours that must be imitated by Muslims. They are called sunna(t). The second category contains behaviours that are peculiar only to our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’.

They are called Khasâis. It is not permissible to imitate them. In the third category are behaviours integrated to convention. Every Muslim should imitate them depending on the convention valid in his country. Imitating them without adapting them to the rules of convention in your country will cause fitna (instigation). And causing fitna, in its turn, is harâm.

Worldly property, gold’n silver are no one’s eternally;
Pleasing a broken heart is what will promote thee.

The earth is ephemeral, it turns continuously;
Mankind is a lantern, which will go out eventually.

CONDITIONS FOR BEING A TRUE MUSLIM

The word “Islam” in Arabic means “self-devotion, submission, salvation,” as well as “peace.” Imam A’zam Abû Hanîfa (rahmatullahi ’alaih) has defined Islam as “submission and obedience to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments.”

If the facts stated above are read carefully, it will automatically become clear how a Muslim should be. We shall repeat them once again, below.

First of all, a Muslim is clean physically and spiritually. But let us begin with physical cleanliness.

In several different places in the Qur’ân al-kerîm, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: “I like those who are clean.” Muslims do not enter mosques or houses with their shoes on. Their carpets, their floors remain spotless and clean. Every Muslim has a bathroom in his house. Their bodies, underwear and food are always clean. In this way they do not spread microbes and disease.

The Palace of Versailles, which the French boastfully announce to the world, does not have a bathroom. In the Middle Ages when a Frenchman living in Paris got up in the morning, he used to urinate and defecate into a chamber pot.

Since there was no toilet in his house, he would take that pot and a bottle used for drinking water to the river Seine. First he would take his drinking water from the river, and then pour the urine and the faeces into the river. These lines have been literally translated from a French book entitled “Drinking-Water” (L’Eau Potâble). A German priest who had come to Istanbul during the time of Sultan Sulayman the Lawgiver said the following in a book which he wrote sometime around 967 [1560]:

“I admire the cleandliness here. Everyone here washes themselves five times a day. All the shops are clean. There is no dirt on the streets. There are no stains on the clothes of the sellers.

Also, there are buildings which contain hot water called “hammâms,” wherein people take a bath. In contrast, our people are dirty; they don’t know how to wash themselves.” It was centuries later before Europeans learned how to wash themselves.

As for today, foreigners who travel in the so-called Muslim countries write in the books they publish: “When you go to an Eastern country, first, the smell of putrid fish and rubbish assaults your nostrils. There is dirt everywhere. The streets are awash with spittle and mucus. Here and there one can see heaps of rubbish and carcasses of beasts. You feel disgust as you travel through Eastern countries, and realize that the Muslims are not as clean as they claim to be.” We are afraid it is true.

Indeed, in countries bearing the name of Islam today, not only have they forgotten the knowledge of faith, but they also do not pay due attention to cleanliness. But, the fault lies with people who have forgotten that the essence of Islam is cleanliness. Poverty is no excuse at all for being dirty. A person’s spitting on the ground or dirtying the place has nothing to do with money. Such dirty people are the wretched who have forgotten Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments on cleanliness. If each Muslim knew his religion perfectly and practiced it with devotion, this uncleanliness would go away automatically. Then, foreigners who visit Muslim countries would admire their cleanliness, just as they admired medieval Muslims.

A true Muslim is clean and takes great care of his health. He never consumes alcoholic drinks, which is a kind of poison. He doesn’t eat pork, which has been prohibited on account of its various dangers and harms. It has been discovered that the virus causing the contagious and fatal disease AIDS, which is afflicting homosexuals, exist in pigs.

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) praised the science of medicine in various ways. An example is his statement: “There are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of the body and knowledge of religion.” That is, by saying that these two are the most important sciences, the religious knowledge, which protects the soul, and the knowledge of health, which protects the body, he wanted us to strive to keep our body and soul vigorous. For all kinds of good deeds can be done only with a healthy body.

Today, all universities teach that the practice of medicine consists of two parts: The first is hygiene, keeping the body healthy, and the second is therapeutics, treatment of diseases.

The first of the two has precedence. It is the primary task of medicine to protect people against diseases and to keep them healthy. Even if a sick person is cured, he may still remain invalid and defective. And now to the point: hygiene, medicine’s first task is vouchsafed by Islam. In the second part of the book

Mawâhib-ul-ladunniyya, it has been proven that the Qur’ân alkerîm promotes both aspects of medicine as expressed in some verses.

Our prophet Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had established close relations with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius.

They used to correspond with and send envoys to each other. On one occasion, Heraclius sent him many presents. One of the presents was a medical doctor. When the doctor arrived he came to our Prophet and said “Sir! His Majesty has sent me to you as a servant. I shall treat those that are ill free of charge.” Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) accepted his services.

As ordered, the doctor was given a house. Everyday, they brought delicious food and drink for him. Days and months passed. No Muslims came to see him. Consequently, the doctor, feeling ashamed, requested permission to leave, saying: “Sir! I came here to serve you. Up to now no sick person has come to me. I have been sitting idly eating and drinking comfortably. And now I’d like to go back home.” Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) responded: “It is up to you. If you would like to stay longer, it is the Muslims’ primary duty to serve and show honour to their guests. However, if you would like to leave now, have a good journey! But you must know that, even if you were to stay here for years, no Muslim would come to see you. It is because my Companions do not become ill. The Islamic religion has shown the way to good health. My Companions pay great attention to cleanliness. They do not eat anything unless they are hungry, and they stop eating before becoming fully sated.”

With the words above, we do not mean to say that a Muslim never becomes ill. However, a Muslim who pays attention to his health and cleanliness remains healthy for a long time. He hardly becomes ill. Death is a fact of life. It cannot be avoided. Everyone will die as a result of some illness. Yet, being able to keep one’s body healthy until the time of death is possible only by paying attention to Islam’s commandments on cleanliness.

During the Middle Ages, when Christianity was at its peak, the great scholars of medicine were only to be found among the Muslims. Europeans used to come to Andalusia to receive an education in medicine. Those who discovered a vaccine to procure an immunity from smallpox were Muslim Turks. Janner, who learned the vaccine from the Turks, took it to Europe in 1211 (1796) and was unjustly titled “The discoverer of the smallpox vaccine.” In those days, Europe was a continent of cruelty, and various diseases were annihilating the people. The King of France, Louis XV, died of smallpox in 1774. Plague and cholera played havoc in Europe for a long time. When Napoleon first besieged the fortress of AKKA in 1212 (1798), plague erupted among his army, and being quite helpless against it, he had to beg for help from the Muslim Turks, his enemies. It is written in a French book of that time as follows: “The Turks sent their doctors, accepting our request. They wore extremely clean clothes and had luminous faces. First, t ey prayed and then at length washed their hands with plenty of soap and water. They incised buboes formed on the patients’ bodies with lancets, caused the pus formed in them to flow out, and then washed the wounds neatly. Later, placing the patients in separate rooms, they instructed the healthy ones to stay away from them. They burned the patients’ clothes and dressed them in new clothes. Finally, they washed their hands again, burned aloe wood at the places where the diseased ones had been, prayed again, and left us, refusing all our offers in the name of payment and gift.”

This means to say that Westerners, who were helpless against diseases until two centuries ago, learned today’s medicine only by reading, experimenting, and working as it is dictated in the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

As for spiritual cleanliness, certainly a Muslim should have a very high morality and gentility. Islam is morality and nobility in its entirety. The degree of goodness, justice and generosity which Islam commands to be applied to enemies as well as to friends is amazingly high. The events over the last thirteen centuries have shown this fact very clearly to Islam’s adversaries as well. Of the innumerable proofs, we shall relate one which stands out.

As written in one of the two-hundred-year-old court records in the archives of the Bursa Museum, Muslims built a mosque on some land near the Jewish quarter in Alt›parmak. The Jews claimed ownership of the land and said that the Muslims could not build a mosque there. The dispute became a matter for a court of law. After the hearing, the court decided that the area belonged to the Jews, that the mosque was to be destroyed, and that the land was to be given back to the Jews. The decision was executed. Indeed, great justice!

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declared: “I have been sent down to perfect virtue and to spread beautiful morals over the world.’ Another hadîth states: “Among you, the ones with a perfect morality are the ones with an elevated faith.” Therefore, even faith is measured by morality.

Spiritual purity is essential for a Muslim. A person who lies, who cheats, deceives others, who is cruel, unjust, who shirks from helping his co-religionists, who assumes superiority, who thinks only of his advantages, is not a true Muslim, no matter how much he worships.

The exalted meaning of the first three verses in Chapter (sûra) Mâ’ûn is: “O! My Messenger! Have you seen someone who denies the Judgement, puts the orphan aside with harshness, does not give their rights, and does not encourage others to feed the needy?” The worships of such people are not accepted. In Islam, keeping away from the prohibitions (harâm) takes precedence over doing the commandments (fards). A true Muslim is, first of all, a perfect and mature person. He has a smiling face. He is a honey-tongued man who tells the truth. He never knows what it is “to be angry.” Rasûlullah (Hadrat Muhammad [sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam]) declared: “The person given mildness is the one endowed with the goodness of this world and the Hereafter.” A Muslim is extremely modest. He listens to everyone who consults him and helps them as far as possible.

A Muslim is dignified and polite. He loves his family and his country. Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declares: “Your love of country originates from your fatih.” That is why, when the government fights against aggressors, a Muslim does his military service willingly. It says as follows in a work written by a German priest in 1560, which has been mentioned above: “Now I’ve understood why the Muslim Turks overcame us in all our expeditions. Whenever there is a holy war here, the Muslims immediately take up their arms, fight and die willingly for the sake of their country and religion. They believe that those who die in a holy war will go to Paradise. In contrast, in our country, when there is a likelihood of war, everyone looks for a hiding place lest they should be enrolled in the army. And those who are recruited by force fight reluctantly.”

How Allâhu ta’âlâ likes His slaves to be is explained very well in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. The exalted meanings of verses 63-69 in Chapter Furqan are: “[The virtuous] slaves of the Rahmân (Allâhu ta’âlâ’, who has much compassion for His slaves) walk on the earth modestly and with dignity. When ignorant people try to annoy them, they respond with kind words, such as: ‘peace and safety be on you!’ They spend the nights standing and prostrating [performing namâz] before their Lord. [They offer their thanks and praise to Him]. They entreat Allah, ‘O my Allah, take the Hell torment away from us. Indeed, His torment is eternal and bitter, and that place is no doubt an evil and horrible residence.’ In their spending, they are neither prodigal nor miserly; they follow a moderate way between these two extremes, and they do not deduct from anyone’s rights. They do not attribute partners to Allah. They do not kill anyone, which is prohibited by Allah. [They only punish the guilty.] They do not commit fornication.”

In verses 72-74 of the same chapter: “[Those virtuous human slaves whom Allâhu ta’âlâ likes] they do not bear false witness. They abstain from things… useless and harmful. If they are accidentally involved in something useless or which can be done with great difficulty, they pass by in a dignified manner. They do not turn a blind eye and a deaf ear to the revelations of their Lord when they are reminded of them. They implore saying, ‘O my Allah! Bestow such wives and children as may be a source of comfort to our eyes. Make us examples for those who fear You.”

Moreover, the sacred meaning of the second and third âyats (verses) in Sûra (chapter) Sâff: “Believers! Why do you profess what you never did? Allah feels a strong distaste for you when you say something you cannot practice,” shows that a person’s vowing or promising what he cannot perform makes him a bad person in Allahu ta’âlâ’s view.

A true Muslim is extremely respectful to his parents, teachers, commanders, the laws, and to the leading authorities of his country. He is not concerned with something insignificant. He is busy only with something useful. He doesn’t gamble. He doesn’t kill his time.

A true Muslim does his worships perfectly. He offers gratitude to Allâhu ta’âlâ. Worship should not be performed unwillingly or unconsciously. Worship must be performed willingly and with great love for Allâhu ta’âlâ. To fear Allâhu ta’âlâ means to love Him very much. You do not want the person you love much to be displeased and you are afraid lest you might cause him to be disturbed. In this way, worship for Allâhu ta’âlâ should be performed in such a manner as to prove our love for Him. The blessings which Allâhu ta’âlâ has given us are so great that our debt of gratitude to Him can be paid only by loving Him much and by worshipping Him with profound sincerity. There are different kinds of worship. Some kinds of worship, as we have said above, are between Allâhu ta’âlâ and His slave. Maybe Allâhu ta’âlâ will forgive those who worship insufficiently. It is worship to respect others’ rights, too. But He will never forgive those who abused others and have the rights of others’ on them, unless the owners of those rights forgive them.

The following traditions (the Hadîth ash-sherif) are found in the fourth volume of the book Ashi’at-ul Lamaât, which is in Persian and is a commentary to the well-known book Mishqât-ul-Masâbih.[1] ([1] The author of Mishqât is Valiyyuddîn Muhammad, who passed away in 749 (1348 A.D.))

1. He who does not have mercy on people is not treated with mercy by Allâhu ta’âlâ.

2. You will have helped both the oppressor and the oppressed by preventing cruelty.

3. If nine-tenths of the money given for buying a shirt is halâl and one-tenth is harâm, Allâhu ta’âlâ doesn’t accept the prayer done with that shirt on.

4. A Muslim is another Muslim’s brother. He doesn’t torment his brother. He runs to help him. He does not abhor him or think of him as inferior to himself. It is harâm (forbidden) for him to harm his blood, property, chastity or honour.

5. I swear by Allâhu ta’âlâ that unless a person loves for his Muslim brother what he loves for himself, his îman will not be perfect.

6. I swear by Allâhu ta’âlâ that a man who is not trusted by his neighbour doesn’t have îman (belief). [That is, he is not a genuine Muslim.]

7. A person without mercy in his heart does not have îman.

8. Allâhu ta’âlâ pities the person who pities others.

9. He who does not pity our young or respect our old is not one of us.

10. If a person respects and helps the old, Allâhu ta’âlâ will send him helpers when he gets old.

11. The house that Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best is the one which houses an orphan and in which an orphan is served kindly.

12. In this world and in the Hereafter Allâhu ta’âlâ will help the person who silences a backbiter. If he does not silence the backbiter while he has enough power to do so, Allâhu ta’âlâ will punish him in this world and in the Hereafter.

13. A person who sees a defect, a shortcoming in a Muslim brother of his, but covers and conceals it, has acted as if he saved the life of a girl buried alive, as practised by the pre-Islamic Arabs, by taking her out of the grave.

14. In Allâhu ta’âlâ’s view, the better one of two friends is the one who has done more good for the other one.

15. Whether a person is good or bad is judged by observing whether or not his [Muslim] neighbours like him.

16. The destination of a man who hurts his neighbours with his speech is Hell, even if he prays much, fasts much, gives alms much. But, if he doesn’t hurt his neighbours with his speech, the place for him to be sent will be Paradise, though he may pray little, fast little, and give little alms.

17. Allâhu ta’âlâ has given valuable things both to His beloved ones and to His enemies. But he has given beautiful morals only to His beloved ones. [Now, it is understood that the words, “It is hoped that the disbelievers with excellent manners will have îmân immediately before they pass away” is right.]

18. The thawâbs (rewards for a pious act) of a man who violated other’s chastity or property will be given to the man oppressed. If the violator’s worships or pious deeds are not enough, then the latter’s sins are given to him.

19. One of the worst of the mortal sins in Allâhu ta’âlâ’s view is to be a man with a bad character.

20. If someone is happy to see that the man he dislikes is in trouble, Allâhu ta’âlâ will send the same nuisance upon him.

21. Two people went to the mosque and prayed there. Something was offered to them. They said they were fasting. After talking for a while, when they were about to leave, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said to them: “Do your prayers again, and perform your fasting again! For you have backbitten someone in your conversation. [That is, you have mentioned one of his faults.] Backbiting removes the thawâb (blessings) of worships.”

22. Do not have jealousy. As a fire destroys wood, feeling jealousy annihilates the blessings of a person, too.” Having jealousy means being jealous of a person, that is, to wish the blessings given to him by Allâhu ta’âlâ were taken away from him. It is not called jealousy to wish to have the same blessings for yourself without wishing them to be taken away from others. This is called “qipta” which means “longing,” in other words, “good will.” Wishing something evil and harmful to be removed from someone is called “qairat” which means “perseverance”, or called “khamiyyat” which means “zealousness.”

23. Someone who is good-tempered will attain goodness both in this world and in the Hereafter.

24. Allâhu ta’âlâ does not put his slave whom He endowed with a beautiful face and a good character into Hell in the Hereafter.

25. Abû Huraira was told: “Be good-tempered!” by the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). He asked: “What is it to be good-tempered?” the Prophet answered: “Approach a person who stays away from you and give him advice; forgive him who torments you; if a person is loath to give you from his property, knowledge or help, give him plenty of these!”

26. Paradise is the destination of a person who dies purged from arrogance, treachery and debts.

27. The Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) did not want to perform the janâza prayer[1] ([1] Janâza Prayer: When a Muslim dies, other Muslims assemble together in front of his coffin and perform a certain prayer called salât-uljanâza.

Thereby, they pray so that his sins will be forgiven, and he will be given many blessings, etc.) for a person who had died indebted. A Sahabî (companion of the Prophet) named Abû Qatâda (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) took his debts upon himself by remittance. So, the Prophet accepted performing the janâza prayer for him.

28. Do not beat your wives! They are not your slaves.

29. In the view of Allâhu ta’âlâ, the best of you is the one who is the best towards his wife. I am the best among you in the treatment of his wife.

30. The best among you in îman (faith) is the one with the best character and the one who is the mildest to his wife.

Most of the Hadith ash-sherîfs written above exist in the book Zawâjir by the profound Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar[2] ([2] Ibn Hajar, passed away, 974 (1566 A.D.) ) immediately before the part entitled ‘Ihtiqâr.’ They are the source for beautiful Islamic morals. Islamic scholars have derived rules from these hadith-i sherîfs. Some of them are as follows.

1. It is harâm (forbidden) for a Muslim who is in a country of disbelievers to violate their property, life, chastity or to steal. He should not disobey their laws and should not cheat or be treacherous when shopping and so on.

2. Usurping a disbeliever’s property or hurting his heart is worse than usurping a Muslim’s property. Cruelty to animals is worse than cruelty to men, and cruelty to disbelievers is worse than cruelty to animals.

3. It is harâm to take and use someone else’s property without his permission even if you return it undamaged.

4. If a person postpones the payment of his debt for one hour while he has the means, he will be considered cruel and disobedient. He will remain accursed continuously. Not paying one’s debt is such a continuous sin that it is recorded (in one’s deed-book) even when one is asleep. If one pays his debts with money of low value or with useless property, or if the creditor takes it back unwillingly, this too makes one sinful. One will not escape being sinful unless one pleases or satisfies the creditor.

For fourteen hundred years, Islamic scholars have always taught in their lectures and books the beautiful morals commanded by Islam. In this way, they have tried to inculcate the beautiful habits taught by Islam into the minds and hearts of the young. The below-mentioned book is a sample of the innumerable books promulgating these beautiful morals.

The book Maktûbât by the profound Islamic scholar Imâm-i Rabbânî Ahmad Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), who was a great Walî and was the mujaddid of the second millennium (of Islam), is very valuable. Sayyid Abdulhakim Arwâsî[1] [1] Abdulhakîm Effendi, passed away in Ankara in 1362 (1943 A.D.) who was a professor of theology in the Madrasat-ul-Mutahhassisîn, the highest of the madrasas (schools) during the time of the Ottoman Empire, often said, “Another book as valuable as Maktûbât has not been written on Islam,” and, “The most valuable and the highest book is Imâm-i Rabbânî’s book Maktûbât, except of course, for the Qur’ân al-kerîm and our Prophet’s (sall-Allâh ’alaihi wa sallam) hadith sherîfs. “Imam-i Rabbânî was born in the city of Serhend in India in 971 (1563), and passed away there in 1034 (1624). Abdulhakîm Effendi was born in Van, an eastern city in Turkey, in 1281 (1874) and passed away in the city of Ankara, the capital, in 1362 (1943). It is written in the 76th letter of Maktûbât: The sacred meaning of the 7th verse of Hashr Sûra is; “…Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back…”

As it is seen, two things are necessary for escaping perdition in the world and Hell’s torment in the next world: to hold fast to the commands, and to abstain from the prohibitions! Of these two, the greatest one, the one more necessary, is the second one, which is called wara’ and taqwâ. In the presence of Rasûlullah they mentioned a person that worshipped and struggled a lot. But when they said that another person abstained from what is prohibited, he declared, “Nothing can be comparable with wara’.” That is, he said that it was more valuable to abstain from the prohibitions. In a hadîth-i sherif he declared, “Wara’ is the pillar of your religion.” Men becoming superior to angels is due to wara’, and their progress or becoming exalted, is, again, due to wara’. Angels also obey the commands. But angels cannot make progress. Then, holding fast to wara’ and having taqwâ is more important than anything else. In Islam the most valuable thing is taqwâ. The basis of the religion is taqwâ. Wara’ and taqwâ mean to abstain from the harâms. To abstain from the harâms entirely, it is necessary to abstain from more than the necessary mubâhs.

We should utilize the mubâhs only as much as necessary. If a person uses the mubâhs as he likes, that is, of those things which the Sharî’at has permitted, or uses the mubâhs exceedingly, he will begin to do what is doubtful. And the doubtful is close to those things which are harâm. Man’s nafs, like a beast, is greedy.

He who walks around an abyss may fall down into it. To maintain wara’ and taqwâ precisely, one should use the mubâhs only as much as necessary, and should not exceed the necessary amount.

When using this amount, one should intend to use them in order to do one’s duties as a born slave of Allah. It is a sin also to use them a little without intending so. It is harmful whether it is little or much. It is next to impossible to abstain entirely from more than the necessary mubâhs always, especially in this time. At least, one must abstain from the harâms and do one’s best to abstain from more than the necessary mubâhs.

When the mubâhs are done in excess of what is necessary, one must repent
and ask for pardon. One should know these deeds as the beginning of committing harâms. One must consign oneself to Allâhu teâlâ and beg Him. This repentance, asking for pardon and begging, may stand for abstaining from more than the necessary mubâhs entirely, thus protecting one against the harm and bane of such deeds. One of our superiors says, “Sinners’ hanging their heads seems to me better than worshippers’ swelling their chests.”

There are two ways of abstaining from the harâms: Firstly, to abstain from those sins which only disturb the rights of Allâhu taâlâ; secondly, to abstain from those sins whereby other people’s or creatures’ rights have been violated. The second kind is more important. Allahu taâlâ does not need anything, and He is very merciful. On the other hand, human beings not only need a lot of things but also are very stingy. Resûlullah said,

“He who has human beings’ rights on himself, and who has violated creatures’ property and chastity, should pay the rights back and have himself forgiven before death! For that day gold and property will have no value. That day, his blessings will be taken away until the rights have been paid, and if he does not have any blessings, the right-owner’s sins will be loaded on him.”

[İbni Âbidîn,[1] ([1] Muhammad Ibni Âbidîn passed away in Damascus in 1252 (1836A.D.).) while explaining the book Durr-ul-mukhtâr, says in the two hundred and ninety-fifth page on the subject of intending for salât, “On the Day of Judgement, if the right-owner does not waive his right, seven hundred prayers of namâz which have been performed in jamâ’at and accepted will be taken away and will be given to the right-owner in return for a right of one dank.” One dank is one-sixth of a dirham, about half a gram of silver, which is worth about twenty-five kurush.]

One day, when Rasûlullah asked the Ashâb-i kirâm, “Do you know who is called bankrupt?” They said, “The person without any money or property left.” He declared, “Among my ummat, a bankrupt is a person whose deed-book contains many thawâbs of salât, fasting and zakât on the Day of Judgement. But he has cursed a person, slandered him and taken away his property. His thawâbs will be divided and distributed to such right-owners. If his thawâbs are depleted before the rights are paid, the sins of the right-owners will be loaded upon him. Then he will be hurled into Hell.”

It is written as follows in the ninety-eighth letter of Maktûbât:

“Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Allâhu ta’âlâ is Rafîq (The Exalter). He likes mildness. He gives to mild people what he Has not given to the harsh ones or to anyone else.’ This tradition (hadith ash-sherîf) is written in the tradition book Sahîh by Imâm-i Muslim.

Again in Muslim, [the Prophet] said to Hadrat Âisha (rad-Allâhu ’anhâ) his blessed wife: ‘Behave mildly. Refrain from severity and from something repulsive! Mildness adorns a person and takes ugliness away.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [in the book Muslim] declares: ‘He who doesn’t act mildly has not done any good.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [in the book Bukhârî] declares: ‘Whom I like best among you is the one with the most beautiful temperament.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [conveyed by Imam-i Ahmad and Tirmuzî (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)][1] ([1] Muhammad Tirmuzî passed away in 279 (892 A.D.).) declares: ‘A person who is given mildness is given goodness in this and in the next world.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Imam-› Ahmad, Tirmuzî, Hâkim and Bukhârî (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘Hayâ (bashfulness) comes from îmân. A person with îmân is in Paradise. Fuhsh (an indecent act) is evil. Evildoers are in Hell.”

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Imam-i Ahmad and Tirmuzî] declares: ‘I’m describing the person for whom it is harâm (forbidden) to enter Hell and who is harâm for Hell to burn: Pay attention! This person shows easiness and mildness towards people’.

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Ahmad Tirmuzî, and Abû Dâwûd] declares: ‘Those who are mild and who provide ease for others are like a man who holds the halter of his animal. If he wants to stop the animal, it will obey him. If he wants to ride it over rocks, the animal runs towards them.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in Bukhârî] declares: ‘If a person controls his anger when he gets angry although has the power to do what he likes, on the Resurrection Day Allah will call him from among other people and will say unto him: “Go to Paradise and choose the hourî you like!” ’

As it is communicated in a hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in all hadîth books], when a person asked Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) to give him some advice he said, ‘Do not get angry or nervous!’ When the man repeated the same question again and again, he gave the same response saying, ‘Do not get angry or nervous.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [quoted in Tirmuzî and Abû Dâwûd] declares: ‘Listen, I’m describing those who will go to Paradise: They are powerless, incapable. When they take an oath to do something, Allâhu ta’âlâ will certainly fulfill their oaths. Listen, I’m describing those who will go to Hell: They are severe. They decide in a hurry (without thinking). They are arrogant.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Tirmuzî and Abû Dâwûd (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘If a person gets angry when standing, he should sit down. If he cannot get over it by sitting, he should lie down!’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Tabarânî, Bayhakî and Ibni Asâkir (rahima-humullâhu ta’âlâ) declares: ‘As aloe decomposes honey, fury defiles îmân as well.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Bayhakî and Abû Nuaym][1] ([1] Ahmad Abû Nu’aym passed away in 430 (1039 A.D.).) declares: ‘Allah promotes a person who humbles himself for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake. He deems himself inferior, but he is superior in the eyes of others. If a person holds himself superior to others, Allâhu ta’âlâ demotes him, and he becomes inferior in everyone’s view. He is great only in his own view. In fact, he looks lower than dogs and swine.’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Bayhakî (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ)] declares: ‘When Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) asked, “O my Allah! Who is the most valuable of Your human slaves?” Allâhu ta’âlâ declared, “He who forgives when he has enough power (to punish).” ’

A hadith ash-sherîf [communicated by Abû Ya’lâ] declares: ‘If a person controls his speech, Allâhu ta’âlâ will cover his shortcomings. If he controls his wrath, Allâhu ta’âlâ will withdraw His torment from him on the Resurrection Day. If a person invokes Allâhu ta’âlâ, He will accept his invocation.”

As it is written in Tirmuzî, Muâwiya (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) wrote a letter to Hadrat Um-mul-mu’minîn Âisha (radiy-Allâhu’anhâ) and asked her to write some advice for him. She wrote an

answer, saying: ‘May Allah’s salâm (greeting) be upon you! I heard from Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). He said: “If a person seeks Allâhu ta’âlâ’s approval though it will make people angry, Allâhu ta’âlâ protects him against (harm) that will come from people. If a person seeks people’s approval though it will cause Allâhu ta’âlâ’s wrath, Allâhu ta’âlâ leaves his affair to people.” ’

May Allâhu ta’âlâ honour us and you with adapting ourselves to these hadîths uttered by him, who always told the truth! Try to act compatibly with them.

Life in this world is very short. The torment in the next world is very bitter and it is endless. Far-sighted men of wisdom should make preparations in advance. We should not fall for the world’s beauty and flavour. If man’s honour and value were to be assessed with worldly things, those who have more worldly property would be more valuable and higher than others. It is stupidity, idiocy to fall for the world’s appearance. Deeming this short sojourn a great blessing, we should try to do what Allâhu ta’âlâ likes. We should do kind favours for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s human slaves.

There are two major ways to avoid the torment of the Resurrection Day: To esteem and respect Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commandments is the first one, the other is to treat Allâhu ta’âlâ’s human slaves and creatures with compassion and goodness. Whatever the truthful Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) has said is the very truth itself. None of his instructions is humorous, funny or delirious. How long will sleeping with open eyes like hares (rabbits) last? The end of this sleep is shame and disgrace, empty-handedness and privation.

The exalted meaning of the 115th verse (ayât) of Chapter (surâ) Mu’minûn in the Qur’ân al-kerîm is: ‘Do you think I have created you without any purpose like toys? Do you say you shall not return to us?’ I know you are not in the mood to listen to such words. You are young. You are active and exuberant. You are in the lap of worldly blessings. You are obeyed by everyone around you. You can do whatever you like. All these have been written only because we feel pity for you and want to do something of value for you. You haven’t missed anything yet. It is time to repent and to invoke Allâhu ta’âlâ.” This is the end of the translation from the 98th letter.

While describing “tasawwuf” in his book entitled Erriyâd-ut tasawwufiyya, Sayyid Abdulhakîm Arwasî stated: “Tasawwuf means to cast off human attributes and to be endowed with angel-like attributes and habits of divine morals.” And he quoted Abû Muhammad Jerîrî’s statement: “Tasawwuf is to be endowed with all the good habits and to be purged from all the bad habits.”

[Abû Muhammad Jarîrî Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Husain passed away in 311 (923 A.D.). He was one of the great disciples of Junaid-i Baghdâdî.]

Muhammad Ma’thûm (rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ), the son of Imâm-i Ahmad Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the great Islamic scholar and the mujaddid of the second thousand (Islamic) years, wrote in the 147th letter of his book Maktûbât to Mir Muhammed Hafî, one of the governors of India, the following material:

May Allah, our sublime Creator, keep us from straying from the way of Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), the most beloved by the Creator of all worlds and the most exalted one of all prophets. O my compassionate brother. Man’s life time is very short. The things which are going to happen to us in the eternal life of the next world depend upon the kind of life we lead in this world. A wise and far-sighted person, during his short life in this world, always does the things that will cause him to live well and comfortably in the next world. He prepares the things that are necessary for a traveller to the next world.

Allah has given you a post to govern many people, which renders you a means for meeting their needs. Give plenty of thanks to Allâhu ta’âlâ for having blessed you with such a valuable and profitable responsibility. Strive to serve Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves. Have the understanding that by serving Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves you will attain blessings in this world and in the next. Know that the way leading to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s love is to be mild with Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, to do good to them, to help them with a smiling, cheerful face, soft words and easiness. Do not doubt that this will cause salvation from torment in the next world and an increase in the blessings of Paradise. The exalted Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) has explained this very well in his following hadith:

‘Allâhu ta’âlâ creates and sends the things that His slaves need. Allâhu ta’âlâ’s most beloved slave is the person who serves as a means for His blessings reaching His slaves.’ Below, I’m writing a few hadîths that indicate the value of meeting Muslims’ needs, pleasing them, having a good temper, and that praise and encourage being mild, serious and patient. Understand them well. If you cannot understand some of them, learn them by asking those people who know their religion and live in accordance with their knowledge. [Our Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sacred words are called hadîth.] Read the following hadîths carefully! Try to observe them in your every word and deed!

1. Muslims are brothers. They do not hurt one another or treat one another roughly. If a person helps a Muslim brother of his, Allâhu ta’âlâ, in turn, will facilitate his work. If a person saves a Muslim from trouble and thus makes him happy, Allah will save him from trouble at the most troublesome time on the Day of Resurrection. If a person conceals a Muslim’s defect or fault, on the Day of Resurrection, Allâhu ta’âlâ will conceal his defects and faults. [Bukharî, Muslim]

2. As long as a person helps his Muslim brother, Allâhu ta’âlâ will help him. [Muslim]

3. Allâhu ta’âlâ has created some of His slaves so that they will meet others’ needs and help them. Those who are in need will resort to these (slaves). There will be no fear of torment in the next world for these (slaves). [Taberânî]

4. Allâhu ta’âlâ has given many worldly blessings to some of His slaves. He has created them so that they will be useful to His (other) slaves. If these slaves distribute the blessings to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, there will be no decrease in their wealth. If they do not convey these blessings to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves, Allâhu ta’âlâ will take His blessings away from them and give them to others. [Tabarânî, and Ibn Abid-dunyâ][1] ([1] Ibni Abid-dunyâ Abdullah passed away in Baghdâd in 281 (984 A.D.))

5. Meeting the needs of a Muslim brother is more profitable than doing i’tiqâf[2] ([2] I’tiqâf means to stay in a mosque and pray day and night during the last ten days of the month of Ramadân.) for ten years. And one day of i’tiqâf for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake will place a man a very great distance away from Hell’s fire. [Tabarânî, and Hâkim]

6. If a person does some work for his Muslim brother, thousands of angels will pray for him. On his way to do that work, one of his sins will be forgiven for every step, and he will be given blessings on the Day of Resurrection. [Ibn Mâja]

7. If a person goes to help a Muslim with a business, for each step, he will be given seventy thawâbs and seventy of his sins will be forgiven. This will go on until the work is finished. When the work is done all of his sins will be forgiven. If he dies during the work, he will go into Paradise without any questioning. [Ibn Abid-dunyâ]

8. If a person goes to the state authorities and struggles with them so that his Muslim brother will be freed from trouble and attain comfort, on the Day of Resurrection when all others will slip on the bridge of Sirat, Allâhu ta’âlâ will help him pass over it quickly. [Tabarânî]

9. The act which Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best is to please a Muslim by giving him clothes or food or by meeting any other need. [Tabarânî]

10. The act which Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best after His farâid is to please a Muslim. [Tabarânî] Allah’s commands are called fard. Hence, from this hadîth-i sherif, it is understood that those who perform the worships that are fard are loved more by Allâhu ta’âlâ. The things which are harmful and evil and prohibited for people to do by Allâhu ta’âlâ are called harâm. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves those who refrain from the harâms better than those who do the farâid (pl. of fard). It is fard to have a good temperament. And it is harâm to have a bad temperament. It is more valuable and more thawâb to refrain from doing evil than to do good.

11. When a person does a good service for a Muslim, Allâhu ta’âlâ will create an angel from this good deed. This angel will worship all the time. The thawâb for his worship will be given to that person. When the person dies and is put into his grave, the angel will come to his grave, with a luminous and friendly face. Upon seeing the angel he will feel relieved and become cheerful. ‘Who are you?’ he will ask. The answer will be, ‘I’m the good which you did to so-and-so and the joy which you caused in his heart. Allâhu ta’âlâ has sent me to please you today and to intercede for you on the Day of Resurrection and to escort you to your place in Paradise.’

12. The exalted Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was asked: ‘What are the more important things which will cause one to enter Paradise?’ ‘To fear Allâhu ta’âlâ and to have a good temperament,’ he answered. And when he was asked the main reasons for us going to Hell, he said, ‘To be sorry when you lose your worldly blessings, to be happy when you attain these blessings, and to exceed the limits.’ [Tirmuzî, Ibn Hebbân, and Baihakî[1]] ([1] Ahmad Baihakî passed away in Nishapur, in 458 (1066 A.D.).) [The symptom of fearing Allâhu ta’âlâ is to refrain from His prohibitions.]

13. The man with the strongest îmân (belief) among you is the one who has the best moral character and who is the mildest with his wife! [Tirmuzî, and Hâkim]

14. Because of man’s beautiful moral character, he will attain the highest grades in Paradise. [Supererogatory] worships will not enable him to attain these grades. A bad temper will drag a man down to the lowest depths of Hell. [Tabarânî]

15. The easiest and the lightest of worships is to talk only a little and to have a good temper. Pay attention to this word I’m saying! [Ibn-Abid-Dunyâ]

16. A person asked our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam): ‘Which is the best of deeds?’ ‘To have a good temper,’ answered the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). The man stood up and left him. Then, a few minutes later he came again and approached our Prophet’s right side and asked the same question. He, again, said ‘To have a good temper.’ The man went away and soon turned back. He came near our Prophet from his left side and asked: ‘Which deed is it that Allâhu ta’âlâ loves best?’ The answer was the same: ‘To have a good temper.’ Then the person asked, approaching the Prophet from behind, ‘What is the best and most valuable act?’ The Prophet turned to him and said, ‘Can you not understand what it means to have a good temper? Do your best not to get angry with anyone.’

17. I promise you that a Muslim who does not quarrel with anyone and who does not hurt anyone with his words, though he may be right, will go to Paradise. I promise you that a person who does not lie even to make jokes or to amuse others will go to Paradise. I promise you that he who has a good temper will attain high grades in Paradise. [Abû Dâvûd, Ibn Mâja, and Tirmuzî]

18. In a hadîth-i qudsî, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares: ‘I like the Islamic religion that I have sent you.’ [That is, I like those who accept this religion and who adapt themselves to its commandments. I love them.] Being in this religion is completed only by being generous and by having a good temper. Everyday make it known that you have perfected your religion with these two.’ [Tabarânî][2] ([2] Tabarânî Sulaymân, passed away in Damascus in 360 (971 A.D.).)

19. As hot water melts ice, so a good temper melts and annihilates one’s sins. As vinegar decomposes honey and makes it inedible, so a bad temper spoils and annihilates one’s worships. [Tabarânî]

20. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves and helps the soft-tempered. He doesn’t help the harsh and the hot-headed. [Tabarânî]

21. Who is the person for whom it is harâm to enter Hell and it is forbidden for the Hell-fire to burn? I’m telling you. Listen carefully! All of those who are mild and who do not get angry! [Tirmuzî. This hadîth-i sherîf is written also in the 99th letter mentioned above.]

22. It is a great endowment from Allâhu ta’âlâ for His slave to act calmly and gently. Being impatient and rash is the devil’s way. Being patient and serious is what Allâhu ta’âlâ loves. [Abu Ya’lâ]

23. Owing to his mildness and soft words, a person can attain the grades of those who fast during the day and perform namâz (prayer) at night. [Ibn Hebbân]

24. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves the person who, when he is angry, behaves mildly, overcoming his anger. [Isfahânî]

25. Pay attention, please! I’m informing you! A person who wants to attain high grades in Paradise should be mild to a man who behaves impolitely! He should forgive a man who acts unjustly! He should be generous to a man who is stingy! He should take care of his friends or relatives who never come or give a kind word to him! [Tabarânî]

26. It is not real strength to overcome someone else. To be strong or to be a hero means to overcome one’s anger. [Bukhârî, and Muslim]

27. A man greeting with a smiling face is given the blessings attained by those who give alms. [Ibn Abid-Dunyâ]

28. Smiling at your Muslim brother; teaching him good things; preventing him from doing evil things; helping strangers asking for directions; cleaning the streets of stones, thorns, bones and the like, which are disgusting, dirty and harmful; and giving drinking water to others are all forms of charity. [Tirmuzî]

29. There are such villas in Paradise that a person who is in one of them can see any place he wants to and can appear in any place he chooses. When Abû Mâlik al-Esh’arî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) asked who would be given such villas, the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, ‘They will be given to those who meditate over Allâhu ta’âlâ’s existence and greatness and invoke Him.’

I have quoted the hadiths written above from the hadîth book entitled Terghîb wa Terhîb, which is one of the most valuable hadîth books. Abdul’azîm Munzîrî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the author of the book, is one of the greatest scholars of hadîth. He was born in 581 (1185) and died in Egypt in 656 (1258).

May Allâhu ta’âlâ give us the lot of living compatibly with the hadiths written above. Check yourself! If you are in accordance with them, give thanks to Allâhu ta’âlâ! If you have any manners incompatible with them, you should entreat Allâhu ta’âlâ to correct you! If a person’s actions and deeds are not compatible with them, it is still a great blessing for him to know his own faults and to entre at Allâhu ta’âlâ for their correction. A person who is neither in conformity with them nor sorry for being at odds with them has a very weak attachment to Islam. We should take refuge with Allâhu ta’âlâ to protect ourselves against such a squalid state! A couplet:

Congratulations to those who attained,
Shame upon the poor, who missed!

This translation from Maktûbât-› Ma’thûmiyya has come to an end.

The hadiths written above command Muslims to treat one another mildly, kindly and to live brotherly. A non-Mulim is called kâfir (disbeliever). The fact that Muslims have to be mild mannered with disbelievers also and avoid hurting them has been written on page thirty-three. Thus they (disbelievers) will have been shown that Islam commands being good-tempered, living brotherly and working hard. And thus sincere people will become Muslims willingly. It is fard to make jihâd (holy war). The state performs jihâd not only by cannons and swords, but also by means of cold war tactics, propaganda and publications. And every individual Muslim makes jihâd by exhibiting his good habits and by acting in a good manner. To make “jihâd” means to invite people to Islam. As it is understood, it is jihâd also to be kind to disbelievers and not to offend them. It is, therefore, fard for every Muslim.”

Hadrat Muhammad Ma’thûm[1] ([1] Muhammad Ma’thûm passed away in Serhend in 1079 (1668 A.D.).) Fârûqî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih), the author of the long letter above, is one of the greatest Islamic scholars and one of the highest Awliyâ. He was born in the city of Serhend, India, in the year 1007 after the Hegira, and passed away there in 1079 (1668). He is in a large tomb which is a few hundred metres away from his blessed father’s grave. Through his innumerable letters, he gave advice to thousands of Muslims, to state authorities, to the time’s ruler, Sultan Âlamgir[1] ([1] Sultan Alamgir passed away in 1118 (1707 A.D.).) from all races and religions have joined the experiment, all having attained the same success, regardless of their religion or race. As it is sometimes seen in the Far East, in China and India, some Chinese soothsayers and Indian fakirs can amaze us by displaying unimaginable and unthinkable feats of skill. Some of them give the impression that they are flying, while others climb unsupported ropes thrown up in the air. On the other hand, Buddhism, the system of belief held by the Chinese, is like a system of philosophy. Buddha (563-483 B.C.), Confucius (531-479 B.C.), and Loatse were famous philosophers. The principles they taught were the rules of high morality. Buddha teaches people to give up various ambitions, to undergo ascetic austerities, to perform good actions, to be patient, to help one another and to struggle against evil. He says, “Do as you would be done by.” But he does not mention the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Though Buddha said that he was only a man, his disciples deified him after his death. They built temples for him, and thus Buddhism was turned into a kind of religion. The Indians’ original religion, fireworshipping, is a kind of idolatry. Besides idols, they worship some animals (cows, for example). Neither Buddhism nor fireworshipping is a religion. But, still it is a fact that some people belonging to them display some feats of skill that are very much like miracles. They acquire great feats of skill through a special training of self-discipline, which consists of abstinence, special physical exercises, and by working hard for a long time. Likewise, magnetism, which almost freezes a man by rendering him senseless, and hypnotism, by which a man is inspired with commands and his actions are controlled, are no more than special kinds of powers that some people have.

However, what we have seen are not miracles. They are only extraordinary talents. Today, scientists have established that all people, more or less, have talents of this sort; that some have it in a more developed form; that some people can improve their abilities through special systems; and that everybody will be able to awaken his sixth sense by new and easy methods that will be discovered in the course of time. Then if a person invested with a developed form of the “sixth sense” displays it not as a feat of skill but in the name of a miracle, it must be regarded only as a fraud.

Imam-i Ahmad Rabbâni (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) in his 293rd letter, wrote: “Wonders and miracles are of two kinds. The first is the knowledge and ma’rifat (gnosis) which belongs to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s individuality, His attributes and His actions. This knowledge cannot be obtained by thinking or with the intellect.

Allâhu ta’âlâ bestows it upon His beloved ones. The second kind of knowledge concerns worldly mysteries. This miracle may be bestowed upon disbelievers as well as His beloved ones. The first kind of miracles is valuable. They are granted to those who are on the right path and loved by Allâhu ta’âlâ. But the ignorant think that the second one is more valuable. When they hear the word “miracle” they consider only the second type. Anybody who cleans up his soul (nafs) by refraining from people and by hunger can understand the mysteries of creatures. But because most people always give more importance to worldly things, they consider the ones who have the second kind Awliyâ. They do not appreciate the truthful ones. They say that if they were real Awliyâ they would be able to inform us about our situation. Using this invalid logic they deny Allâhu ta’âlâ’s beloved slaves.”

In the 260th letter, he wrote: “Being a Walî means getting closer to Allâhu ta’âlâ. The miracles related to creatures may be endowed upon those who have attained this rank. An abundance of miracles do not prove that the owner, the Walî, has a high rank.

A Walî does not have to know that miracles are emanating from himself. Allâhu ta’âlâ may make the figure of a Walî visible in different countries at the same moment. He is seen, doing marvelous things in places quite far from one another. But he is unaware of all these things. There may be some Walîs who are aware of their state, but they will not reveal it to strangers becasue they do not attach importance to them.”

Ibni Hajar Mekkî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh), who is the darling of the Ahl-as sunna scholars and whose words are taken as a proof, conveys the following hadîths immediately before the chapter “Ihtiqâr” in his book Zawâjir: “I take an oath by Allâhu ta’âlâ that the worship performed by those who have eaten a piece of harâm food will not be accepted for forty days.” And, “Salât which has been performed with a shirt on bought with harâm money will not be accepted.” And, “The alms given from harâm money will not be accepted. His sins will not be reduced.” Sufyâni Sawrî says that doing pious deeds and establishing foundations with harâm money is like washing dirt with urine.

A true Muslim does not perform his acts of worship as a show before others. Worship is done secretly, or performed in a congregation in mosques. When a good Muslim wants to do something benevolent or give alms to a person, he does it secretly, too, and he does not hurt the feelings or affect the prestige of a person by reminding him of it. Allâhu ta’âlâ emphatically commands this to be done in this way in the Qur’ân al-kerîm again and again.

In brief, a true Muslim is a perfect human being who has all the traits of a good character, is fully equipped with high moral quality, dignified, extremely pure, both physically and in soul, and trustworthy in every respect. The great Islamic scholar Imâm Ghazâli (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) 450 (1058)-505-(1111) classifies human beings into four groups in his book Kimyâ-yi Se’âdet, which he published nearly nine hundred years ago in the Persian language: “The first group are those who know nothing except eating, drinking and enjoying worldly pleasures; the second group consists of those who use force, oppress people and are cruel; the third group consists of those who deceive others by trickery; and only the fourth group consists of the true Muslims who have the above-mentioned high morality.”

But one thing not to be forgotten is that there is a way leading from each person’s heart to Allâhu ta’âlâ. The question is how to send the light of Islam to people. The person who feels light in his heart, no matter what group he belongs to, feels penitence for his wrongdoings and finds the right way.

If all people would accept Islam, neither evil, nor deceit, nor war, nor oppression, nor cruelty, would remain on the earth. It is, therefore, a duty for us all to do our best to be perfect and true Muslims and to propagate Islam all over the world, explaining its essence and its details. It is jihâd to do so.

Always address people with a sweet speech and with understanding, even if they are of other religions. Allâhu ta’âlâ commands this in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. It is written in the books of fiqh that it is sinful to hurt a non-Muslim’s feelings or to taunt him because he is a disbeliever. A Muslim who does so will be punished. The aim is to teach everybody how lofty Islam is, and this jihâd can be done only with a sweet tongue, knowledge, patience, and îmân. He who wants to convince someone about a fact should, first of all, believe it himself. And a Muslim never loses his patience or else he will have difficulty in explaining his belief. There is no other religion which is as clear and as logical as Islam. A person who has grasped the essence of this religion can easily prove to anyone that this religion is the only correct religion.

We should not regard people of other religions as badtempered people. For sure, kufr (infidelity), that is, not to be a Muslim, is always evil. Since disbelief is a harmful and corrupt way of life that leads one to calamities in this world and the next, Allâhu ta’âlâ has sent the religion of Islam so that people will live brotherly in comfort and in peace in this world and avoid the endless torment of the Hereafter. Kâfirs (disbelievers), that is, those who are not Muslims, are wretched people devoid of this way to happiness. We should pity them and not hurt them at all. It is forbidden (harâm) even to backbite them. Whether a person is meant for Paradise or for Hell will be certain only at his final breath. All of the heavenly religions hold the belief of one Allah, except, of course, the ones that have been defiled. In the Qur’ân al-kerîm, Allâhu ta’âlâ invites all people to the right way. He promises that He will forgive all the past wrongdoings of a person who adopts this way. Those who are in other religions are poor people deceived by Satan or by those who know nothing about Islam. Most of them are unfortunate people who, while believing in one Allâhu ta’âlâ like us and trying to attain His love, have been misled into wrong ways. With patience, sweet speech, reason and logic, we should guide them to the right way.

Before they were defiled by mankind, all the heavenly religions, teaching the belief in the existence and oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ, were the same with respect to the principles of belief. The three major religions from Hadrat Mûsâ to Hadrat Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), namely, Judiasm, Christianity and Islam, professed belief in one Allah and taught that Allah’s prophets (’alaihimussalawâtu wattaslîmât) were human beings like us. But Jews denied Hadrat Îsâ and Muhammad (’alaihimassalâm), and Christians, who never did rescue themselves from idolatry, thought that Hadrat Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was the son of Allah, although Hadrat Îsâ had said: “I’m a human just like you”; “I’m not Allah’s son.” They still worship three different deities under the names of Father (Allâhu ta’âlâ), Son (Îsâ, ’alaihi ’ssalâm), and the Holy Spirit. There were popes like Honorius who realized that this was false and wrong, and tried to correct it. But the correction of this wrong belief has been possible only with Islam, which Allâhu ta’âlâ has revealed through His last Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). Then, no one can deny the fact that Islam, which has accumulated within itself the main principles of these three religions and which has

Evrengzîb (rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ), and caused them to attain the feelings of brotherhood, a good temper, mutual help, comfort and ease for this worldly life, and felicity in the Hereafter. Over a hundred and forty thousand people attended his conferences and lectures. They thereby attained the highest grades of tasawwuf and they each became a Walî. Besides these chosen disciples of his, the number of those who corrected their faith and morals by listening to him reaches beyond hundreds of thousands. More than four hundred of the Awliyâ educated and trained by him reached the grade termed irshâd. And each of them saved thousands of people from perdition, ignorance and aberration in the cities they were sent to. Each of his five sons was a great scholar and Walî. And their descendants have all been the same. They left many precious books which have been enlightening people.

A true Muslim does not believe in superstitions. He only laughs at such things as magic, ill-omen, fortune-telling, incantation and amulets that contain writings other than those from the Qur’ân. He also laughs at blue beads; putting candles, wires and threads on tombstones; and at anyone who claims to perform miracles. In fact, most of such things have been conveyed to us from other religions. The great Islamic scholar Imâm Rabbânî (rahmatullâhi ’alaih) answers in this way to those who expect “miracles” from men of religion: “People expect men of religion to manifest miracles. Some of them may not perform miracles, but are still closer to Allâhu ta’âlâ than the others.” The greatest miracle is to learn Islam and to lead a life compatible with Islam.

Recent research, carried out at the University of Stanford, in America, shows that some people have a “sixth sense,” which enables them to do such things as counting the items in a closed box, reading what is written in a closed envelope, contacting a person who is far away, or reading a person’s thoughts. People the only true religion. Fellowes, an Englishman who converted to Islam, says: “While attempting to correct the numerous erroneous beliefs in Christianity, Martin Luther was unaware of the fact that Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had already corrected all those faults by announcing Islam exactly 900 years before him. That is why it is necessary to accept Islam as a completely purified version of Christianity and to believe that Hadrat Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is the last Prophet.

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MIRACLES of MUHAMMAD ‘alaihis-salâm’

The following passages have been paraphrased from Mir’ât-ikâinât. That book gives also the sources of most of the miracles related, yet we have not written the sources. And we have abridged most of the miracles.

There are a considerable number of witnesses testifying to the fact that Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the true Prophet. Allâhu ta’âlâ acclaims him with the following complimentary inspiration: “Had it not been for thee, (O My beloved Messenger,) I would not have created anything!” All beings signify not only the existence and unity of Allâhu ta’âlâ, but also the prophethood and the superior virtues of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. All the miracles, (which are called kerâmat,) that happen through the Awliyâ among his Ummat (Muslims) are, in actual fact, his miracles, (which are called mu’jiza, as we have explained earlier).

For kerâmats happen through people who follow him and adapt themselves to him. In fact, because all the other Prophets ‘alaihimus-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’ yearned to be among his Ummat (Muslims), or, rather, because all of them were created from his nûr (light, halo), their miracles, too, may be said to be Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ miracles. Qasîda-i-Burda, by Imâm-Busayrî [d. 695 (1295 C.E.), Egypt], is a pulchritudinous expression of this fact.

With respect to time, the miracles of Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ fall into three categories:

In the first category are those miracles that took place in the period beginning with the creation of his blessed soul and ending with his Bi’ that, (which is the time when Allâhu ta’âlâ appointed him His Messenger, which He notified to him through His angel Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’).

The second category consists of those which took place within the time from the Bi’that to his transposition to the Hereafter. Into the third category fall his miracles that have happened since his passing away, as well as those which will take place till the end of the world.

Miracles in the first category are called Irhâs, i.e. the beginners. Each category is divided into two classes: Miracles that were seen; and those which are inferred mentally. All these miracles are so many that it has never been possible to tally them.

Miracles in the second category are estimated to be around three thousand. We shall relate eighty-six of them in the following paragraphs.

1– The greatest miracle of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the Qur’ân al-kerîm. All the poets and men of literature that have come up to today have acknowledged their shortcoming and admiration about the poetic and semantic superiority of the Qur’ân al-kerîm. They have not been able to rehearse a literary piece approximating to the sublime standard of any one of its âyats. With respect to eloquence and rhetoric, it is quite dissimilar to the human language. A single verbal addition or excision spoils the beauty in its phraseology and purport. Efforts to substitute even one of its words have proven futile. Its poetic style is unlike any one of those of Arabian poets. It informs about many a past and present event. The more you read it or hear it, the more enthusiasm will you feel to read or hear it. Tired as you normally may be, you never feel bored. It is a fact established with innumerable events experienced that reading it or listening to someone reading it cures melancholy. Awe-strickenness or sudden feelings of fear upon hearing it being read or recited are not rare events, and some people have even died with its effect.

Many implacably inimical hearts became mollified when they heard the Qur’ân al-kerîm being read or recited, and their owners became Believers. Some enemies of Islam, particularly those insidious heretics disguised in Muslim names, i.e. the groups called Muattalâ, Melâhida and Qarâmita, attempted to change, to defile, and to substitute the Qur’ân al-kerîm, yet their attempts ended in disillusionment. The Torah and the Bible, on the other hand, have been changed continuously, and they are still being changed, by people. The Qur’ân al-kerîm contains information about all scientific facts, including those that cannot be obtained by way of experimentation, beautiful ethical principles and methods that will equip a person with superior merits, goodnesses that will bring happiness in this world and the next, the earliest creatures as well as the last ones, and things from which man can reap benefits as well as those which will cause harm, and all these things are stated expressly or symbolically. And there are people who can understand the symbolical statements.

The Qur’ân alkerîm is an embodiment of all the open and hidden facts contained in the Torah, in the Bible, and in the Zebûr.[1] [1] The Holy Book which Allâhu ta’âlâ sent down to Dâwûd ‘alaihissalâm’ (David). That Holy Book was in the Hebrew language. Christians call it ‘The Psalms’.

Allâhu ta’âlâ, alone, knows all the information contained in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. He has intimated most of it to His beloved Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’. Alî and Huseyn ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhumâ’ stated that they knew a major part of that knowledge. It is a grand blessing to read the Qur’ân al-kerîm.

Allâhu ta’âlâ has bestowed this blessing on the Ummat (People) of His Habîb (beloved one, darling, i.e. Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’), (that is, on Muslims). Angels are deprived of this blessing. For this reason, they gather together at places where people are reading the Qur’ân al-kerîm and listen to it. All the books of tafsîr explain only a tiny part of the information contained in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. On the Day of Judgement, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ shall mount the minbar and recite the Qur’ân al-kerîm. People who listen to him will understand it in its entirety.

2– One of the greatest and universally known miracles of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is his dividing the moon into two. No other Prophet was blessed with this miracle. Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm’ was fifty-two years old. One day, in Mekka, the chieftains of Qoureishi unbelievers came to him and challenged, “If you are the Prophet, divide the moon into two.” Feeling a strong yearning that everybody, especially his kith and kin should join the Believers, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ raised his hands and invoked. Allâhu ta’âlâ accepted his invocation and divided the moon into two. One half of the moon was on a mountain, while the other half appeared on another. The unbelievers said, “Muhammad performs magic,” and they persisted on their denial.

A stanza reads as follows:

When dogs look at the moon, they bark.
Why should we blame the moon? Hark!
You know, a dog will always bark!

And a distich:

Loss of taste is symptomatic of loss of health,
Delicious drinks taste bitter to one with bad health.

3– In some Holy Wars, at times of shortage of water, Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ put his blessed hand into a container, water poured down from between his fingers, and the container continuously overflowed with water. The number of people who consumed that water was sometimes eighty, sometimes three hundred, sometimes fifteen hundred, and sometimes, e.g. in the Holy War of Tabuk, seventy thousand, the number of their animals excluded. The pouring of water stopped when he took his blessed hand out of the container.

4– One day he visited his paternal uncle Abbâs in his home. He asked his uncle and his uncle’s children to sit beside him. Then he covered them with ihrâm[1][1] Seamless garment warn by Muslim pilgrims in Mekka. Please see the seventh chapter in the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss. and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî (O my Allah)!

This is my uncle and my father’s brother. And these people are my Ahl-i bayt. Cover them and protect them from Hell-fire, as I cover them with this blanket.” A voice that seemed to be coming from the walls said, “Âmîn,” three times.

5– One day, when some people asked him to show them a miracle, he called to a tree in the distance, asking it to come before him. The tree uprooted itself, moved towards him, with its roots dragging behind, came before him, greeted him, (i.e., said “Assalâmu ’alaikum,”) and said, “Esh-hadu an lâ ilâha il-l-Allah, wa esh-hadu anna Muhammadan ’abduhu wa Rasûluh”, (which means, “I believe in and testify to that Allâhu ta’âlâ exists and He is One. And again, I believe in and testify to that Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ is His born slave and His Messenger.”) Then it moved back to its place and resumed its stand.

6– During the Holy War of Hayber, when they put poisoned mutton kebâb on the table before him, a voice was heard to say, “Yâ Rasûlallah (O the Messenger of Allah)! Don’t eat me. I am poisoned.”

7– One day he said to a man with an idol in his hand, “Will you become a Believer if the idol speaks to me?” The man defied, “I have been worshipping it for fifty years, and it has never said a word to me. How will it speak to you now?” When Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked, “O thou idol! Who am I?” a voice was heard to say, “You are the Prophet of Allah.” Upon this the owner of the idol joined the Believers.

8– There was a date stump in the Masjîd-i-Nabawî (the Prophet’s Mosque) in Medina. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ would lean on that stump whenever he made (the speech called) Khutba. The stump was called Hannâna. When a minbar (pulpit in a mosque) was made, he did not go to the stump to lean on it. The entire congregation heard a voice crying from within it.

The blessed Messenger dismounted the minbar and gave Hannâna a hug. It was no longer crying now. The Best of Mankind ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ explained, “Had I not hugged it, separation from me would make it cry till the doom of the world.” Many other similar miracles were seen and reported.

9– Another frequently seen event was that gravels or pieces of food in his hand would say tasbîh of Allâhu ta’âlâ like the droning of bees. (That is, they would say, “Subhânallah,” which means, “I know Allâhu ta’âlâ far from all sorts of imperfection.”)

10– One day an unbeliever came to him and said, “How do I know that you are a Prophet?” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ asked, “Will you believe in me if I beckon to that cluster of dates on that palm and they (obey me and) come to me?” The unbeliever replied he would. When the Messenger of Allah beckoned the cluster of dates came, jumping. When the Messenger of Allah ordered, “Go back to your place,” the entire cluster went up to its place, hanging there as before. Upon seeing this, the unbeliever became a Believer.

11– In Mekka a pack of wolves attacked a flock of sheep and dragged away one of the sheep. When the shepherd charged at them and grappled the sheep back, one of the wolves began to talk, remonstrating, “Aren’t you afraid of Allâhu ta’âlâ, that you deprive us of our food, which Allâhu ta’âlâ has sent to us?”

Astounded, the shepherd mumbled, “Oh, a wolf talks!” The wolf went on, “Shall I tell you something which is even more surprising? Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, the Prophet of Allâhu ta’âlâ, is displaying miracles in Medina.” The shepherd went to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, related what had happened, and became a Muslim.

12– Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was strolling through a field, when he heard a voice saying, “Yâ Rasûlallah (O the Messenger of Allah)!” three times. He turned to the direction whence the voice came, to see a deer tied up. By its side slept a man. He asked the deer what she wanted. “This hunter has ensnared me,” whimpered the deer. “I have two sucklings on the hill over there. Please do let me go! I’ll go, milk them, and come back.” The Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked, “Will you keep your promise and come back?” The deer pledged, “I promise in the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ that I shall come back. If I don’t, then may the torment of Allâhu ta’âlâ be on me!” The Messenger of Allah set the deer free. She ran away, coming back sometime later. The Messenger of Allah tied her again. When the man woke up and asked, “O the Messenger of Allah! Is there something you want to order me to do?” the Prophet stated, “Emancipate this deer!” The deer was so happy that she stomped her two feet on the ground, exclaimed, “Ash-hadu an lâ ilâha il-l-Allah wa annaka Rasûlullah (I believe in and testify to that Allah exists and He is One and you are His Messenger),” and capered away.

13– One day he invited a villager to become a Believer. The villager defied, “I have a Muslim neighbor. I will believe in you if you resuscitate his dead daughter. They went to the girl’s grave, where Rasûlullah pronounced her name aloud and called her. A voice answered from the grave, and she came out. “Would you like to come back to the world,” questioned the Messenger of Allah. The girl said, “Yâ Rasûlallah! I do not want to go back to the world. I feel more comfortable here than I used to back in my father’s home. A Muslim is better off in the Hereafter than in the world. When the villager saw this he joined the Believers.

14– Jâbir bin Abdullah ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ roasted a sheep. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ and his Sahâba[1] ate it. “Do not break the bones,” ordered the blessed Messenger. He gathered the bones together, put his blessed hands on them, and prayed. Allâhu ta’âlâ enlivened the sheep.

15– A child was brought to Rasûlullah. It could not talk, though it was old enough. “Who am I?” asked the Messenger. The child replied, “You are the Messenger of Allah.” From then on he began to talk and did not lose its speech till death.

16– Someone inadvertently stepped on the eggs of a snake and lost his sight entirely. They brought him to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’. When he put his blessed spittle on the man’s eyes, he began to see again. In fact, he was eighty years old when he still could thread a needle.

17– Muhammad bin Khatîb relates: “I was small. Boiling water poured on me, scalding my body all over. My father took me to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’. The Messenger put his blessed spittle on the scalded parts of my body and prayed. I recovered immediately.”

18– A woman came with her bald son. The Messenger of Allah rubbed his blessed hands gently on the boy’s head. He healed. His hair began to grow.

19– According to a report which is written in two different books of Sunan written by Tirmuzî and Nesâî, one day a man with both eyes blind came to him and implored, “Yâ Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Please pray to Allâhu ta’âlâ so that I should regain my sight.” The Messenger of Allah recommended him the following prescription: “Make a faultless ablution! And then invoke like this: Yâ Rabbî (O my Allah)! I beg Thee. I ask of Thee through the intercession of Thy beloved Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. O my darling Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’! I beg my Rabb through thee. I ask Him to give me for thine sake. Yâ Rabbî! Make this exalted Prophet my intercessor! For his sake, accept my invocation!” The man made an ablution and said the prayer. His eyes opened at once. Muslims have always said this prayer and attained their goals.

20– One day the Messenger of Allah and (his paternal uncle) Abû Tâlib were making a trek across a desert. Abû Tâlib said he was very thirsty. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ dismounted the animal and said, “Are you (thirsty)?” When he hit the ground with his blessed heel, water sprang up. He said, “Uncle, drink from this water!”

21– During the Holy War of Hudaybiya they encamped by a waterless well. The soldiers complained about the shortage of water. The Messenger of Allah asked for a bucket of water. He made an ablution with the water in the bucket, then spat into it, and then had the water in it poured into the well. Then he fetched an arrow and threw it down into the well. Upon this the well was seen to fill up with water.

22– In another Holy War the soldiers complained that they did not have enough water. The Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ sent two soldiers to look for water. They came back with a woman riding a camel. She had two qirbas of water. (A qirba is a leather container which was formerly used to carry fresh water.) The Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ asked the woman for some water. He poured the water that she gave into a container. The entire army utilized the water in the container. The soldiers made a queue, filled their own containers and tulums (goat-skin bottles). In return, they gave the woman some dates and filled her tulums, too. The Prophet ‘alaihissalâm’ said to her, “We have not decreased the amount of your water. It is Allâhu ta’âlâ who gave us the water.”

23– He was making (the speech termed) Khutba in Medina, when someone said, “Yâ Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Our children, animals and fields are perished with drought. Please do come to our rescue!” The Prophet raised his blessed hands and said his prayer. It was a cloudless day, yet he had hardly rubbed his blessed hands on his face when clouds covered the entire sky. Presently rain poured down. It rained continuously for several days. He was on the minbar preaching, again, when the same person complained, “Yâ Rasûlallah! We will perish with this rain.” Upon this the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ gave his usual radiant smile, and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! Bestow Thy Compassion on Thy other slaves as well!” The clouds cleared away and the sun shone brightly.

24– Jâbir bin Abdullah ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ relates: I was badly in debt. I told Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ about it. He came in the yard of my house and walked around the pile of dates, making three rounds. Then he ordered, “Bid your creditors to come here.” Each creditor was given his due, and there was no decrease in the pile of dates.

25– A woman sent some honey as a present. The Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ accepted the honey, sending the empty container back. Some time later the container came back, full of honey again. The woman was there in person this time. She said, “O the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! Why don’t you accept my present? What is the sin that I have committed?” The blessed Prophet said, “We have accepted your present. The honey that you see is the barakat which Allâhu ta’âlâ has given you in return for your present.” The woman and her children ate the honey for months. It never decreased. One day they inconsiderately put the honey into another container. When they ate it from that container, the honey was finished soon. When they reported this event to the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, he stated, “If the honey had remained in the container that I had sent back, there would be no decrease in the honey even if they ate it till the end of the world.”

26– Abû Hureyra reports: I went to the Messenger of Allah with a few dates and asked him to invoke a blessing on them. He prayed so that they would have barakat, and warned me, “Take them and put them in your container. Whenever you need dates, pick them with your hand. Never attempt to pour them lest they should scatter around.” I always kept the bag containing the dates with me, day and night, and ate them continually till the time of ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’. They were so abundant that people who were with me for various occasions ate plenty of dates, and I gave handfuls of dates as alms. On the day when ’Uthmân ‘radiy- Allâhu ’anh’ was martyred, the bag with the dates disappeared.

27– Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa-sallam’, like Suleymân (Solomon) ‘alaihis-salâm’, understood all sorts of animal language. Animals would frequently come to him and complain about their owners or other people. Events of this sort were seen by others many times. Each time an animal came to him, the Messenger of Allah would explain it to the As-hâb-ikirâm (his Companions). During the Holy War of Hunayn, he said to the white mule named DULDUL which he was riding: “Get down.” When Duldul knelt down with the command, he took a handful of sand from the ground and scattered it over the unbelievers.

28– Another frequently seen miracle of the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ is his informing about the unknown. There are three different groups of these miracles:

The first group of miracles consists of questions he was asked about events previous to his time. The answers he gave to these questions caused many unbelievers and implacable enemies to embrace Islam.

In the second group are his miracles whereby he informed about the events that happened during his time as well as those which were going to happen later.

The third group embodies his prophesies of the events that will happen in the world till Doomsday and also those which will happen in the Hereafter. We shall tell about some of the miracles in the second and third groups.

[During the early years of the call to Islam some of the As-hâbi-kirâm migrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) because of the persecutions perpetrated by the unbelievers. The Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ and the Sahâbîs who stayed with him in Mekka lived for three years under multifarious embargo which deprived them of all sorts of social activity; so much so that they were not allowed to visit, to talk with or to trade with anyone except their Muslim co-religionists. The unbelievers of Qoureish wrote a unilateral pact containing the paragraphs of that embargo and hung it on the wall of Ka’ba-i-muazzama.

Allâhu ta’âlâ, the Almighty, set a worm called Arza upon that written document. That tiny worm ate up the entire document, with the exception of the part containing the expression Bismikallâhumma = in the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Allâhu ta’âlâ informed our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ about this event through Jibrîl-i-emîn (Gabriel the trustworthy). And our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, in his turn, told his paternal uncle Abû Tâlib about it. The following day Abû Tâlib went to the eminent ones of the unbelievers and conveyed to them what the blessed Prophet had told him, adding, “Muhammad’s Rabb (Allah) told him so. If his allegation proves to be true, then raise that embargo and do not prevent them from going about and seeing other people like before. If it is not true, I shall no longer protect him.”

The eminent ones of Qoureish accepted this suggestion. They gathered together and went to Ka’ba. They took the written pact down, opened it, and saw that, as Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ had stated, all the writings had been eaten up, and only the expression Bismikallâhumma had remained intact.]

Husrav, the Persian emperor, had sent envoys to Medina. One day Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ sent for them and, when they came, said to them, “Tonight your Chosroes was killed by his own son.” Some time later intelligence was received that Chosroes had been killed by his own son. [Iranian Shahs are called Chosroes.]

29– One day he said to his wife Hafsa ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ’, “Abû Bakr and your father will preside over my Ummat.” By saying so, he gave the good news that Abû Bakr and Hafsa’s father ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum’ were going to be Khalîfas.

30– He had put Abû Hureyra ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ in charge of the dates that had been (given by rich people as the zakât of their property and) brought to Medina. Abû Hureyra ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ caught someone stealing dates. He told the man that he would take him to the Messenger of Allah. Yet when the man said that he was poor and had a crowded family to support, he succumbed to his beggings and set him free. The following day, the Messenger of Allah sent for Abû Hureyra and asked him, “What had the man that you caught last night done?” When Abû Hureyra related what had happened, the blessed Prophet said, “He deceived you. He will come back.” Indeed, the following night the man came again and was caught. He begged again, “For the sake of Allah, let me go,” and was let go again. The third night his begging was no good. So this time he had recourse to another method. “If you let me go I’ll teach you something which will be very useful to you,” he proposed. When Abû Hureyra accepted it, he said, “If you recite (the âyat of the Qur’ân al-kerîm termed) Âyat al-kursî before you go to bed every night, Allâhu ta’âlâ will protect you and Satan will never approach you,” and left. The next day, when Rasûlullah asked Abû Hureyra what had happened the previous night, he told him everything. Upon this the Messenger said, “He told the truth this time. However, He is an abject liar. Do you know who you have been talking with for three nights?” “No, I don’t.” “That person was Satan.”

31– He sent troops to a region called Mûta to fight against the armies of the Byzantine Emperor. Four of the Sahâbîs, who were the commanders of the troops, were martyred, one after another. In the meantime the blessed Messenger was in Medina, preaching on the Minbar. Allâhu ta’âlâ showed him one by one all four martyrdoms, and he in turn related the events to the people with him.

32– As he was sending Mu’adh bin Jabal ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ as the governor to Yemen, he saw him to the city borders and gave him plenty of advice, finally saying, “You and I cannot meet again till the Rising Day.” Mu’adh was still in the Yemen when Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ passed away in Medina.

33– As he was passing away, he said to his daughter Fâtima, “Of all my relatives, you will be the first to meet me again.” It was six months later when Fâtima ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ’ passed away, and no other relative of the Prophet had passed away yet.

34– He said to Qays bin Shemmâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, “You will lead a beautiful life and then die as a martyr.” Qays attained martyrdom in the battle fought against Musaylama-t-ul Kazzâb in Yamâma during the caliphate of Abû Bakr ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’.

He also foretold of the martyrdoms of ’Umar-ul-Fârûq, ’Uthmân, and ’Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’.

35– He gave the good news that the lands belonging to the Persian emperor Chosroes and the Byzantine Kaiser would be conquered by the Muslims and their treasuries would be spent and dispensed for the sake of Allah.

36– He prophesied that a considerable number of his Ummat would go out for a Holy War on the sea and that Umm-u-Hirâm ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhâ’, one of the Sahâba, would be in that Holy War. During the caliphate of ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, the Muslims sailed to Cyprus and made a war there. The blessed woman mentioned above was with them. She attained martyrdom there.

37– One day the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ was sitting on a raised place. He turned to the people with him and said, “Do you see what I see? I swear (in the name of Allah) that I see the fitna (mischief, insurrection, malice) that will take place amongst your houses and in the streets.” During the days when ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ was martyred, and also in the time of Yezîd, great commotions erupted in Medina, many people were slain and blood flowed along the streets.

38– One day he foretold of an event wherein one of his wives would revolt against the Khalîfa. When Âisha ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhâ’, (his beloved wife,) was amused at his words, he said, “Yâ Humeyrâ[1][1] A word of endearment which our blessed Prophet called his blessed wife, Hadrat Âisha, the (spiritual) mother of all Muslims. Do not forget this word of mine! Mightn’ t you as well be that woman!” Then he turned to Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ and said, “If you should have the authority to decide about her, behave tenderly towards her!” It was thirty years later when Âisha ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ’ made a war against Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu’anh’, (who was the Khalîfa at that time,) suffered a defeat and was held captive. Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ showed her kindness and deference and sent her from Basra to Medina.

39– He said to Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ [d. 60 (680 C.E.), Damascus], “If you should dominate over my Ummat one day, reward those people who do goodness, and forgive the malefactors!” Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ was the governor of Damascus for twenty years during the caliphate of ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, and later he occupied the office of caliphate for twenty years.

40– One day he said, “Mu’âwiya will never suffer a defeat.” When Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ heard about this hadîth-isherîf during the battle of Siffîn he said, “I would never have fought against Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ had I heard about it before.”

41– He said to Ammar bin Yâser ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, “You will be killed by rebellious people, by bâghîs.” Indeed, Ammar attained martyrdom as Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ and he was fighting against Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’.

42– He said about Hasan, his daughter Fâtima’s son ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhumâ’, “This son of mine is a source of khayr (goodness). Owing to him, Allâhu ta’âlâ will make peace between two great armies of Muslims.” Years later, he was about to enter into a war against Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, when he decided to give up and renounced his right of caliphate to Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ in order to prevent fitna and consequent bloodshed of Muslims.

43– Abdullah bin Zubeyr ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhumâ’ saw Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ being cupped, and drank the blood coming out. When the blessed Messenger noticed this he stated, “Do you know the things that you will suffer from people? And they will suffer much from you. The fire of Hell will not burn you.” When Abdullah bin Zubeyr declared himself the Khalîfa in Mekka years later, Abd-ul-melik bin Merwan sent a huge army under the command of Hajjâj from Damascus. Abdullah was caught and killed.

44– One day he looked at Abdullah ibni Abbâs’s mother ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în’ and said, “You are going to have a son. Bring him to me when he is born!” Later, when the baby was born, they brought it to him. He recited the azân and the iqâmat into its ears and put his blessed spittle into its mouth. He named it ‘Abdullah’ and gave it back to its mother. “Take the father of Khalîfas with you!” he said. When Abbâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ heard about it, he visited the blessed Prophet and politely asked him why he had said so. The Prophet explained, “Yes, I said so. This child is the father of Khalîfas. Among them there will be (a person named) Seffâh, (one named) Mahdî, and a person who will perform namâz with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’.” Many Khalîfas presided over the Abbasid state. All of them descended from Abdullah bin Abbâs.

45– One day he stated, “Among my Ummat there will come numerous people called Râfidî. They will leave the Islamic religion.”

46– He pronounced benedictions over many of his Sahâba, all his benedictions were accepted and were of benefit to the people concerned. Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ related: Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ wanted to send me as the Qâdî [Judge] to Yemen. I said, “Yâ Rasûlallah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’! I do not know the job of a qâdî.” He put his blessed hand on my chest and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! Intimate to this person’s heart whatever is right. Bless him with the quality of always telling the truth!” From then on I always sensed the right one among the complaints that came to me and my decisions were always correct.

47– The ten people whom the Messenger of Allah gratified with the good news that they would go to Paradise are called ’Ashara-i-mubashshara. Sa’d bin Ebî Waqqâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ was one of them. In the Holy War of Uhud the blessed Messenger invoked a blessing on him, saying, “Yâ Rabbî! Make his arrows reach their targets and also accept his invocations!” From then on all the prayers Sa’d said were accepted, and every arrow he threw hit the enemy.

48– He put his blessed hands on the forehead of his paternal uncle’s son, Abdullah bin Abbâs ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’ and made the following prayer: “Yâ Rabbî! Make this person a profound scholar in the religion and an owner of hikmat! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Qur’ân al-kerim!” From then on, he was peerless in his time in all branches of knowledge, especially in tafsîr, in hadîth, and in fiqh. The Sahâba and the Tâbi’în[1]—[1] As we have explained earlier, a person who saw or spoke with the Messenger of Allah at least once, he is called a Sahâbî. If a person did not see the Prophet but if he saw or spoke with at least one Sahâbî, he is called Tâbi’. The plural form of Tâbi’ is Tâbi’în, which means those fortunate people who saw at least one of the Sahâba. People who did not see at least one Sahâbî, but who saw at least one of the Tâbi’în, are called Taba-i-Tâbi’în.—learned from him whatever they wanted to know. He made fame with nicknames such as ‘Terjumân-ul-Qur’ân’, ‘Bahr-ul-’ilm’, and ‘Raîs-ul mufassirîn’.[2] —[2] These terms mean, respectively, ‘Interpreter of the Qur’ân’, ‘Ocean of knowledge’, and ‘Chief of Mufassirîn (Scholars deeply learned enough to explain the Qur’ân al-kerîm).’— His numerous disciples enriched the Muslim countries.

49– He pronounced the following benediction for Enes bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, one of his servants: “Yâ Rabbî! Make his property abundant and children numerous. Make his life long, and forgive him his sins!” As time passed, there was a gradual increase in his property. His orchards and vineyards yielded plenty of fruit every year. The number of his children reached beyond one hundred. He lived for a hundred and ten years. Towards the end of his life he supplicated, “Yâ Rabbî! Thou hast accepted three of the benedictions that Thy Beloved one pronounced over me, and Thou hast given me all these blessings. I wonder if Thou willst accept the fourth one and forgive me my sins?” A voice was heard to say, “I have accepted the fourth one as well. Keep your heart good!”

50– He invoked the following blessing on Mâlik bin Rebî’a ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’: “May you have profuse progeny!” Mâlik had eighty sons.

51– There was a widely-known poet named Nâbigha. When he recited some of his poems the blessed Messenger invoked on him the following blessing, which was widerspread among the Arabs: “May Allâhu ta’âlâ not let your teeth fall down!” Nâbigha was a hundred years old, and his white teeth still shone like beads of pearls.

52– He said the following prayer about Urwa bin Ju’d ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’: “Yâ Rabbî! Make his trade prolific!” Urwa acknowledges: “From then on, all my trade activities brought in profits. I never lost.

53– One day his daughter Fâtima ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anha’ came near him, white with hunger. He put his blessed hand on her bosom and invoked: “O my Rabb (Allah), Who satiates hungry people! Do not let Fâtima the daughter of Muhammad go hungry!” Presently Fâtima’s face became healthful and lively. She never felt hungry again till death.

54– He pronounced a benediction on Abd-ur-Rahmân bin Awf, who was one of the ’Ashara-i-mubashshara. There was such a great increase in his property that he became a subject of folktale.

55– He stated, “Every Prophet’s prayers are accepted. And every Prophet invoked blessings on their ummats. And I am praying for a permission to intercede for my Ummat on the Judgement Day. Inshâ-Allah, my prayer will be accepted. I shall intercede for all, except polytheists.”

56– He went to some villages in Mekka and did his best to persuade the villagers to become Believers. They refused. He pronounced a malediction over them so that they should suffer a catastrophe similar to the famine that had befallen the Egyptians in the time of the Prophet Yûsuf (Joseph) ‘alaihis-salâtu wassalâm’. That year famine struck the area, and the villagers ate carrion.

57– ’Utayba, a son of the Prophet’s uncle Abû Lahab, was at the same time the Prophet’s ‘alaihis-salâtu wassalâm’ son-in-law.

That person not only persisted in his denial of the Messenger of Allah, but also caused bitter grief to that Sarwar (Master of Prophets, Best of Mankind) ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’. He divorced his wife Ummu Ghulthum, the Prophet’s blessed daughter. He even hurled some vulgar invectives at her. Deeply grieved, the Darling of Allâhu ta’âlâ supplicated, “Yâ Rabbî! Set one of Thine canines on him!” Before long, ’Utayba and his friends set out for a trade expedition to Damascus. Enroute, they made a halt for the night. They were sound asleep, when they had a silent intruder, a lion. The fierce animal smelled all the members of the group one by one. When it came to ’Utayba, it grabbed him and tore him to pieces.

58– There was a person who always ate with his left hand. When the Prophet said to him, “Eat with your right hand,” the unfortunate man had recourse to lying and said that his right hand would not move. “May your right hand never move again,” was the Prophet’s malediction. That person was never able to move his right hand towards his mouth till his death.

59– He sent a letter to the Persian Emperor Husrav Perviz, calling him to Islam. Being an ignominious person, Husrav tore the letter to pieces and martyred the envoy who had brought him the letter. Upon hearing about this, the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ felt badly disappointed and invoked evil on the emperor, saying, “Yâ Rabbî! Tear his property to pieces, in the same as he tore my letter!” Rasûlullah was still alive when Husrav was sliced with a dagger by his own son Shîravayh. And later, during the caliphate of ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, Muslims conquered the entire Persia, so that there was neither progeny nor property left from Husrav.

60– As the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ gave advice and performed amr-i-ma’rûf and nahy-i-munker[1] [1] To perform amr-i-ma’rûf and nahy-i-munker means to encourage others to obey the commandments of Allâhu ta’âlâ and to admonish them from committing His prohibitions. in the marketplace, a villain named Hakem bin Âs, who was at the same time Merwân’s father, followed Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ from behind, closed his eyes in mockery and pulled funny faces. When the Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ turned back and saw him, he accursed, “May you remain as you represent yourself to be.” So the villain’s face maintained its funny pull until his death.

61– Allâhu ta’âlâ always protected His Habîb (Darling) against disasters. Abû Jahl was the most implacable enemy of the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’. One day, that avowed unbeliever took a big stone and raised it to hit the Prophet’s blessed head. Suddenly he saw two snakes on Rasûlullah’s shoulders, one on each shoulder. He dropped the stone and took to his heels.

62– One day the Messenger of Allah was performing (the prayer termed) namâz beside the Kâ’ba-i-muazzama, when that same villain, Abû Jahl, grabbed the opportunity and tiptoed towards the blessed Messenger with a dagger in his hand.

Suddenly he stopped, agape with fright, turned back and ran away. When afterwards his friends asked him what had made him run away in such terror, he explained, “Suddenly a ditch of fire appeared between me and Muhammad ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, and quite a number of people were awaiting me. If I had made one more step they would catch me and hurl me into the fire. When the Muslims heard about the event, they asked Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ what the matter had been. The blessed Messenger explained, “The angels of Allâhu ta’âlâ would catch him and tear him to pieces.”

63– During the Holy War of Qatfân in the third year of the Hijrat (Hegira), the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ was lying under a tree, alone, when an unbeliever named Da’sûr, who was a wrestler at the same time, came with a sword in his hand and said, “Who will rescue you from me now?” “Allah will,” was Rasûlullah’s answer. When the blessed Messenger said so, the angel named Jebrâîl appeared in human guise and hit the unbeliever on the chest. He fell down and dropped the sword on the ground. The Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ took the sword in his hand and said, “Who will rescue you from me?” The man begged, “There is not a person better than you are to rescue me.” The blessed Prophet forgave him and let him go. The man joined the Believers and caused many other people to embrace Islam.

64– In the fourth year of the Hijrat, as Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ was talking with his Sahâba under the walls of the fortress belonging to the Jews in Benî Nadîr, a Jew intended to throw down a big mill-stone. As soon as he held out his hand to hold the stone, his both hands became crippled.

65– It was the ninth year of the Hegira, and crowds of people were coming from distant countries to embrace Islam. Two unbelievers named Âmir and Erbed mixed into the masses (with the intention to kill Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’). As Âmir feigned that he wanted to become a Muslim before Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, Erbed prowled behind the Holy Prophet. When he attempted to unsheathe his sword, his hand would not move, as if paralyzed. Âmir, just opposite him, made a sign as if to say, “Why are you dithering?” Upon this the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ stated, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has protected me from the harm of you two.” When the two villains left together, Âmir asked Erbed why he had not abided by his promise. The latter explained, “How could I have? I attempted to draw my sword a couple of times. At each attempt I saw you between us?” A few days later, on a sunny day, suddenly the sky was covered with clouds and Erbed and his camel ware stricken to death by a thunderbolt.

66– One day the Messenger ‘alaihis-salâm’ made an ablution, put on one of his mests,[1][1] Soleless leather boots worn under the shoes. and was about to put on the other one, when a bird came fluttering, snatched the mest and shook it in the air. A snake fell out of the mest. Then the bird left the mest on the ground and flew away. From that day on, it has been sunnat[2][2] Any behaviour which is not commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ but which is done and recommended by our Prophet ‘alaihis-salâm’. to shake your shoes before putting them on.

67– The Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ had appointed special guards to protect him in Holy Wars and in deserts. When the sixty-seventh âyat-i-kerîma of Mâida Sûra was revealed, which purports, “Allah will protect thee from the harms of human beings,” he gave up the practice of having personal guards. He would walk about alone among the enemies and sleep alone without feeling any fear.

68– Enes bin Mâlik ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ had a handkerchief with which the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ had dried his blessed face once. Enes would dry his face with that handkerchief and put it in a fire when it became dirty. The dirts would burn while the handkerchief remained unburnt and became extremely clean.

69– He drank water out of a bucket pulled up from a well and then poured the remaining water back into the well. From that time on the well always smelled of musk.

70– ’Urwa bin Firqad ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ caught the illness termed rash. The Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ took his clothes off, spat on his own blessed hands, and rubbed his body with his hands. The patient recovered. For a long time his body smelled of musk.

71– Selmân-i-Fârisî ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ left Iran and set out on a journey over various countries in quest for the true religion. He joined a caravan belonging to the tribe called Benî Kelb and headed for Arabia. When they reached an area called Wâdi’-ul-qurâ enroute to Arabia, his companions committed the treason of selling him as a slave to a Jew, who in turn sold him as a slave to his Jewish relative from Medina. This event coincided with the Hegira (Hijrat), and when Selmân was in Medina he

heard about Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ honouring Medina with his presence. He was very happy because he was a Nazarene scholar and had made that long trek all the way to Arabia with a view to becoming a Believer of the latest time’s Prophet, as he had been advised by a great scholar, his last spiritual guide. That great scholar had taught him Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ personality traits and had told him that the Prophet would accept presents and refuse alms, that there was a prophetic seal (a beauty-spot) between his two shoulders, and that he had many miracles. Selmân-i-Fârisî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ took some dates to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, saying that they were alms. The blessed Messenger would not eat any of them. Then he took him some twenty-five dates in a plate, and said that they were intended for a present. The Messenger of Allah ate some of them, and offered the rest to his Sahâba. So all the As-hâb-i-kirâm ate dates. A thousand stones remained from the (twenty-five) dates eaten. And Selmân saw that miracle of Rasûlullah’s, too. The following day there was a funeral, and Selmân wished to see the prophetic seal.

The Messenger of Allah somehow sensed this, stripped off his shirt, and the muhr-u-nubuwwa (the prophetic seal) was seen. Selmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ became a Believer at once. An agreement was made (between Selmân and his Jewish owner) that he would be manumitted in return for three hundred date-palms and sixteen hundred dirhams of gold in a couple of years. Rasûlullah ‘sall- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ heard about this. He planted two hundred and ninety-nine date-palms with his own blessed hands. The same year the palms yielded fruit. One palm, which had been planted by ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, was fruitless.

Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ uprooted that palm and then replanted it with his blessed hands. Dates appeared on the palm at once. Then they gave Selmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ a gold as big as an egg, which had been taken as a ghanîma in a Holy War. Selmân took it to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ and said that the gold was too small to weigh sixteen hundred dirhams. The Messenger held the gold in his blessed hands and gave it back to Selmân, telling him to take it to his owner. Half of the gold sufficed to pay his debt to his owner, and the remaining half became Selmân’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ property.

72– One day the Rasûl ‘alaihis-salâm’ was performing namâz, when Satan came and attempted to distract him from namâz. He caught the devil with his blessed hands, and let him go only after the latter had promised not to attempt to spoil namâz.

73– Abdullah bin Ubayy, the chief of the hypocrites in Medina, sent for the Messenger of Allah towards his death and begged him, “Please make me a shroud from the shirt you are wearing.” It being the blessed Prophet’s habit to give whatever was asked of him, he presented his shirt to him and also (when that person died) performed (the prayer called) the janâza[1][1] See Endless Bliss, fifth fascicle, fifteenth chapter. for him. Admiring this exemplary generosity of the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, one hundred other hypocrites in Medina embraced Islam altogether.

74– Among the unbelievers of Qoureish, Welîd bin Mughîra, Âs bin Wâil, Hâris bin Qays, Aswad bin Yaghûs, and Aswad bin Muttalib were ahead of others in persecuting and tormenting the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’. Jebrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ came and brought the ninety-fifth âyat of Hijr Sûra, which purported, “We shall punish those who make fun of thee…,” and pointed to Welîd’s foot, to the second one’s heel, to the third one’s nose, to the fourth one’s head, and to the fifth one’s eyes. Welîd was wounded with an arrow, which went deep into his foot.

Being an extremely arrogant person, he did not stoop to pull the arrow out. So the metal part of the arrow penetrated into the tendon of the ankle and caused sciatica. Âs stepped on a sharp thorn, which entered deep into his heel and caused it to swell like a bag. Hâris’s nose bled continuously. Aswad was sitting happily under a tree, when he hit his head on the tree. And the fifth person, who was named Aswad, too, became blind. All those five people perished in the end.

75– Tufeyl, the chieftain of the tribe called Daws, had become a Believer in Mekka, before the Hegira. He asked Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ for a symptom with which to invite his tribe to belief in Islam. The blessed Messenger invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! Bestow an âyat (a sign, a symptom, an evidence) on this person.” When Tufeyl went back to his tribe, a nûr (light) shone between his eyebrows. Tufeyl invoked, “Yâ Rabbî!

Remove this symptom from my face and place it somewhere else on me. Seeing it on my face, some people may suppose it is a sign of punishment inflicted on me because I have abandoned their religion.” His invocation was accepted. The halo left his face and shone like a candle-light on the tip of his whip. His tribesmen embraced Islam in the course of time.

76– There was a pretty woman among the tribe of Benî Nejjâr in Medina. She was haunted by a jinnî who had fallen in love with her. One day, after the Messenger’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ migration to Medina, the jinnî was sitting under the wall in front of the woman’s house, when the woman saw him and asked, “Why aren’t you visiting me any more?” “The Prophet of Allâhu ta’âlâ ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ has forbidden fornication and other acts of harâm,” was the jinnî’s reply.

77– In the battle called Bi’r-i-Ma’ûna, the unbelievers reneged on their promise and martyred seventy of the Sahâba. Among them was Âmir bin Fuheyra ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, one of the earliest Believers and a former slave manumitted by Abû Bakr ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’. When this blessed Muslim was bayonetted to death, angels raised him up to heaven before the unbelievers’ eyes. When they reported this event to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’, the blessed Messenger explained, “He was interred by the angels of Paradise, and his soul was raised up to Paradise.”

78– Hubeyb bin Adî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, one of the Sahâba, was caught by the unbelievers, who took him to Mekka and executed him there. They did not take him down from the gallows so that the other unbelievers would enjoy watching him. He remained on the gallows for forty days. Yet his body did not rot or putrify, but it continuously bled flesh blood. When the Messenger of Allah received intelligence about the event, he sent Zubeyr bin Awwâm and Mikdâd bin Aswad ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’ to take the corpse back home. These heroes took the corpse down from the gallows and galloped their horses back towards Medina. They were quite near Medina when seventy horsemen from the unbelievers’ encampment caught up with them. The two Muslims put Hubeyb’s body on the ground to defend themselves. The earth split and Hubeyb disappeared into the crevice. When the unbelievers saw this miracle they turned back and galloped away.

79– Sa’d bin Mu’âdh ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ was wounded in the Holy War of Uhud and attained martyrdom before long.

Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ informed that seventy thousand angels attended the salât of janâza[1][1] See the seventy-third miracle. performed for him. As his grave was being dug, a smell of musk suffused the entire place.

80– In the seventh year of the Hegira, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ sent letters to the Abyssinian emperor Negus, to the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, to the Persian emperor Husrav, to the Byzantine governor in Egypt, Muqawqas, to the Byzantine governor in Damascus, Hâris, and to the Umman Sultan, Semâma, inviting them to Islam. The envoys carrying the letters did not know the languages of the countries they were sent to. However, the following morning they began to speak those languages.

81– Zayd bin Hârisa ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’, one of the greatest Sahâbîs, set out for a long journey. The man that he had hired to take care of his mule attempted to kill him. Zayd asked for respite so that he could perform two rak’ats of namâz. After the namâz he said, “Yâ Erham-ar-râhimîn (O, Thou, the Most Merciful of the merciful),” three times. After each time he said this invocation, a voice was heard to say, “Do not kill him.”

Each time the voice was heard, the muleteer went out to see the person calling, and came back in, (for there was noone outside.) After the third attempt, a horseman rushed in with a sword in his hand and butchered the muleteer. Then he turned to Zayd and explained, “I was in the seventh sky when you began to say the invocation, ‘Yâ erham-ar-râhimîn!’ By the time you said it the second time, I had already reached the first sky. And I was with you at the third time.” So Zayd realized that the horseman was an angel.

82– A Sahabî named Sefîna, who had been manumitted by Ummu Salama ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhâ’, one of Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ blessed wives, would never be remiss in his service with the Messenger of Allah. In a Holy War fought against the Byzantine armies he was captivated by the enemy. Somehow he escaped and was on his way back home, when he suddenly encountered a lion. He said, “I am the servant of the Messenger of Allah,” and told the lion everything he had experienced. The lion began to walk along with him, rubbing its face and eyes on him as they walked, and keeping close to him lest the enemy should harm him. When the Muslim troops came into sight, the lion turned back and walked away.

83– Someone named Jehjâh-i-Ghaffârî rose against the Khalîfa, ’Uthmân ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’. He broke the rod which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ used to carry in his hand, with his knee. A year later his knee caught a disease called anthrax, which caused him to die.

84– Mu’âwiya ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ left Damascus for Mekka for the purpose of hajj (pilgrimage of a Muslim). En route, he went to Medina and attempted to take Rasûlullah’s ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’ minbar with him to Damascus, for the purpose of benefiting from its spiritual blessings. As soon as they moved the minbar only a little, a solar eclipse took place. It was dark everywhere, so much so that the stars appeared in the sky.

85– In the Holy War of Uhud one of Abû Qatâda’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ eyes came out of its socket and fell on his cheek. They took him to Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam’. With his own blessed hand the Messenger put the eye back into its socket and invoked, “Yâ Rabbî! Make his eye beautiful!” So this eye of Abû Qatâda’s was more beautiful than his other eye, and its sight was more powerful than the other one’s. (Years later,) one day one of Abû Qatâda’s grandsons was in the presence of ’Umar bin Abd-ul-’Azîz, the time’s Khalîfa.

When the Khalîfa asked him who he was, he recited a couplet saying that he was the grandson of the person whose eye the Messenger of Allah had replaced with his blessed hand. When the Khalîfa heard the couplet, he treated him with utter respect and generous kindness.

86– Iyâs bin Salama relates: During the Holy War of Hayber, the Messenger of Allah sent me for Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ’.

Alî had a sore eye and walked with difficulty. So I helped him, holding him by the hand. The Messenger spat on his own blessed fingers and rubbed them gently on Alî’s eyes. He handed him the banner (of Islam), and sent him off to fight before the gate of Hayber. The gate was so huge that they had not been able to open it for a long time. Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ pulled the door off its hinges, and the As-hâb-i-kirâm’ entered the fortress.

He had many other miracles written in various books, particularly in Shewâhid-un-nubuwwa, by Molla Abd-ur-Rahmân Jâmî ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’, and in Hujjatullâhi ’ala-l-’âlemîn, by Yûsuf Nebhânî. Shawâhid-un-nubuwwa is originally in Persian and has a Turkish version as well.

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